राजतरंगिणी

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
यहाँ जाएँ: भ्रमण, खोज

राजतरंगिणी, कल्हण द्वारा रचित एक संस्कृत ग्रन्थ है। 'राजतरंगिणी' का शाब्दिक अर्थ है - राजाओं की नदी, जिसका भावार्थ है - 'राजाओं का इतिहास या समय-प्रवाह'। यह कविता के रूप में है। इसमें कश्मीर का इतिहास वर्णित है जो महाभारत काल से आरम्भ होता है। इसका रचना काल सन ११४७ से ११४९ तक बताया जाता है। भारतीय इतिहास-लेखन में कल्हण की राजतरंगिणी पहली प्रामाणिक पुस्तक मानी जाती है। इस पुस्तक के अनुसार कश्मीर का नाम "कश्यपमेरु" था जो ब्रह्मा के पुत्र ऋषि मरीचि के पुत्र थे।

राजतरंगिणी के प्रथम तरंग में बताया गया है कि सबसे पहले कश्मीर में पांडवों के सबसे छोटे भाई सहदेव ने राज्य की स्थापना की थी और उस समय कश्मीर में केवल वैदिक धर्म ही प्रचलित था। फिर सन 273 ईसा पूर्व कश्मीर में बौद्ध धर्म का आगमन हुआ।

१९वीं शताब्दी के उत्तरार्ध में औरेल स्टीन (Aurel Stein) ने पण्डित गोविन्द कौल के सहयोग से राजतरंगिणी का अंग्रेजी अनुवाद कराया।

राजतरंगिणी एक निष्पक्ष और निर्भय ऐतिहासिक कृति है। स्वयं कल्हण ने राजतरंगिणी में कहा है कि एक सच्चे इतिहास लेखक की वाणी को न्यायाधीश के समान राग-द्वेष-विनिर्मुक्त होना चाहिए, तभी उसकी प्रशंसा हो सकती है-

श्लाध्यः स एव गुणवान् रागद्वेषबहिष्कृता।
भूतार्थकथने यस्य स्थेयस्येव सरस्वती॥ (राजतरंगिणी, १/७)

संरचना[संपादित करें]

राजतरंगिणी में आठ तरंग (अर्थात, अध्याय) और संस्कृत में कुल ७८२६ श्लोक हैं। इस पुस्तक के प्रथम तीन अध्याय कश्मीर की पीढ़ी-दर-पीढ़ी से आ रही मौखिक परंपराओं का चित्रण है। अगले तीन अध्याय भी इतिवृत्तात्मक ही हैं। केवल अंतिम दो अध्याय कल्हण की व्यक्तिगत जानकारी एवं ग्रंथावलोकन पर आधारित हैं।

कल्हण की इस पुस्तिका के तीन घोषित उद्देष्य हैं-

  • (१) पुराने राजवंशों की जानकारी देना;
  • (२) पाठकों का मनोरंजन करना,
  • (३)अतीत से शिक्षा लेना।

स्पष्ट है पुस्तक के मूल उद्देश्य इतिहासेतर हैं। आश्चर्य नहीं, ए॰एल॰ वैशम की टिप्पणी है कि कल्हण राजतरंगिणी में तथ्यों से कम नैतिकता से अधिक संबंधित है। लेकिन इतना जरूर कहना होगा कि राजतरंगिणी भारतीय इतिहास-लेखन का प्रस्थान-बिन्दु है।

राजाओं की सूची[संपादित करें]

राजतरंगिणी में वर्णित कश्मीर के राजाओं की सूची नीचे दी गयी है। कोष्टक में पहले 'तरंग संख्या और फिर श्लोक संख्या लिखी गयी है, जैसे (IV.678) का अर्थ है तरंग ४ एवं श्लोक 678। सारांश जे सी दत्त के अनुवाद से लिया गया है। राजतरंगिणी में "कलि" संवत एवं "लौकिक" संवत का प्रयोग किया गया है।

प्रथम तरंग[संपादित करें]

Kalhana mentions that Gonanda I ascended the throne in 653 Kali calendar era. According to Jogesh Chander Dutt's calculation, this year corresponds to 2448 BCE.[1] The total reign of the following kings is mentioned as 1266 years.[2]

राजा[2] टिप्पणी
Gonanda I Contemporary of Yudhishthira, a relative of Magadha's ruler Jarasindhu (I.59). He was killed by Balarama, the elder brother of Jarasandha's enemy Krishna.
Damodra I Killed in a battle with by Krishna's friends
Yashovati Wife of Damodara. She was pregnant at the time of her husband's death, and Krishna helped her ascend the throne.
Gonanda II Son of Yashovati and Damodara
35 kings (names lost) A manuscript titled Ratnakar Purana supposedly contained these names, and was translated into Persian by the orders of the later Muslim ruler Zain-ul-Abidin. The purported original manuscript as well as its translation are now lost. A Muslim historian named Hassan is said to have obtained a copy of the translation, and the later Muslim historians provided a fabricated list of 35 names ending in -Khan.[3]
Lava From an unknown family
Kusheshaya (Kusha) Son of Lava
Khagendra Son of Kusha
Surendra Son of Khagendra
Godhara Belonged to a different family from Lava's dynasty (I.95)
Suvarna Known for constructing a canal named Suvarnamani
Janaka Unsuccessfully invaded Persia
Shachinara Died childless
Ashoka Great-grandson of Shakuni and son of Shachinara's first cousin. Built a great city called Srinagara (near but not same as the modern-day Srinagar). In his days, the mlechchhas (foreigners) overran the country, and he took sannyasa. According to Kalhana's account, this Ashoka would have ruled in the 2nd millennium BCE, and was a member of the dynasty founded by Godhara. Kalhana also states that this king had adopted the doctrine of Jina, constructed stupas and Shiva temples, and appeased Bhutesha (Shiva) to obtain his son Jalauka. Despite the discrepancies, multiple scholars identify Kalhana's Ashoka with the Mauryan emperor Ashoka, who adopted Buddhism.[4] Although "Jina" is a term generally associated with Jainism, some ancient sources use it to refer to the Buddha.[5]
Jalauka (Jaloka) A staunch Shaivite, who constructed several Shiva temples. He reed the country from the mlechchhas (foreigners, possibly Greco-Bactrians). Romila Thapar equates Jalauka to the Mauryan prince Kunala, arguing that "Jalauka" is an erroneous spelling caused by a typographical error in Brahmi script.[6]
Damodara II Devout Shaivite. Built a new city called Damodarasuda, and a dam called Guddasetu.
Hushka, Jushka, and Kanishka Buddhist kings of Turashka origin (according to Kalhana). The third king is identified with Kanishka of the Kushan Empire.
Abhimanyu I A Shaivite during whose reigns Buddhists also flourished. Because of the rising Buddhist influence, people stopped following the Shaivite Nāga rites prescribed in the holy text Nila Purana. This angered the Nāgas, who heavily persecuted the Buddhists. To avoid this disorder, the king retired. A Brahmin named Chandradeva restored Shaivite rites by worshipping Shiva.

Gonanditya dynasty[संपादित करें]

The Gonanditya dynasty ruled Kashmir for 1002 years.[2]

Ruler Reign[2] Ascension year Notes
Gonanda III 35 years 1182 BCE Gonanda III founded a new dynasty. (I.191) He belonged to Rama's lineage, and restored the Nāga rites
Vibhishana I 53 years, 6 months 1147 BCE
Indrajit 35 years 1094 BCE
Ravana 30 years, 6 months - A Shivalinga attributed to Ravana could still be seen at the time of Kalhana.
Vibhishana II 35 years, 6 months 1058 BCE
Nara I (Kinnara) 40 years, 9 months 1023 BCE His queen eloped with a Buddhist monk, so he destroyed the Buddhist monasteries and gave their land to the Brahmins. He tried to abduct a Nāga woman, who was the wife of a Brahmin. Because of this, the Nāga chief burnt down the king's city, and the king died in the fire.
Siddha 60 years 983 BCE Siddha, the son of Nara, was saved from Nāga's fury, because he was away from the capital at the time. He was a religious king, and followed a near-ascetic lifestyle.
Utpalaksha 30 years, 6 months 923 BCE Son of Siddha
Hiranyaksha 37 years, 7 months 893 BCE Son of Hiranyaksha
Hiranyakula 60 years 855 BCE Son of Hiranyaksha
Vasukula (Mukula) 60 years 795 BCE Son of Hiranyakula. During his reign, the Mlechchhas (possibly Hunas) overran Kashmir.
Mihirakula 70 years 735 BCE Identified with the Huna ruler Mihirakula (6th century CE), although Kalhana does not mention him as a Huna, and places him nearly 1200 years earlier. According to historical evidence, Mihirakula's predecessor was Toramana. Kalhana mentions a king called Toramana, but places him much later, in Book 3.[7] According to Kalhana, Mihirakula was a cruel ruler who ordered killings of a large number of people, including children, women and elders. He invaded the Sinhala Kingdom, and replaced their king with a cruel man. As he passed through Chola, Karnata and other kingdoms on his way back to Kashmir, the rulers of these kingdoms fled their capitals and returned only after he had gone away. On his return to Kashmir, he ordered killings of 100 elephants, who had been startled by the cries of a fallen elephant. Once, Mihirakula dreamt that a particular stone could be moved only by a chaste woman. He put this to test: the women who were unable to move the stone were killed, along with their husbands, sons and brothers. He was supported by some immoral Brahmins. In his old age, the king committed self-immolation.
Vaka (Baka) 63 years, 18 days 665 BCE A virtuous king, he was seduced and killed by a woman named Vatta, along with several of his sons and grandsons.
Kshitinanda 30 years 602 BCE The only surviving child of Vaka
Vasunanda 52 years, 2 months 572 BCE "Originator of the science of love"
Nara II 60 years 520 BCE Son of Vasunanda
Aksha 60 years 460 BCE Son of Nara II
Gopaditya 60 years, 6 days 400 BCE Son of Aksha. Gave lands to Brahmins. Expelled several irreligious Brahmins who used to eat garlic (non-Sattvic diet); in their place, he brought others from foreign countries.
Gokarna 57 years, 11 months 340 BCE Son of Gopaditya
Narendraditya I (Khingkhila) 36 years, 3 months, 10 days 282 BCE Son of Gokarna
Yudhisthira I 34 years, 5 months, 1 day 246 BCE Called "the blind" because of his small eyes. In later years of his reign, he started patronizing unwise persons, and the wise courtiers deserted him. He was deposed by rebellious ministers, and granted asylum by a neighbouring king. His descendant Meghavahana later restored the dynasty's rule.

द्वितीय तरंग[संपादित करें]

No kings mentioned in this book have been traced in any other historical source.[7] These kings ruled Kashmir for 192 years.[2]

Ruler Reign[2] Ascension year Notes
Pratapaditya I 32 years 167 BCE Pratapaditya was a relative of a distant king named Vikrmaditya (II.6). This Vikramaditya is not same as the Vikramaditya of Ujjain, who is mentioned later as a patron of Matrigupta.
Jalauka 32 years 135 BCE Son of Pratapaditya
Tungjina I 36 years 103 BCE Shared the administration with his queen. The couple sheltered their citizens in the royal palace during a severe famine resulting from heavy frost. After his death, the queen committed sati. The couple died childless.
Vijaya 8 years 67 BCE From a different dynasty than Tungjina.
Jayendra 37 years 59 BCE Son of Vijaya: his "long arms reached to his knees". His flatters instigated him against his minister Sandhimati. The minister was persecuted, and ultimately imprisoned because of rumors that he would succeed the king. Sandhimati remained in prison for 10 years. In his old age, the childless king ordered killing of Sandhimati to prevent any chance of him becoming a king. He died after hearing about the false news of Sandhimati's death.
Sandhimati alias Aryaraja 47 years 22 BCE Sandhimati was selected by the citizens as the new ruler. He ascended the throne reluctantly, at the request of his guru. He was a devout Shaivite, and his reign was marked by peace. He filled his court with rishis (sages), and spent his time in forest retreats. Therefore, his ministers replaced him with Meghavahana, a descendant of Yudhishthira I. He willingly gave up the throne.

तृतीय तरंग[संपादित करें]

Ruler Reign[2] Ascension year Notes
Meghavahana 34 years 25 CE Meghavahana was the son of Yudhisthira I's great grandson, who had been granted asylum by Gopaditya, the king of Gandhara. Meghavahana had been selected the husband of a Vaishnavite princess at a Swayamvara in another kingdom. The ministers of Kashmir brought him to Kashmir after Sandhimati proved to be an unwilling king. Meghavahana banned animal slaughter and compensated those who earned their living through hunting. He patrnozed Brahmins, and set up a monastery. His queens built Buddhist viharas and monasteries. He subdued kings in regions as far as Sinhala Kingdom, forcing them to abandon animal slaughter.
Shreshtasena (Pravarasena I / Tungjina II) 30 years 59 CE Son of Meghavahana
Hiranya 30 years, 2 months 89 CE Son of Shreshtasena, assisted by his brother and co-regent Toramana. The king imprisoned Toramana, when the latter stuck royal coins in his own name. Toramana's son Pravarasena, who had been brought up in secrecy by his mother Anjana, freed him. Hiranya died childless. Several coins of a king named Toramana have been found in the Kashmir region. This king is identified by some with Huna ruler Toramana, although his successor Mihirakula is placed much earlier by Kalhana.[7]
Matrigupta 4 years, 9 months, 1 day 120 CE According to Kalhana, the emperor Vikramditya (alias Harsha) of Ujjayini defeated the Shakas, and made his friend and poet Matrigupta the ruler of Kashmir. After Vikramaditya's death, Matrigupta abdicated the throne in favour of Pravarasena. According to D. C. Sircar, Kalhana has confused the legendary Vikramaditya of Ujjain with the Pushyabhuti king Harsavardhana (c. 606-47 CE).[8] The latter is identified with Shiladitya mentioned in Xuanzang's account. However, according to M. A. Stein, Kalhana's Vikramaditya is another Shiladitya mentioned in Xuanzang's account: a king of Malwa around 580 CE.[9]
Pravarasena II 60 years 125 CE Historical evidence suggests that a king named Pravarasena ruled Kashmir in 6th century CE.[7] According to Kalhana, Pravarasena subdued many other kings, in lands as far as Saurashtra. He restored the rule of Vikramaditya's son Pratapshila (alias Shiladitya), who had been expelled from Ujjain by his enemies. Pratapshila agreed to be a vassal of Pravarasena after initial resistance. He founded a city called Pravarapura, which is identified by later historians as the modern city of Srinagar on the basis topographical details.[10]
Yudhishthira II 39 years, 8 months 185 CE Son of Pravarasena
Narendraditya I (Lakshmana) 13 years 206 CE Son of Yudhishthira II and Padmavati
Ranaditya I (Tungjina III) 300 years 219 CE Younger brother of Narendraditya. His queen Ranarambha was an incarnation of Bhramaravasini. The Chola king Ratisena had found her among the waves, during an ocean worship ritual.
Vikramaditya 42 years 519 CE Son of Ranaditya
Baladitya 36 years, 8 months 561 CE Younger brother of Vikramaditya. He subdued several enemies. An astrologer prophesized that his son-in-law wuld succeed him as the king. To avoid this outcome, the king married his daughter Anangalekha to Durlabhavardhana, a handsome but non-royal man from Ashvaghama Kayastha caste.

चतुर्थ तरंग[संपादित करें]

इन्हें भी देखें: Karkota dynasty
Ruler Reign[2] Ascension year Notes
Durlabhavardhana (Prajnaditya) 38 years 598 CE Born to Nāga Karkota (a deity), Durlabhavardhana was Baladitya's officer in charge of fodder. Baladitya married his daughter Anangalekha to him. As the royal son-in-law, he became known as a just and wise man, and was given the title "Prajnaditya" by the king. His wife Anangalekha became involved in an extra-marital affair with the minister Kharga. Despite catching them sleeping together, Durlabhavardhana forgave Khaga, and won over his loyalty. Afer Baladitya's death, Khaga crowned him the new king.
Durlabhaka (Pratapaditya II) 60 years 634 CE Son of Durlabhavardhana and Anangalekha. He was adopted as a son by his maternal grandfather, and assumed the title Pratapaditya after the title of the grandfather's dynasty.
Chandrapida (Vajraditya I) 8 years, 8 months 684 CE Son of Durlabhaka and Shrinarendraprabha.
Tarapida (Udayaditya) 4 years, 24 days 693 CE Younger brother of Chandrapida.
Muktapida (Lalitaditya I) 36 years, 7 months, 11 days 697 CE Younger brother of Chandrapida and Tarapida. According to the historical evidence, Lalitaditya Muktapida ruled during 8th century. Kalhana states that Lalitaditya Muktapida invaded the tribes of the north and after defeating the Kambojas, he immediately faced the Tusharas. The Tusharas did not give a fight but fled to the mountain ranges leaving their horses in the battle field. Then Lalitaditiya meets the Bhauttas in Baltistan in western Tibet north of Kashmir, then the Dardas in Karakoram/Himalaya, the Valukambudhi and then he encounters Strirajya, the Uttarakurus and the Pragjyotisha respectively (IV.165-175). Kalhana has highly exaggerated the military conquests of Muktapida.[11][12] Lalitapida had a concubine, a daughter of a Kalyapala (IV.678).
Kuvalayapida (Kuvalayapida) 1 year, 15 days 733 CE Son of Lalitaditya and Kamaladevi. His short reign was marked by a succession struggle with his half-brother Vajraditya II. He abdicated the throne, and a became a hermit to seek peace.
Vajradjtya II (Bappiyaka / Vappiyaka / Lalitaditya II) 7 years 734 CE Son of Lalitaditya and Chakramardika. He was a cruel and immoral person, who introduced the evil habits of mlechchhas to Kashmir.
Prithivyapida I 4 years, 1 month 741 CE Son of Vajraditya II and Mangjarika. Deposed by his half-brother Sangramapida.
Sangramapida I 7 days 745 CE Son of Vajraditya II and Massa. Deposed his half-brother to become the king, but died after a week.
Jayapida (Vinayaditya); Jajja 31 years; 3 years 745 CE Youngest son of Vajradjtya II. He erected a monument at Prayaga, which existed at Kalhana's time. His wife Kalyanadevi was the daughter of Jayanta, the king Pundravardhana in Gauda region. Jayapida subdued five kings of Gauda, and made them vassals of his father-in-law. On his way back to Kashmir, he also defeated the king of Kanyakubja. While Jayapida was in Gauda, his brother-in-law usurped the throne in Kashmir. After three years of ruling Kashmir, Jajja was killed by Shrideva, a supporter of Jayapida. Jayapida became the king once again, and patronized scholars. He waged wars against Bhimasena of the East and Aramuri of Nepala. In both instances, he was first imprisoned by the enemy king, but managed to escape and defeated the enemy. During the last years of his reign, he imposed excessive taxes on advice of Kayasthas, and treated his subjects cruelly. He died because of a curse by a Brahmin.
Lalitapida 12 years 776 CE Son of Jayapida and Durgi. He devoted his time to sensual pleasures, and neglected royal duties.
Sangramapida II (Prithivyapida II) 7 years 788 CE Son of Jayapida and Kalyana.
Chippatajayapida (Brhspati / Vrihaspati) 12 years 795 CE Son of Lalitapida and his concubine Jayadevi. The actual power was in hands of Jayadevi's brothers Padma, Utpalaka, Kalyana, Mamma and Dharmma.
Ajitapida 37 years 813 CE Son of Lalitapida and Jayadevi, made the king by his maternal uncle Utpalaka. Dethroned by Utpalaka's rival Mamma and the latter's son Yashovarman.
Anangapida 3 years 849 CE Son of Sangramapida II. Made king by Mamma and Yashovarman.
Utpalapida 2 years 852 CE Son of Ajitapida. Made king by Sukhavarman, the son of Utpala. Deposed by the minister Shura.

पंचम तरंग[संपादित करें]

Ruler Reign Ascension year Notes
Avantivarman 855 CE Son of Sukhavarman. Made king by the minister Shura. Established the city of Avantipura
Shankaravarman 883 CE According to Kalhana, this king "did not speak the language of the gods but used vulgar speech fit for drunkards, showed that he was descended from a family of spirit-distillers" (Stein's translation). This refers to the fact that the power had passed to the brothers of a queen, who was born in a family of spirit-distillers.
Gopalavarman 2 years 902 CE Son of Shankaravarman; ruled with help of his mother Sugandha; Murdered
Sankata 10 days 904 CE Brother of Gopalavarman, died soon after ascending the throne
Sugandha 2 years 904 CE Became queen after the death of all male heirs. Deposed by Tantrin soldiers, who had earlier served as the royal bodyguards. Waged a war against the Tantrins with help of their rivals (known as Ekanga), but was defeated and killed.
Partha 906 CE 10-year old child of Nirjitavarman; placed on throne by the Tantrins
Nirjitavarman 921 CE Half-brother of Avantivarman.
Chakravarman 922 CE Purchased the throne from the Tantrins
Shuravarman I 1 year 933 CE Purchased the throne from the Tantrins
Partha (2nd reign) 934 CE Purchased the throne from the Tantrins
Chakravarman (2nd reign) 935 CE Purchased the throne from the Tantrins
Shankaravardhana (or Shambhuvardhana) - Purchased the throne from the Tantrins
Chakravarman (3rd reign) 935 CE Defeated the Tantrins with help of Damara feudal lords. An unpopular king, he was killed.
Unmattavanti ("Mad Avanti") 937 CE Son of Partha. Murdered his father, and starved his half-brothers to death.
Shuravarman II 939 CE Sonf of Unmattavanti

षष्टम तरंग[संपादित करें]

Ruler Ascension year Notes
Yashaskara-deva 939 CE Elected by a council of Brahmins
Varnata 948 CE
Sangramadeva (Sanggrama I) 948 CE Murdered by the divira (clerk or writer) Parvagupta, who had become a regent-minister
Parvagupta 948 CE Strong but unpopular ruler
Kshemagupta 950 CE Son of Parvagupta and husband of Didda (a member of the Lohara dynasty). Didda and/or her relatives ran the administration.
Abhimanyu II 958 CE Ruled with his mother Didda as regent, aided by the minister Naravahana. Died young.
Nandigupta 972 CE Didda's grandson, deposed by her
Tribhuvanagupta 973 CE Didda's grandson, deposed by her
Bhimagupta 975 CE Didda's grandson, deposed by her
Didda 980 CE Wife of Kshemagupta

After a young son of Yashaskara, Pravaragupta, a Divira (clerk), became king. His son Kshemagupta married Didda, daughter of Simharaja of Lohara. After ruling indirectly and directly, Didda (980-1003 CE) placed Samgramaraja, son of her brother on the throne, starting the Lohara dynasty.

सप्तम तरंग[संपादित करें]

Ruler Reign[2] Ascension year Notes
Sangramaraja (Samgramaraja / Kshamapati) 1003 CE Nephew of Didda. Ascended the throne after her death, beginning Lohara dynasty's rule over Kashmir
Hariraja 22 days 1028 CE
Ananta-deva 1028 CE Abdicated the throne in favour of his son, but retained power through his minister Haladhara
Kalasha (Ranaditya II) 1063 CE Rebelled against his parents, leading to the suicide of his father Ananta, followed by sati-suicide by his mother. His son Harsha revolted against him, and was imprisoned.
Utkarsha 22 days 1089 CE Second son of Kalasha. His half-brother Vijaymalla rebelled against him, and got Harsha released from prison. Utkarsha was imprisoned and committed suicide
Harsha died in 1101 CE In his early years, he was a sagacious king, and a patron of art and literature. The later years of his reign were marked by unsuccessful military campaigns, resulting in excessive taxation and plundering of temples. Revolts by his generals Uchchala and Sussala (of Lohara family) ended his reign. His son Bhoja was killed, and Harsha himself was killed by Uchchala's men while hiding in a village.

अष्टम् तरंग[संपादित करें]

Ruler[2] Notes
Uchchala Made his brother Sussala the ruler of Lohara. Murdered by Radda.
Radda (Shankharaja) Usurped the throne, claiming to be a descendant of Yashaskara
Salhana Uchchala's step-brother; became the king after Radda's death. The real power lay in the hands of a noble named Gargachandra. Salhana was deposed and imprisoned.
Sussala Uchchala's brother; ascended throne with Gargachandra's support
Bhikshachara Harsha's grandson, who had escaped Uchchala's revolt. Brought up at the Paramara king. Deposed Sussala.
Sussala (2nd reign) Within 6 months of Bhikshachara's ascension, Sussala recovered his capital, leading to a civil war
Jayasimha (Sinha-deva) Sussala's son. In the early years of his reign, the actual power was held by Sussala. Kalhana's account closes in the 22nd year of his reign.

इन्हें भी देखें[संपादित करें]

बाहरी कड़ियाँ[संपादित करें]

  • राजतरंगिणी - भारत के डिजिटल पुस्तकालय पर राजतंगिणी का संस्कृत पाठ (स्कैन कापी)
  • Rajatarangini (इन्साइक्लोपीडिया ब्रिटानिका)

सन्दर्भ[संपादित करें]