विकिपीडिया:IPA for German

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents German language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See German phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of German.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b Ball[1] ball
ç ich, durch hue
d dann[1] done
f Fass, Vogel fuss,
ɡ Gast[1] guest
h hat hut
j ja yard
k kalt cold
l Last last
m Mast must
n Naht not
ŋ lang long
p Pakt pack
pf Pfahl p + f
ʁ Rast[2] like a French R
ʀ like a French trilled R
r like an Italian R
s Hast fast
ʃ schal, Stein shall
t Tal tall
ts Zahl cats
Matsch match
v was vast
x Bach[3] loch (Scottish)
z Hase[1] hose
ʔ beamtet[4]
([bəˈʔamtət])
the glottal stop in uh-oh!
Non-native consonants
Dschungel[1] jungle
ʒ Genie[1] beige, Zsa Zsa
Stress
ˈ Bahnhofstraße
([ˈbaːnhoːfˌʃtʁaːsə])
as in ˈbattleˌship
ˌ
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Monophthongs
a Dach bra (but shorter)
Bahn bra
Beet face
ɛ Bett, hätte bed
ɛː wähle[5] as above but longer; like RP English bared
viel meet
ɪ bist sit
Boot bone
ɔ Post caught (but shorter)
øː Öl somewhat like hurl; French deux
œ göttlich somewhat like hurt; French sœur
Hut true
ʊ Putz took
Rübe French rue
ʏ füllt somewhat like the above
Diphthongs
weit tie
Haut how
ɔʏ Heu, Räuber boy
Reduced vowels
ɐ Ober[2] fun
ə halte comma
Semivowels
ɐ̯ Uhr[2] fun
Studie studio
aktuell actual
Non-native vowels
e Methan (short [eː])
i vital city (short [iː])
o Moral (short [oː])
ø Ökonom (short [øː])
u kulant (short [uː])
y Psychologie (short [yː])
ã Pensee[6] (nasalized [a])
ãː Gourmand[6] (long nasalized [a])
ɛ̃ timbrieren[6] (nasalized [ɛ])
ɛ̃ː Teint[6] (long nasalized [ɛ])
ɔ̃ Fondue[6] (nasalized [ɔ])
ɔ̃ː Fond[6] (long nasalized)
œ̃ Lundist[6] (nasalized [œ])
œ̃ː Parfum[6] (long nasalized [œ])

Notes[संपादित करें]

  1. The German lenis consonants [b d ɡ z ʒ dʒ] are often pronounced without voice as [b̥ d̥ ɡ̊ z̥ ʒ̊ d̥ʒ̊]. In Southern German, the voiceless pronunciation prevails.
  2. Pronunciation of /r/ in German varies according to region and speaker. While older prescriptive pronunciation dictionaries allowed only [r], this pronunciation is nowadays found mainly in Switzerland, Bavaria and Austria, while in other regions the uvular pronunciation prevails, with the allophones [ʁ] and [ʀ]. In many regions except for Switzerland, the /r/ in the syllable coda is vocalized to [ɐ̯] after long vowels or after all vowels, and /ər/ is pronounced as [ɐ]
  3. /x/ is realized as a uvular fricative [χ] after /a/, /aː/, and often /ʊ/, /ɔ/, and /aʊ/.
  4. In many varieties of German except for Swiss Standard German, all initial vowels are preceded by [ʔ].
  5. [ɛː] is often replaced by [eː].
  6. Nasal vowels are sometimes replaced by the corresponding short oral vowel and the velar nasal [ŋ]: [aŋ, ɛŋ, ɔŋ, œŋ].

Bibliography[संपादित करें]