सामग्री पर जाएँ


मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
(श्वेतांबर से अनुप्रेषित)

जैन दर्शन शाश्वत सत्य पर आधारित है। समय के साथ ये सत्य अदृश्य हो जाते है और फिर सर्वग्य या केवलग्यानी द्वारा प्रकट होते है। प्रम्परा से इस अवसर्पिणी काल मे भगवान (ऋषभ or रिषभ) प्रथम तीर्थन्कर हुए, उनके बाद भगवान पार्श्व (877-777 BCE) तथा (महावीर) (599-527 BCE) हुए.

जैन धर्म सिखाता है कि प्रत्येक जीव अपने कर्मो के लिए सव्यम जिम्मेवार है। It insists that we live, think and act respectfully and honor the spiritual nature of all life. Jains view God as the unchanging traits of the pure soul of each living being, chiefly described as Infinite Knowledge, Perception, Consciousness, and Happiness (Anant Gyän, Anant Darshan, Anant Chäritra, and Anant Sukh). Jainism does not include a belief in an omnipotent supreme being or creator, but rather in an eternal universe governed by natural laws, and the interplay of its attributes (gunas) of matter (dravys).

Jain scriptures were written over a long period and the most cited is the Tattvartha Sutra, or Book of Reality written by Umasvati (or Umasvami),the monk-scholar, more than 18 centuries ago. The primary figures in Jainism are Tirthankars. Jainism has two main divisions: Digambar and Shvetambar and both believe in ahimsa (or ahinsā), asceticism, karma, sansar, and jiva.

Compassion for all life, human and non human, is central toज Jainism. Human life is valued as a unique, rare opportunity to reach enlightenment and to kill any person, no matter what crime he may have committed, is unimaginably abhorrent. It is the only religion that requires monks and laity, from all its sects and traditions, to be vegetarian. Some Indian regions have been strongly influenced by Jains and often, the majority of the local non Jain population has also become vegetarian. History suggests that various strains of Hinduism became vegetarian due to strong Jain influences. In many towns, Jains run animal shelters, e.g. Delhi has a bird hospital run by a Jain temple. Svetambara Jain worshipping at the temple at Ranakpur. The cloth over his face is to prevent spit, mucus, or bacteria from the mouth or nose from landing on holy images, books or the idols of the Tirtankars Enlarge Svetambara Jain worshipping at the temple at Ranakpur. The cloth over his face is to prevent spit, mucus, or bacteria from the mouth or nose from landing on holy images, books or the idols of the Tirtankars

Jainism's stance on nonviolence goes beyond vegetarianism. Jains refuse food obtained with unnecessary cruelty. Many are vegan due to the violence of modern dairy farms.The orthodox Jain diet excludes most root vegetables, as they believe this destroys life unnecessarily. Another reason for refusing root vegetables is to avoid destroying entire plants. If you eat apples, you do not destroy whole trees, but for root vegetables, whole plants are uprooted. Garlic and onions are avoided as these are seen as creating passion, meaning anger, hatred, jealousy. Observant Jains do not eat, drink, or travel after sunset (which is called Chauvihar) and always rise before sunrise.

Anekantavada, a foundation of Jain philosophy literally meaning "Nonsingular Conclusivity", or equivalently, "Non-one-endedness". Anekantavad consists of tools for overcoming inherent biases in any one perspective on a topic, object, process, state, or on reality in general. Another tool is The Doctrine of Postulation, Syādvāda. Anekantavad is defined as a multiplicity of views for it stresses looking at things from another's perspective.

Jains are remarkably welcoming and friendly toward other faiths. Several non-Jain temples in India are administered by Jains. The Jain Heggade family has run the Hindu institutions of Dharmasthala, including the Sri Manjunath Temple, for eight centuries. Jains willingly donate money to churches and mosques and usually help with interfaith functions. Jain monks, like Acharya Tulsi and Acharya Sushil Kumar, actively promoted harmony among rival faiths to defuse tension.

Jains have been a palpable presence in Indian culture, contributing to Indian philosophy, art, architecture, sciences, and to Mohandas Gandhi's politics, which led to the mainly non-violent movement for Indian independence.