↑ अआइईउ[c ~ k] (Turkish) / [c ~ q] (Azeri) / [k ~ q] (Turkmen), [ɟ ~ ɡ](Turkish/Azeri) / [ɡ ~ ʁ] (Turkmen), [l ~ ɫ] only contrast in loan words before <â, û> vs. <a, u>; in native words, [c/k, ɟ/ɡ, l] occur before the front vowels ([e], [i], [ø], [y]), while [k/q, ɡ, ɫ] occur before the back vowels ([a], [o], [u], [ɯ]).
↑ अआइईBetween front vowels ([e], [i], [ø], [y]), ğ is similar to English y. Between back vowels ([a], [o], [u], [ɯ]), it is a very light [ɰ] sound, like Spanish trigo. Word-finally or before a consonant, it lengthens the preceding vowel.
↑ In Turkmen, [h] occurs before front vowels ([e], [i], [ø], [y]) while [x] occurs before back vowels ([a], [o], [u], [ɯ]).
↑ अआIn many eastern Turkish/Azeri dialects, [c] at the end of a word or before a voiceless consonant may become [ç] as in huge.
↑ अआ/v/ may be [w] after a vowel or in some loanwords.
↑In Turkish proper, excepting certain unstressed suffixes and stressed verb tenses, proper nouns are typically stressed on the 2nd or 3rd last syllable, and other words on the last syllable.