विकिपीडिया:IPA for Malay

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Malay (Malaysian and Indonesian) pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. See Malay language#Phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Malay.

English approximations are in some cases very loose, and only intended to give a general idea of the pronunciation.

IPA Examples nearest English equivalent
b bola [1] beau
d dari [1][2] do
jari [3] job
f fikir, visa [4] festival
ɡ galah [5] gain
h habis, tokoh [6] hat
j yakin, kaya yes
k kalah [1][5] sky
l lama clean
m makan moon
n nakal note
ŋ ngarai feeling
ɲ nyaman canyon
p pola [1] spy
r raja, dari, pasar trilled 'r' [7]
s saya six
ʃ syak [4] shoe
t tari [1] sty
cari [3] check
v visa [4] vision
w waktu, Jawa we
x khas [4]
z zaman [4] zero
ʔ bapak [1] [5][2]
Vowels [8]
IPA Examples nearest English equivalent
a ajar, buka[9] father
e serong, kare [10] clay[11]
ɛ teh, bebek [12] festival
i bila, ini see
ɪ kirim [12] bin
o roda, toko [10] sole
ɔ pohon [12] sort
u upah, baru moon
ʊ rumput [12] foot
ə gelak [9] about
au kalau [10] how
ai capai [10] bye
oi, ui sepoi boy (uncommon)
Other symbols
IPA Explanation
ˈ Primary stress
Placed before the stressed syllable [13]

Notes[संपादित करें]

  1. /p/, /t/, /k/ are unaspirated, as in the Romance languages, or as in English spy, sty, sky. In final position, they are unreleased [p̚, t̪̚, ʔ̚], with final k being a glottal stop. /b, d/ are also unreleased, and therefore devoiced, [p̚, t̚]. There is no liaison: they remain unreleased even when followed by a vowel, as in kulit ubi "potato skins", though they are pronounced as a normal medial consonant when followed by a suffix.
  2. /t/ is dental, as in French, whereas /d/ is alveolar as in English.
  3. /tʃ, dʒ/ are pronounced with the tip of the tongue further forward than in English (alveolar), and without the lip rounding of English.
  4. The fricatives [f, z, ʃ, x] are found in loanwords only. Some speakers pronounce orthographic ‹v› in loanwords as [v]; otherwise it is [f].
  5. The glottal stop [ʔ] is an allophone of /k/ and /ɡ/ in the coda: baik, bapak. It is also used between identical vowels in hiatus. Only a few words have this sound in the middle, e.g. bakso (meatballs). It may be represented by an apostrophe in Arabic derived words such as Al Qur'an.
  6. /h/ clearly pronounced between like vowels, as in Pahang. Elsewhere it is a very light sound, and is frequently silent, as in hutan ~ utan "forest", sahut ~ saut "answer". (It is not, however, dropped when initial from Arabic loans such as hakim "judge".) In dialects which retain final /h/, it may engage in liaison, as in sudah itu [suda hitu] "after that".
  7. In traditional Malay areas, the rhotic consonant /r/ is realized as a velar or uvular fricative, [ɣ] or [ʁ], and elided word-finally. Elsewhere, including in Standard Indonesian, it is an alveolar tap [ɾ] or trill [r]. Its position relative to schwa is ambiguous: kertas "paper" may be pronounced [krəˈtas] or [kərəˈtas].
  8. The nasal consonants /m, n, ŋ, ɲ/ nasalize following vowels, and may nasalize a subsequent vowel if the intervening consonant is /h, j, w, ʔ/.
  9. In Malaysian, word-final /a/ is often reduced to [ə].
  10. /e, o/ are allophones of /i, u/ in native words, but have become established as distinct phonemes in English and Javanese loan words. The diphthongs /ai, au/, which only occur in open syllables, are often merged into /e, o/, respectively, especially in Java.
  11. The Malay/Indonesian /e/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of clay (for most English dialects) and the vowel of get. The Malay/Indonesian vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  12. /e, i, o, u/ have lax allophones [ɛ, ɪ, ɔ, ʊ] in closed syllables, except that tense [i, u] occur in stressed syllables with a coda nasal, and laax [ɛ, ɔ] also occur in open syllables if the following syllable contains the same lax vowel.
  13. Stress generally falls on the penultimate syllable. If that syllable contains a schwa [ə], stress shifts to the antepenult if there is one, and to the final syllable if there is not. Some suffixes are ignored for stress placement.