विकिपीडिया:IPA for Spanish

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
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निम्न तालिकाओं में स्पेनी भाषा में प्रयोगित ध्वनियों व अक्षरों को अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय ध्वन्यात्मक वर्णमाला और मिलती-जुलती हिन्दी ध्वनियों द्वारा स्पष्ट करा गया है। ध्यान दें कि हिन्दी की दी गई ध्वनियाँ केवल निकटतम हैं - कुछ स्पेनी ध्वनियों की हिन्दी में सटीक बराबर की ध्वनी न होना सम्भव है।

See Spanish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Spanish.

व्यंजन
अधव उदाहरण निकटतम हिन्दी ध्वनि
b bestia; embuste; vaca; envidia
β bebé; obtuso; vivir; curva [1] और के बीच की ध्वनि
d dedo; cuando; aldaba
ð diva; arder; admirar [1] (द़)
f fase; café [2] फ़
ɡ gato; lengua; guerra
ɣ trigo; amargo; sigue; signo [1] ग़
ʝ ayuno; poyo [1] अथवा झ़
k caña; laca; quise; kilo
l lino; alhaja; principal
ʎ llave; pollo [3]
m madre; comer; campo; convertir [4]
n nido; anillo; anhelo; sin; álbum [4]
ɲ ñandú; cabaña; enyesar [4] न्य (जैसे कि अन्य में)
ŋ cinco; venga; conquista; enjambre [4] अं
p pozo; topo
r rumbo; carro; honra; subrayo; amor [5] र्र
ɾ caro; bravo; amor eterno [5]
s saco; casa; deshora; espita[6] xenón
θ cereal; encima; zorro; enzima; paz [7][6] थ़
t tamiz; átomo
chubasco; acechar
x jamón; eje; reloj[6] general; México ख़
z isla; mismo; deshuesar [8][6]
Marginal phonemes[9]
अधव उदाहरण निकटतम हिन्दी ध्वनि
ʃ Kirchner; Xelajú; sherpa [10]
tlapalería; cenzontle; Popocatépetl त्ल (जैसे कि कत्ल में)
ts Ertzaintza; abertzale; Pátzcuaro त्स (जैसे कि वत्स में)
स्वर
अधव उदाहरण निकटतम हिन्दी ध्वनि
a azahar
e vehemente [11]
i dimitir; mío; y
o boscoso [12]
u cucurucho; dúo
 
अर्धस्वर[13]
अधव उदाहरण निकटतम हिन्दी ध्वनि
j aliada; cielo; amplio; ciudad
w cuadro; fuego; Huila[14] arduo
 
दबाव और अक्षरण
अधव उदाहरण निकटतम हिन्दी ध्वनि
ˈ ciudad [θjuˈðað] / [sjuˈðað] स्युदाद, जिसमें "दाद" अधिक बल से बोलिये
. mío [ˈmi.o] मिओ, जिसमें "म" हलका और "इओ" अधिक बल से बोलिये

टिप्पणी[संपादित करें]

Other than in loanwords (e.g. hámster; hachís; hawaiano), the letter ‹h› is always silent in Spanish except in a few dialects that retain it as [h] or [x] (halar / jalar; hara).[15]
  1. /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ and /ʝ/ are between fricatives and approximants ([β̞, ð̞, ɣ̞, ʝ̞]; represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pause, after an /n/ or /m/, or—in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/—after an /l/, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, g, ɟʝ], not dissimilar from English b, d, g, j (Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté 2003:257-8).
  2. The phoneme /f/ is often pronounced as [ɸ], with the lips touching each other rather than the front teeth.
  3. In metropolitan areas of the Iberian Peninsula and some Central American countries, /ʎ/ has merged into /ʝ/; the actual realization depends on dialect. In Rioplatense Spanish, it has become [ʃ] or [ʒ]. See yeísmo and साँचा:Harvcoltxt for more information.
  4. The nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation. This is partially reflected in the orthography. Word-finally, only /n/ occurs.
  5. The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹r› and /r/ ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r›, with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, before consonants, and word-finally; [ɾ] is found elsewhere.
  6. For many speakers, fricatives (/s/, /θ/ and /x/) may debuccalize or be deleted in the syllable coda (at the end of words and before consonants); e.g. reloj [reˈlo].
  7. In Latin America, Canary Islands and some regions in Andalusia /θ/ has merged into /s/. See seseo and साँचा:Harvcoltxt for more information.
  8. Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants.
  9. The marginal phonemes are found in loanwords, largely from Basque, English, and Nahuatl.
  10. In many dialects, /ʃ/ is replaced by [] or [s]; e.g. show [tʃou]~[sou].
  11. The Spanish /e/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of play (for most English dialects) and the vowel of bed; the Spanish vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  12. The Spanish /o/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of coat (for most English dialects) and the vowel of raw; the Spanish vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  13. In Spanish, the semivowels [w] and [j] can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs though; e.g. aire, rey, auto, are transcribed with /i/ and /u/.
  14. Some speakers may pronounce word initial [w] with an epenthetic /g/; e.g. Huila [ˈgwila]~[ˈwila].
  15. "Grapheme h". Diccionario panhispánico de dudas. Real Academia Española. http://buscon.rae.es/dpdI/SrvltGUIBusDPD?lema=h. 

इन्हें भी देखें[संपादित करें]

सन्दर्भ[संपादित करें]

  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255–259 

External links[संपादित करें]