विकिपीडिया:IPA for Greek

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Ancient Greek and Modern Greek pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. Today, pronunciation of Ancient Greek is mostly based on Erasmian pronunciation. However, native Greek speakers use Modern Greek pronunciations for Ancient Greek words and phrases.

See Ancient Greek phonology and Modern Greek phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of these languages.

Consonants
Greek
alphabet
IPA Examples English equivalent
for Modern Greek
Anc. Mod.
 ῾ h ἥρως [hɛ̌ːrɔːs], [ˈiros] hero
β b v βίος [ˈvios] vet
γ ɡ ɣ γάλα [ˈɣala]
ʝ[1] γη [ʝi] yellow
δ d ð δημοκρατία [ðimokraˈtia] then
ζ d͡z[2] z ζώνη [ˈzoni] zero
θ θ θεολογία [θe̞oloˈʝia] thing
κ k k καλός [kaˈlos] sky
c[1] κύκλος [ˈciklos] somewhat like key
λ l l λεξικό [le̞ksiˈko] lie
ʎ[3] ελιά [e̞ˈʎa] million
μ m m μηχανικός [mixaniˈkos] mine
ν n n νέος [ˈne̞os] nine
ɲ[3] νιότη [ˈɲoti] onion
ξ ks ξενοφοβία [kse̞nofoˈvia] tax
π p πρόγραμμα [ˈproɣrama] spy
ρ r r[4] ρητορική [ritoriˈci] trilled r, as in Italian and Spanish
[5]
σ[6] s σύστημα [ˈsistima] sea
τ t τηλέφωνο [tiˈle̞fono] step
φ f φαινόμενο [fe̞ˈnome̞no] fly
χ x χάος [ˈxaos] loch (Scottish)
ç[1] χειρόγραφος [çiˈroɣrafos] (often) human
ψ ps ψυχοθεραπεία [psixoθe̞raˈpia] tips
γγ ŋɡ, ŋɣ[7] αγγούρι [aŋˈguri]/συγγραφέας [siŋɣraˈfe̞as] finger
ɲɟ, ŋʝ[1][7] άγγελος [ˈaɲɟe̞los]/εγγενής [eɲʝe̞ˈnis] angel
γκ ɡ, ŋɡ[7] εγκώμιο [e̞ŋˈgomio] good, finger
ɟ, ɲɟ[1][7] εγκυκλοπαίδεια [e̞ɲɟikloˈpe̞ðia] argue, angular
γχ ŋx[7] άγχος [ˈaŋxos]
ɲç[1][7] εγχείριση [e̞ɲˈçirisi]
γξ ŋks έλεγξα [ˈe̞le̞ŋksa] thanks
μπ b, mb[7] εμπάθεια [e̞mˈbaθia] book, amble
ντ d, nd[7] εντάξει [e̞nˈdaksi] duck, under
τσ t͡s τσάι [ˈt͡sai] cats
τζ d͡z τζαζ [ˈd͡zaz] pads
Vowels
Greek
alphabet
IPA Examples English equivalent
for Modern Greek
Anc. Mod.
α a a αλφάβητο [alˈfavito] tar, spa
αι ai̯, aj between bet and bait
ε ενέργεια [e̞ˈne̞rʝia]
ει i[8][9] ενέργεια [e̞ˈne̞rʝia] seem
η ɛː ηθική [iθiˈci]
ι i ιστορία [istoˈria]
υ[10] y υγιεινή [iʝiiˈni]
οι ɔi̯, oj οικονομία [ikonoˈmia]
υι ui̯ υιός [iˈos]
ο o o οργανισμός [orɣanizˈmos] hope
ω ɔː ώρα [ˈora]
αυ au̯ av, af αύρα [ˈavra] /αυθεντικός [afθendiˈkos] [a] then [v] / [f]
ευ eu̯ e̞v, e̞f ευρώπη [e̞vˈropi] / ευφορία [e̞foˈria] [] then [v] / [f]
ηυ ɛːu̯ iv, if εφηύρα [e̞ˈfivra] / ηυξημένος [ifksiˈme̞nos] [i] then [v] / [f]
ου u ουτοπία [utoˈpia] boot
Stress and tone
IPA Examples
Ancient Greek
á Acute: High tone on short vowels
ǎː Acute: Rising tone on long vowels and diphthongs
a Grave: low tone ([à])
âː Circumflex: Falling tone on long vowels and diphthongs
Modern Greek
ˈa άλλος
[ˈallos]
Stress mark: placed before the stressed syllable or vowel.
Represented in monotonic orthography by tonos.
Occurs on one of final three syllables, including any enclitics.

Notes[संपादित करें]

  1. ‹γ›, ‹κ›, ‹χ›, ‹γγ›, ‹γκ›, ‹γχ› represent palatal [ʝ c ç ɲɟ ɲç] only before the front vowels [i] and [e]. The velar and palatal series series are sometimes analyzed as allophones of a single dorsal series.
  2. Also may have been /zd/.
  3. [ʎ] and [ɲ] are usually analysed as clusters of /li/ and /ni/ respectively, and are also spelled accordingly in Greek orthography. Palatalized pronunciation presupposes the presence of yet another vowel after the palatalized consonant and its following /i/. If there is no subsequent second vowel, palatalization does not occur.
  4. May be a tap [ɾ] intervocalically.
  5. May have been /rʰ/.
  6. ‹σ› represents [z] before [b v m r ɣ] eg: Σμήνος [ˈzminos]
  7. γκ, μπ, ντ usually represent [ŋg~ɲɟ mb nd] when found in the middle of a Greek word, [g~ɟ b d] when found in any foreign word or in the beginning of the a Greek one. eg: αμπέλι [amˈbe̞li], μπαμπάς [baˈbas]
  8. The large number of mergers into Modern Greek /i/ is called Iotacism.
  9. Letters normally representing /i/ can also indicate a palatal pronunciation of dorsal consonants when appearing before other vowels: i.e instead of velar [ɣ k x ɡ], palatal [ʝ c ç ɟ] occur (eg: γιαγιά [ʝaˈʝa], κιόλας [ˈcolas], χιόνι [ˈçoni], μαγκιά [maˈɟa]. A similar process has a palatal fricative follow other consonants; [ʝ] follows voiced consonants [v b d ð z r] (eg: χέρια [ˈce̞rʝa], βαριέμαι [varˈʝe̞me̞]) and [ç] follows voiceless consonants [f p θ t s t͡s] (eg: καρφιά [karfˈça], ποιος [pços], ρεβύθια [re̞ˈviθça]). Similarly [ɲ] follows [m] under similar situations (eg: μια [mɲa], καλαμιά [kalaˈmɲa]
  10. When following a vowel, ‹υ› represents a pronunciation with [f] before ‹θ›, ‹κ›, ‹ξ›, ‹π›, ‹σ›, ‹τ›, ‹φ›, ‹χ›, ‹ψ›, and a pronunciation with [v] elsewhere.

External links[संपादित करें]