कामरुपी भाषा

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कामरुपी
बोली जाती है भारत
क्षेत्र पश्चिम असम और् उत्तर् बंगाल
कुल बोलने वाले ६० लाख
भाषा परिवार
भाषा कूट
ISO 639-1 None
ISO 639-2
ISO 639-3

'कामरुपी भाषा (अथवा पश्चिम असमी) ब्रह्मपुत्र घाटी और उत्तर बंगाल (कामरुप) मे बोली जाने वाली प्रथम आर्य भाषा है।[1] यह भाषाविदों के अनुसार विभिन्न पूर्वी भारत - यूरोपीय भाषाओं जैसे असमी का जन्मदाता है और उसे समय समय पर प्रभावित करता रहा।[2] यह कामरूप राज्य में पहली सहस्राब्दी मे भी बोली जाती थी और आज पश्चिम असम और् उत्तर् बंगाल मे प्रचलित है।

उपबोलियाँ[संपादित करें]

कामरुपी तीन् उपबोलीयो मे विभाजित है जोकि पश्चिम कामरूपी (बरपेटा क्षेत्र), मध्य कामरुपी (नलबाड़ी क्षेत्र) और दक्षिण कामरुपी (पलासबाड़ी क्षेत्र) है।[3]

विभाजन[संपादित करें]

ब्रिटिश भारत के दौरान कुछ बिंदु पर कामरूप असम और बंगाल के मध्य प्रशासनिक कारणों से विभाजित किया गया था और धीरे धीरे इस विभाजन के बाद एक ही कामरुपी को असमी और बंगाली की उपबोली मानी जाने लगी हालांकि असमी कामरुपी और बंगाली कामरुपी (उत्तर बंगाली) एक ही भाषा का प्रतिनिधित्व करता है।

महत्व[संपादित करें]

प्राचीन काल मे कामरुपी मगधी प्राकृत से उत्पन्न हुआ था।[4] सभी प्राचीन और मध्ययुगीन असमिया साहित्य कामरुपी में लिखे गये थे।[5][6]

साहित्य[संपादित करें]

कामरुपी भाषा का साहित्यिक विकास प्राचीन समय से आरंभ हुआ था। आठ शताब्दी मे दाक नामक साहित्यकार ने दाकभनीता नामक आधिकारिक गद्य लिखी थी। वो कामरुप के बरपेटा से था।[7]

यह भी देखे[संपादित करें]

सन्दर्भ[संपादित करें]

  1. Goswami, Upendranath (1970). A study on Kāmrūpī: a dialect of Assamese. Dept. of Historical Antiquarian Studies, Guwahati. पृ॰ 4. Assam from ancient times, was known as Kamarupa till the end of the Koch rule (17th century) and ancient Kamarupa comprised the whole of North Bengal including Cooch-Behar, and the Rangpur and Jalpaiguri districts of Bengal. Its permanent western boundary is said to have been the river Karatoya in North Bengal according to the Kalika Purana and Yoginitantra, both devoted to geographical accounts of ancient Kamarupa. So the Aryan language spoken first in Assam was the Kamrupi language spoken in Rangpur, Cooch-Behar, Goalpara, Kamrup district and some parts of Nowgong and Darrang districts. As also put by K.L. Barua "the Kamrupi dialect was originally a variety of eastern Maithili and it was no doubt the spoken Aryan language throughout the kingdom which then included the whole of the Assam Valley and the whole of Northern Bengal with the addition of the Purnea district of Bihar”. It is in this Kamrupi language that the early Assamese literature was mainly written. Up to the seventeenth century as the centre of art, literature and culture were confined within western Assam and the poets and the writers hailed from this part, the language of this part also acquired prestige. The earliest Assamese writer is Hema Saraswati, the author of a small poem, Prahrada Caritra, who composed his verses under his patron, King Durlabhnarayana of Kamatapur who is said to have ruled in the latter part of the 13th century. Rudra Kandali translated Drone Parva under the patronage of King Tamradhvaja of Rangpur. The most considerable poet of the pre-vaisnavite period is Madhava Kandali, who belonged to the present district of Nowgong and rendered the entire Ramayana into Assamese verse under the patronage of king Mahamanikya, a Kachari King of Jayantapura. The golden age in Assamese literature opened with the reign of Naranarayana, the Koch King. He gathered round him at his court at Cooch-Behar a galaxy of learned man. Sankaradeva real founder of Assamese literature and his favourite disciple Madhavadeva worked under his patronage. The other-best known poets and writers of this vaisnavite period namely Rama Sarasvati, Ananta Kandali, Sridhar Kandali, Sarvabhauma Bhattacharyya, Dvija Kalapachandra and Bhattadeva, the founder of the Assamese prose, all hailed from the present district of Kamarupa. During Naranaryana's reign "the Koch power reached its zenith. His kingdom included practically the whole of Kamarupa of the kings of Brahmapala's dynasty with the exception of the eastern portion known as Saumara which formed the Ahom kingdom. Towards the west the kingdom appears to have extended beyond the Karatoya, for according to Abul Fasal, the author of the Akbarnamah, the western boundary of the Koch kingdom was Tirhut. On the south-west the kingdom included the Rangpur district and part of Mymensingh to the east of the river Brahmaputra which then flowed through that district," The Kamrupi language lost its prestige due to reasons mentioned below and has now become a dialect which has been termed as Kamrupi dialect as spoken in the present district of Kamrup.
  2. Goswami, Upendranath (1975). Grammatical Sketches of Indian Languages With Comparative Vocabulary And Texts. Linguistic Survey of India, Census of India 1971. पृ॰ 35. Thus it is clear that Kamrupi dialect does not only claim as the mother of modern Assamese, but also that this speech continued to exert its appreciable influence on Assamese literature, both prose and poetry. It is worth mentioning here that Assamese Vocabularies may greatly be enriched by incorporation of certain important words and expressions, still in vogue in the modern district of Kamrup proper, in modern Assamese lexicon.
  3. Goswami, Upendranath (1970). A study on Kāmrūpī: a dialect of Assamese. Dept. of Historical Antiquarian Studies, Guwahati. पृ॰ 28. The sub-dialectical varieties of Kamrupi may be grouped mainly into three divisions —western, central and southern. The variety spoken in the area comprising Barpeta, Sundardiya, Patbausi, Bhabani- pur etc. is western, that of Nalbari and its surrounding areas is central and that of Palasbari, Chaygong, Boko etc. is southern.
  4. Barma, Sukhabilasa (2004). Bhawaiya, ethnomusicological study. Global Vision Publishing House. पृ॰ 66. Based on the materials of the Linguistic Survey of India, Suniti Kumar Chattopadhyay has divided Eastern Magadhi Prakrita and Apabhramsa into four dialect groups (1) Radha-the language of West Bengal and Orissa (2) Varendra-dialect of North Central Bengal (3) Kamrupi-dialect of Northern Bengal and Assam and (4) Vanga-dialect of East Bengal.
  5. Medhi, Kaliram (1936). Assamese Grammar and Origin of the Assamese Language. Sri Gouranga Press. पृ॰ 66. The language of the pre-Vaisnava and Vaisnava was the dialect of Western Assam while the language of the modern literature is that of Eastern Assam. This latter has been accepted by the common consent as the literary language of the country. Political power thus determined the centre of literary activity and also of the form of literary language.
  6. Goswami, Golockchandra (1982). Structure of Assamese. Department of Publication, Gauhati University. पृ॰ 11. The Eastern and Central dialects may be regarded as uniform to a certain extent in their respective areas, while Western Asamiya is heterogeneous in character, with large regional variations in the east, west, north and south. There must have been in early times as well, diverse dialects and dialect groups as at present. But then, there seems to be only one dominant literary language prevailing over the whole area; and that was Western Asamiya, the sole medium of all ancient Asamiya literature including the Buranjis written in the Ahom courts. This was because the centre of all literary activities in early times was in western Assam; and the writers were patronized by the kings and local potentates of that region. In the later period, however, even though the centre of literary activities moved to eastern Assam in the Ahom period, the writers continued to accept and use the existing model of the literary style of that time.
  7. Choudhury, Dr. Pratap Chandra (1959). The history of civilisation of the people of Assam to the twelfth century A.D. Dept. of Historical and Antiquarian Studies, Gauhati. पृ॰ 395. The best specimens of wise sayings are contained in a work, 'Dakabhanita', attributed to Daka, written in old Kamarupi dialect. The work provides an important specimen of the ancient literature of Assam. It is, however, too early to ascribe the work to the 6th century A.D., as done by D.N. Bezbarua. It may have been composed about the 8th century A.D. It is true that Daka flourished at a time when the written literature of Assam had scarcely taken its birth. The place of the nativity of Daka is given in the work, which states that he was the native of the Lehidangara near modern Barpeta.