रसायन विज्ञान की समयरेखा

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
यहाँ जाएँ: भ्रमण, खोज
जॉन डाल्टन के "अ न्यू सिस्टम ऑफ केमिकल फिलॉसफी" ले लिया गया चित्र - यह परमाणु सिद्धान्त की प्रथम आधुनिक व्याख्या थी

इस समयरेखा में उन महत्वपूर्ण कृतियों, खोजों, विचारों एवं प्रयोगों को सूचीबद्ध किया गया है जिनके कारण पदार्थों की संरचना एवं उनके परस्पर क्रियाओं से सम्बन्धित मानव के ज्ञान में पर्याप्त वृद्धि हुई तथा जिसे आधुनिक विज्ञान में "रसायन विज्ञान" के नाम से जाना जाता है। यद्यपि रसायन विज्ञान की जड़ें ज्ञात इतिहास के आरम्भ काल तक पहुँची हुई हैं तथापि प्राय: आधुनिक रसायन के इतिहास का आरम्भ आयरलैण्ड के रसायनशास्त्री रॉबर्ट बॉयल से माना जाता है।

१७वीं शती से पूर्व[संपादित करें]

जेबर (Geber) (मृत्यु 815) को रसायन विज्ञान का जनक माना जाता है
एन्टोनी लौरेन्ट डी लैवाशिये (1743-1794) को आधुनिक रसायन विज्ञान का जनक माना जाता है।
815 ई
फारस के अलकेमी गेबर (Geber), ने रसायन विज्ञान के लिये पहली बार वैज्ञानिक विधि विकसित किया। उसने हाइड्रोक्लोरिक अम्ल सहित अनेकों अम्ल अलग किये।
850 ई
अल-किन्दी नामक अरब के रसायनज्ञ ने अलकेमी की आलोचना की तथा "पारस पत्थर" (Philosopher's stone) के सिद्धान्त को गलत बताया।
1267 ई
रोजर बैकन (Roger Bacon) ने Opus Maius प्रकाशित किया जिसमें 'वैज्ञानिक विधि' का प्रारम्भिक स्वरूप विद्यमान था। इसी में बारूद से सम्बन्धित उसके प्रयोगों के परिणाम भी थे[1]

१७वी तथा १८वीं शताब्दी[संपादित करें]

1648
जन बैप्टिस्ट वान हेल्मोन्ट (Jan Baptist van Helmont) की मृत्यु के पश्चात उसकी पुस्तक Ortus medicinae प्रकाशित हुई। कुछ विद्वानों का विचार है कि इस पुस्तक ने अलकेमी से केमिस्ट्री में पदार्पन की नींव डाली। इसका रॉबर्ट बायल पर भी बहुत असर पड़ा।[2]
रॉबर्ट बॉयल की कृति The Sceptical Chymist का मुखपृष्ट
1661
रॉबर्ट बॉयल (Robert Boyle) ने द स्केप्टिकल केमिस्ट" (The Sceptical Chymist) प्रकाशित की। इसमें अलकेमी और केमिस्ट्री में भेद बताया गया था।[3]
1662
रॉबर्ट बॉयल ने बॉयल का नियम प्रतिपादित किया जिसमें गैसों के व्यवहार का प्रायोगिक वर्णन था[3]
1754
जोसेफ ब्लैक कार्बन डाईआक्साइड अलग करने में सफल[4]
1758
जोसेफ ब्लैक ने गुप्त उष्मा (latent heat) के कांसेप्ट की व्याक्या की।[5]
1766
हेनरी कैवेंडिश (Henry Cavendish) ने हाइड्रोज की खोज की।
1773-1774
शीले (Carl Wilhelm Scheele) और जोसेफ प्रिस्टले (Joseph Priestly) ने स्वतंत्र रूप से आक्सीजन को अलग (isolate) किया।[6][7]
1778
लैवाशिये (Antoine Lavoisier) ने आक्सीजन की पहचान की और इसका नामकरण किया। उसने ज्वलन में इसकी भूमिका को भी पहचाना।[8]
1787
लैवाशिये ने Méthode de nomenclature chimique, का प्रकाशन किया जो रासायनिक नामकरण की प्रथम पद्धति थी।[8]
1787
जैकूअस चार्ल्स (Jacques Charles) ने चार्ल्स का नियम प्रतिपादित किया।[9]
1789
लैवाशिये नेआधुनिक रसायन विज्ञान की पहली पाठ्यपुस्तक Traité Élémentaire de Chimie प्रकाशित की।[8][10]
1800
वोल्टा (Alessandro Volta) ने पहली रासायनिक बैटरी (वोल्ताइक पाइल) का आविष्कार किया।[11]

१९वीं शती[संपादित करें]

जॉन डालटन (1766-1844)
1803
जॉन डाल्टन (John Dalton) ने डाल्टन का नियम प्रतिपादित किया।[12]
1805
गे लुसाक (Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac) ने पाया कि जल आयतन के अनुसार दो भाग हाइड्रोजन एवं एक भाग आक्सीजन से मिलकर बना है।
1808
गे लुसाक ने वायु एवं अन्य कई गैसें एकत्र की तथा उनके भौतिक एवं रासायनिक गुणों की खोज की। उसने बायल के नियम तथा चार्ल्स के नियम की प्रायोगिक पुष्टि भी की। उसने गैसों के घनत्व एवं उनकी संरचना का सम्बन्ध भी बताया.[13]
1808
John Dalton publishes New System of Chemical Philosophy, which contains first modern scientific description of the atomic theory, and clear description of the law of multiple proportions.[12]
1808
Jöns Jakob Berzelius publishes Lärboki Kemien in which he proposes modern chemical symbols and notation, and of the concept of relative atomic weight.[14]
1811
Amedeo Avogadro proposes Avogadro's law, that equal volumes of gases under constant temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules.[15]
structural formula of urea
1825
Friedrich Wöhler and Justus von Liebig perform the first confirmed discovery and explanation of isomers, earlier named by Berzelius. Working with cyanic acid and fulminic acid, they correctly deduce that isomerism was caused by differing arrangements of atoms within a molecular structure.[16]
1827
William Prout classifies biomolecules into their modern groupings: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.[17]
1828
Friedrich Wöhler synthesizes urea, thereby establishing that organic compounds could be produced from inorganic starting materials, disproving the theory of vitalism.[16]
1832
Friedrich Wöhler and Justus von Liebig discover and explain functional groups and radicals in relation to organic chemistry.[16]
1840
Germain Hess proposes Hess's Law, an early statement of the Law of conservation of energy, which establishes that energy changes in a chemical process depend only on the states of the starting and product materials and not on the specific pathway taken between the two states.[18]
1847
Hermann Kolbe obtains acetic acid from completely inorganic sources, further disproving vitalism.[19]
1848
Lord Kelvin establishes concept of absolute zero, the temperature at which all molecular motion ceases.[20]
1849
Louis Pasteur discovers that the racemic form of tartaric acid is a mixture of the levorotatory and dextrotatory forms, thus clarifying the nature of optical rotation and advancing the field of stereochemistry.[21]
1852
August Beer proposes Beer's law, which explains the relationship between the composition of a mixture and the amount of light it will absorb. Based partly on earlier work by Pierre Bouguer and Johann Heinrich Lambert, it establishes the analytical technique known as spectrophotometry.[22]
1855
Benjamin Silliman, Jr. pioneers methods of petroleum cracking, which makes the entire modern petrochemical industry possible.[23]
1856
William Henry Perkin synthesizes Perkin's mauve, the first synthetic dye. Created as an accidental byproduct of an attempt to create quinine from coal tar. This discovery is the foundation of the dye synthesis industry, one of the earliest successful chemical industries.[24]
1857
Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz proposes that carbon is tetravalent, or forms exactly four chemical bonds.[25]
1859-1860
Gustav Kirchhoff and Robert Bunsen lay the foundations of spectroscopy as a means of chemical analysis, which lead them to the discovery of caesium and rubidium. Other workers soon used the same technique to discover indium, thalium, and helium.[26]
1860
Stanislao Cannizzaro, resurrecting Avogadro's ideas regarding diatomic molecules, compiles a table of atomic weights and presents it at the 1860 Karlsruhe Congress, ending decades of conflicting atomic weights and molecular formulas, and leading to Mendeleev's discovery of the periodic law.[27]
1862
Alexander Parkes exhibits Parkesine, one of the earliest synthetic polymers, at the International Exhibition in London. This discovery formed the foundation of the modern plastics industry.[28]
1862
Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois publishes the telluric helix, an early, three-dimensional version of the Periodic Table of the Elements.[29]
1864
John Newlands proposes the law of octaves, a precursor to the Periodic Law.[29]
1864
Lothar Meyer develops an early version of the periodic table, with 28 elements organized by valence.[30]
1864
Cato Maximilian Guldberg and Peter Waage, building on Claude Louis Berthollet’s ideas, proposed the Law of Mass Action.[31][32][33]
1865
Johann Josef Loschmidt determines exact number of molecules in a mole, later named Avogadro's Number.[34]
1865
Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz, based partially on the work of Loschmidt and others, establishes structure of benzene as a six carbon ring with alternating single and double bonds.[25]
1865
Adolf von Baeyer begins work on indigo dye, a milestone in modern industrial organic chemistry which revolutionizes the dye industry.[35]
Mendeleev's 1869 Periodic Table.
1869
Dmitri Mendeleev publishes the first modern periodic table, with the 66 known elements organized by atomic weights. The strength of his table was its ability to accurately predict the properties of as-yet unknown elements.[29][30]
1873
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff and Joseph Achille Le Bel, working independently, develop a model of chemical bonding that explains the chirality experiments of Pasteur and provides a physical cause for optical activity in chiral compounds.[36]
1876
Josiah Willard Gibbs publishes On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances, a compilation of his work on thermodynamics and physical chemistry which lays out the concept of free energy to explain the physical basis of chemical equilibria.[37]
1877
Ludwig Boltzmann establishes statistical derivations of many important physical and chemical concepts, including entropy, and distributions of molecular velocities in the gas phase.[38]
1883
Svante Arrhenius develops ion theory to explain conductivity in electrolytes.[39]
1884
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff publishes Études de Dynamique chimique, a seminal study on chemical kinetics.[40]
1884
Hermann Emil Fischer proposes structure of purine, a key structure in many biomolecules, which he later synthesized in 1898. Also begins work on the chemistry of glucose and related sugars.[41]
1884
Henry Louis Le Chatelier develops Le Chatelier's principle, which explains the response of dynamic chemical equilibria to external stresses.[42]
1885
Eugene Goldstein names the cathode ray, later discovered to be composed of electrons, and the canal ray, later discovered to be positive hydrogen ions that had been stripped of their electrons in a cathode ray tube. These would later be named protons.[43]
1893
Alfred Werner discovers the octahedral structure of cobalt complexes, thus establishing the field of coordination chemistry.[44]
1894-1898
William Ramsay discovers the noble gases, which fill a large and unexpected gap in the periodic table and led to models of chemical bonding.[45]
1897
J. J. Thomson discovers the electron using the cathode ray tube.[46]
1898
Wilhelm Wien demonstrates that canal rays (streams of positive ions) can be deflected by magnetic fields, and that the amount of deflection is proportional to the mass-to-charge ratio. This discovery would lead to the analytical technique known as mass spectrometry.[47]
1898
Maria Sklodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie isolate radium and polonium from pitchblende.[48]
c. 1900
Ernest Rutherford discovers the source of radioactivity as decaying atoms; coins terms for various types of radiation.[49]

२०वीं शताब्दी[संपादित करें]

1905
फ्रिट्ज हैबर (Fritz Haber) और कार्ल बॉश (Carl Bosch) ने अमोनिया निर्माण के लिये हैबर प्रक्रम (Haber process) का विकास किया।[50]
1907
लिओ हेन्ड्रिक बैकीण्ड (Leo Hendrik Baekeland) ने बैकेलाइट (bakelite) की खोज की[51]
1909
अर्नेस्ट रदरफोर्ड, हंस गीगर (Hans Geiger) और अर्नेस्ट मार्सडेन (Ernest Marsden) ने स्वर्ण पन्नी वाला प्रयोग किया जिसने परमाणु के नाभिकीय मॉडल को सिद्ध किया।[49]
तेल बूँद सम्बन्धी प्रयोग करने वाले मिलिकॉन
1913
नील्स बोर (Niels Bohr) ने परमाणु संरचना में क्वांटम यांत्रिकी के कांसेप्ट का सहारा लिया।[52]
1932
जेम्स चैडविक ने न्यूट्रॉन की खोज की।[53]
1938
आटो हान (Otto Hahn) ने यूरेनियम एवं थोरियम में नाभिकीय फिशन (nuclear fission) की खोज की। ]][54]
1953
वाट्सन (James D. Watson) और क्रिक (Francis Crick) ने डीएनए (DNA) का का मॉडल प्रस्तुत किया। जिससे आणविक जीवविज्ञान के द्वार खुल गये।[55]

सन्दर्भ[संपादित करें]

  1. O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (2003). "Roger Bacon". MacTutor. School of Mathematics and Statistics University of St Andrews, Scotland. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Bacon.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-12. 
  2. "Johann Baptista van Helmont". History of Gas Chemistry. Center for Microscale Gas Chemistry, Creighton University. 2005-09-25. http://mattson.creighton.edu/History_Gas_Chemistry/vanHelmont.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-23. 
  3. "Robert Boyle". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/forerunners/boyle.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-22. 
  4. Cooper, Alan (1999). "Joseph Black". History of Glasgow University Chemistry Department. University of Glasgow Department of Chemistry. http://www.chem.gla.ac.uk/dept/black.htm. अभिगमन तिथि: 2006-02-23. 
  5. Partington, J.R. (1989). A Short History of Chemistry. Dover Publications, Inc. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 0-486-65977-1. 
  6. "Joseph Priestley". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/forerunners/priestley.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-22. 
  7. "Carl Wilhelm Scheele". History of Gas Chemistry. Center for Microscale Gas Chemistry, Creighton University. 2005-09-11. http://mattson.creighton.edu/History_Gas_Chemistry/Scheele.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-23. 
  8. Weisstein, Eric W. (1996). "Lavoisier, Antoine (1743-1794)". Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography. Wolfram Research Products. http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Lavoisier.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-23. 
  9. "Jacques Alexandre César Charles". Centennial of Flight. U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. 2001. http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Dictionary/Charles/DI16.htm. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-23. 
  10. Burns, Ralph A. (1999). Fundamentals of Chemistry. Prentice Hall. प॰ 32. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 0023173513. 
  11. "Inventor Alessandro Volta Biography". The Great Idea Finder. The Great Idea Finder. 2005. http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventors/volta.htm. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-23. 
  12. "John Dalton". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/periodic/dalton.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-22. 
  13. "December 6 Births". Today in Science History. Today in Science History. 2007. http://www.todayinsci.com/12/12_06.htm. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-12. 
  14. "Jöns Jakob Berzelius". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/electrochem/berzelius.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-22. 
  15. "Michael Faraday". Famous Physicists and Astronomers. http://www.phy.hr/~dpaar/fizicari/xfaraday.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-12. 
  16. "Justus von Liebig and Friedrich Wöhler". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/chemsynthesis/liebig-wohler.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-22. 
  17. "William Prout". http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Biographies/MainBiographies/P/Prout/1.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-12. 
  18. "Hess, Germain Henri". http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Biographies/MainBiographies/H/Hess/1.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-12. 
  19. "Kolbe, Adolph Wilhelm Hermann". 100 Distinguished European Chemists. European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences. 2005. http://www.euchems.org/Distinguished/19thCentury/kolbeadolph.asp. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-12. 
  20. Weisstein, Eric W. (1996). "Kelvin, Lord William Thomson (1824-1907)". Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography. Wolfram Research Products. http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Kelvin.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-12. 
  21. "History of Chirality". Stheno Corporation. 2006. http://www.sthenocorp.com/history.htm. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-12. 
  22. "Lambert-Beer Law". Sigrist-Photometer AG. 2007-03-07. http://www.photometer.com/en/abc/abc_061.htm. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-12. 
  23. "Benjamin Silliman, Jr. (1816-1885)". Picture History. Picture History LLC. 2003. http://www.picturehistory.com/find/p/17879/mcms.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-24. 
  24. "William Henry Perkin". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/chemsynthesis/perkin.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-24. 
  25. "Archibald Scott Couper and August Kekulé von Stradonitz". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/chemsynthesis/couper-kekule.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-22. 
  26. O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E.F. (2002). "Gustav Robert Kirchhoff". MacTutor. School of Mathematics and Statistics University of St Andrews, Scotland. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Kirchhoff.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-24. 
  27. Eric R. Scerri, The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance, Oxford University Press, 2006.
  28. "Alexander Parkes (1813 - 1890)". People & Polymers. Plastics Historical Society. http://www.plastiquarian.com/parkes.htm. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-24. 
  29. "The Periodic Table". The Third Millennium Online. http://www.3rd1000.com/history/periodic.htm. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-24. 
  30. "Julius Lothar Meyer and Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/periodic/meyer-mendeleev.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-22. 
  31. C.M. Guldberg and P. Waage,"Studies Concerning Affinity" C. M. Forhandlinger: Videnskabs-Selskabet i Christiana (1864), 35
  32. P. Waage, "Experiments for Determining the Affinity Law", Forhandlinger i Videnskabs-Selskabet i Christiania, (1864) 92.
  33. C.M. Guldberg, "Concerning the Laws of Chemical Affinity", C. M. Forhandlinger i Videnskabs-Selskabet i Christiania (1864) 111
  34. "Johann Josef Loschmidt". John H. Lienhard. The Engines of Our Ingenuity. NPR. KUHF-FM Houston. 2003. No. 1858. Transcript. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
  35. "Adolf von Baeyer: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1905". Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1901-1921. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1966. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1905/baeyer-bio.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-28. 
  36. "Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/chemsynthesis/vanthoff.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-22. 
  37. O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E.F. (1997). "Josiah Willard Gibbs". MacTutor. School of Mathematics and Statistics University of St Andrews, Scotland. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Gibbs.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-24. 
  38. Weisstein, Eric W. (1996). "Boltzmann, Ludwig (1844-1906)". Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography. Wolfram Research Products. http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Boltzmann.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-24. 
  39. "Svante August Arrhenius". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/electrochem/arrhenius.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-22. 
  40. "Jacobus H. van 't Hoff: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1901". Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1901-1921. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1966. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1901/hoff-bio.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-28. 
  41. "Emil Fischer: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902". Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1901-1921. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1966. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1902/fischer-bio.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-28. 
  42. "Henry Louis Le Châtelier". World of Scientific Discovery. Thomson Gale. 2005. http://www.bookrags.com/biography/henry-louis-le-chatelier-wsd/. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-24. 
  43. "History of Chemistry". Intensive General Chemistry. Columbia University Department of Chemistry Undergraduate Program. http://www.columbia.edu/itc/chemistry/chem-c2507/navbar/chemhist.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-24. 
  44. "Alfred Werner: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1913". Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1901-1921. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1966. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1913/werner-bio.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-24. 
  45. "William Ramsay: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904". Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1901-1921. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1966. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1904/ramsay-bio.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-20. 
  46. "Joseph John Thomson". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/atomic/thomson.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-22. 
  47. "Alfred Werner: The Nobel Prize in Physics 1911". Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901-1921. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1967. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1911/wien-bio.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-24. 
  48. "Marie Sklodowska Curie". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/atomic/curie.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-22. 
  49. "Ernest Rutherford: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908". Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1901-1921. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1966. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1908/rutherford-bio.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-28. 
  50. "Fritz Haber". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/gases/haber.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-22. 
  51. "Leo Hendrik Baekeland". Chemical Achievers: The Human Face of Chemical Sciences. Chemical Heritage Foundation. 2005. http://www.chemheritage.org/classroom/chemach/plastics/baekeland.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-22. 
  52. "Niels Bohr: The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922". Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1922-1941. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1966. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1922/bohr-bio.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-03-25. 
  53. "James Chadwick: The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935". Nobel Lectures, Physics 1922-1941. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1965. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1935/chadwick-bio.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-28. 
  54. "Otto Hahn: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944". Nobel Lectures, Chemistry 1942-1962. Elsevier Publishing Company. 1964. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1944/hahn-bio.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-04-07. 
  55. "The Nobel Prize in Medicine 1962". Nobelprize.org. The Nobel Foundation. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1962/. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-28. 

इन्हें भी देखें[संपादित करें]

बाहरी कड़ियाँ[संपादित करें]