रासायनिक उद्योग

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
यहाँ जाएँ: भ्रमण, खोज

रासायनिक उद्योग (chemical industry) में वे सब उद्योग आते हैं जो औद्योगिक रसायनों का उत्पादन करते हैं। रासायनिक उद्योग संसार की वर्तमान अर्थव्यवस्था की रीढ़ है। ये उद्योग कच्चे माल (जैसे तेल, प्राकृतिक गैस, वायु, जल, धातुएं, खनिज आदि) को ७०,००० से भी अधिक विभिन्न उत्पादों में परिवर्तित करते हैं।

उत्पाद[संपादित करें]

सम्पूर्ण रासायनिक उद्योगों के लगभग ८०% बहुलक एवं प्लास्टिक (Polymers and plastics) उत्पाद होते हैं। Objectives On completion of this module, students will have a detailed understanding of the kinetic, thermodynamic and mechanistic aspects of diazotisation and azo coupling. Students will be aware of the applications of azo colorants. Students will gain an understanding of the fundamental physical processes of fluorescence and be aware of the essential structural features required for a molecule to fluoresce. Students will be familiar with the chemistry and applications of various classes of dyes and organic pigments including polycyclic quinonoids, quinacridones and phthalocyanines, delocalised cationic dyes and colorants containing cross-conjugated chromophores. Students will have an appreciation of the structure, synthesis and applicationa of speciality and high-technology dyes including oxidative hair dyes, themo and halochromic dyes and near-infrared dyes. Students will have an appreciation of the wide range of inorganic pigments, some of the more important production processes and typical applications taking into account the properties of the pigments.

Syllabus Diazonium ions: structure stability, reactivity and applications. Azo coupling: detailed study of N-Coupling and C-coupling including the mechanism, and factors influencing the coupling reaction. Disazo dye synthesis from H-acid, J-acid and g-acid. Azo dyes: disperse, basic (cationic), metal complex. Synthesis of intermediates and dyes; colour and constitution relationships, chemical and application properties. Fluorescent dyes: definition of fluorescence and structural requirements for fluorescence. Applications and chemical classes (stilbenes, coumarins and rhodamines). Speciality and high-technology dyes: oxidative hair dyes, themochromic and halochromic dyes and near-infrared dyes - representative examples, synthesis, mechanism of operation and applications. Organic pigments: synthesis, colour properties and applications of yellow and red azo pigments, diketopyrrolopyrroles; quinacridones and phthalocyanines.

Cross conjugated chromophores: Indigo, thioindigo and benzodifuranone colorants: structure, natural occurrence, synthesis, properties and applications. Polycyclic quinone dyes: Substituted polycyclic quinones and the chemistry of the vat dyeing process. Naphthacene quinones nomenclature and structure, synthesis including mechanistic aspects. Photochromic process (arylotropy between para and ana forms). Influence of substituents on the photochromic process. Delocalised cationic dyes: Cyanine and di- and tri- phenylmethane dyes - structure, synthesis, colour properties and applications.

Inorganic Pigments: Classification of inorganic pigments; the production, properties and applications of important inorganic pigments - especially white (principally titanium dioxide), black (principally carbon black) and coloured (eg. oxides, sulphides and silicates of metals). Overview of Speciality inorganic pigments.

इक्कीसवीं शताब्दी की प्रमुख रासायनिक कम्पनियाँ[संपादित करें]

रासायनिक उद्योग के अन्तर्गत बड़ी, मध्यम एवं लघु रासायनिक कम्पनिया आती हैं जो विश्व के विभिन्न भागों में स्थित हैं। नीचे उन कम्पनियों को दर्शाया गया है जिनका कारोबार सन् २००७ में १० बिलियन अमेरिकी डॉलर से अधिक हुआ।

कम्पनी, मुख्यालय 2007 में रसायनों की बिक्री (बिलियन डालर में)[1] स्थान (रैंक) देश
बीएएसएफ (BASF) SE, Ludwigshafen, जर्मनी $65.3 1 Flag of जर्मनी
डो केमिकल (Dow Chemical), Midland, Mich. $53.5 2 Flag of the United States
INEOS, Lyndhurst, UK $43.6 3 Flag of the United Kingdom
LyondellBasell, Houston, Texas $42.8 4 Flag of the United States
Formosa Plastics, Taiwan $31.9 5 Flag of ताइवान
DuPont, Wilmington, Delaware $28.5 6 Flag of the United States
Saudi Basic Industries Corporation, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia $26.4 7 Flag of सउदी अरब
Bayer, AG, Leverkusen, Germany $24.2 8 Flag of जर्मनी
Mitsubishi Chemical, Tokyo, Japan $22.2 9 Flag of जापान
Akzo Nobel/Imperial Chemical Industries(ICI), Amsterdam/London $19.9 10 Flag of नीदरलैंडFlag of the United Kingdom
Air Liquide, Paris, France $16.3 11 Flag of फ़्रान्स
Sumitomo Chemical, Tokyo, Japan $15.2 12 Flag of जापान
Evonik Industries, AG, Essen, Germany $15.0 13 Flag of जर्मनी
Mitsui Chemicals, Tokyo, Japan $14.3 14 Flag of जापान
Asahi Kasei, Tokyo, Japan $13.8 15 Flag of जापान
Toray Industries, Tokyo, Japan $13.1 16 Flag of जापान
Chevron Phillips, The Woodlands, Texas $12.5 17 Flag of the United States
DSM NV, Heerlen, Netherlands $12.1 18 Flag of नीदरलैंड
PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania $11.2 19 Flag of the United States
Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan $11.1 20 Flag of जापान

सन्दर्भ[संपादित करें]