साँचा:Cite journal

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परिचय का प्रतीक साँचा परिचय[देखें] [संपादन] [इतिहास] [पर्ज]
The template documentation below is transcluded from साँचा:Cite journal/doc [edit]

cite journal is for formatting references to articles in academic journals in a consistent and legible manner. It can be used at the end of the article, directly in the References section. It can also be placed within <ref> tags for in-line citations (see Wikipedia:Footnotes).

Usage[संपादित करें]

Copyable version:

{{cite journal |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |year= |month= |title= |journal= |volume= |issue= |pages= |id= |url= |accessdate= |quote= }}

Using lastname, firstname Using author (firstname lastname)
{{cite journal
 | quotes =
 | last =
 | first =
 | authorlink =
 | coauthors =
 | date =
 | year =
 | month =
 | title =
 | journal =
 | volume =
 | issue =
 | pages =
 | issn =
 | pmid =
 | doi =
 | id =
 | url =
 | language =
 | format =
 | accessdate =
 | laysummary =
 | laysource =
 | laydate =
 | quote =
 }}
{{cite journal
 | quotes =
 | author =
 | date =
 | year =
 | month =
 | title =
 | journal =
 | volume =
 | issue =
 | pages =
 | issn =
 | pmid =
 | doi =
 | id =
 | url =
 | language =
 | format =
 | accessdate =
 | laysummary =
 | laysource =
 | laydate =
 | quote =
 }}
  • quotes: Specify "quotes=no" to disable the quotes around the title. If "quotes" is not defined or set to the empty string, the template emits quotes around the title (default).
  • author: Author
    • last works with first to produce last, first;
    • authorlink works either with author or with last & first to link to the appropriate article (interwiki link)
    • coauthors: allows additional authors
  • date: [[January 1]], [[2006]]. Full date of publication.
    • year: 2006. Year of publication (ignored if the date field is used).
      • month: January. Month of publication (ignored if the date field is used, or if the year field is not used).
  • title: Title of article. This is the only required parameter. All other parameters are optional.
  • journal: Name of the journal.
  • volume: Volume number of the journal in which the article is found
  • issue: Issue number of the journal in which the article is found
  • pages: 45–47: first page, and optional last page.
  • issn: The publication's International Standard Serial Number such as 1111-2220
  • pmid: The document's PubMed Unique Identifier, such as 15128012
  • doi: A digital object identifier for the document, such as 10.1016/j.coi.2004.08.001
    • Doilabel: If the doi contains some characters that must be escaped, use "doilabel" for the unescaped version. See {{doi}}: "id" is equivalent to "doi" and "label" is "doilabel"
  • id: A unique identifier, used if none of the above are applicable. In this case, you need to specify the kind of identifier you are using, preferably with a template like {{US patent}}. (Use one of the more specialized parameters if possible; they are linked automatically. In other words, don't use id = PMID 15128012 anymore. Use pmid = 15128012.)
  • url: URL of a copy of the article, if available online.
    • format: Format, i.e. PDF. Don't specify for HTML (implied as default).
      Specify as 'fee required' if free access no longer available.
      Specify as 'Reprint' if a full original version but not hosted by the original publisher.
  • accessdate: Full date when URL was accessed, in ISO 8601 YYYY-MM-DD format, for example "accessdate = 2018-10-19". Must not be wikilinked

For producing a non-wikilinked date of retrieval:

  • accessmonthday and accessyear: Month and day when item was accessed, for example "accessmonthday = May 10", and year when item was accessed, for example "accessyear = 2005". Produces: Retrieved on May 10, 2006.
  • accessdaymonth and accessyear: Month and day when item was accessed, for example "accessmonthday = 10 May", and year when item was accessed, for example "accessyear = 2005". Produces: Retrieved on 10 May 2006.
  • laysummary: URL of a lay summary, which could be in a popular science magazine or newspaper.
    • laysource: Name of the source, e.g. The Guardian (UK newspaper) or New Scientist.
    • laydate: Date of publication or, where this is not available, date of retrieval of the lay summary.
  • quote: Relevant excerpt from the journal.

An alternate method of adding one or more references to common media (preferably in Layman's terms) from the related journal citation can be specified within a single <ref>...</ref> tag using other citation templates; for example:

Text in the article.<ref>{{cite journal | ... }}<br/>
'''Related news articles:'''
*{{cite news | ... }}
*{{cite web | ... }}</ref>

Examples[संपादित करें]

Formal citation
{{cite journal |last=Smith |first=Joseph III |title=Last Testimony of Sister Emma |journal=The Saints' Herald |volume=26 |year=1879 |month=October |pages=289 }}
Smith, Joseph III (October 1879). "Last Testimony of Sister Emma". The Saints' Herald 26: 289. 
Include URL link to free-article, pre-print or abstract
{{cite journal |last=Smith |first=Joseph III |title=Last Testimony of Sister Emma |journal=The Saints' Herald |volume=26 |issue=19 |date=[[October 1]], [[1879]] |pages=289 |url=http://www.lavazone2.com/dbroadhu/IL/sain1872.htm#100179 |accessdate=2006-03-23 }}
Smith, Joseph III (October 1, 1879). "Last Testimony of Sister Emma". The Saints' Herald 26 (19): 289. http://www.lavazone2.com/dbroadhu/IL/sain1872.htm#100179. अभिगमन तिथि: 2006-03-23. 
Specify the DOI to provide a permanent and direct link to the article from the publisher
{{cite journal |last=Giles |first=Jim |title=Preprint Server Seeks Way to Halt Plagiarists |url=http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v426/n6962/full/426007a.html |journal=Nature |date=6 November 2003 |pages=7 |doi=10.1038/426007a }}
Giles, Jim (6 November 2003). "Preprint Server Seeks Way to Halt Plagiarists". Nature: 7. doi:10.1038/426007a. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v426/n6962/full/426007a.html. 
Other examples
  • {{cite journal |last=Fowler |first=Martin |authorlink=Martin Fowler |coauthors=Kent Beck |title=Last Testimony of Sister Emma |journal=The Saints' Herald |volume=26 |year=1879 |month=October |pages=289 }}
Fowler, Martin; Kent Beck (October 1879). "Last Testimony of Sister Emma". The Saints' Herald 26: 289. 
  • {{cite journal |first=W. Hugh |last=Woodin |title=The Continuum Hypothesis, Part I |journal=Notices of the AMS |volume=48 |issue=6 |year=2001 |pages=567–576 |url=http://www.ams.org/notices/200106/fea-woodin.pdf |language=Greek |format=PDF }}
Woodin, W. Hugh (2001). "The Continuum Hypothesis, Part I" (Greek में) (PDF). Notices of the AMS 48 (6): 567–576. http://www.ams.org/notices/200106/fea-woodin.pdf. 
  • {{cite journal |title=Disney Releases 10 Titles on Laser Videodisc |year=1982 |journal=VIDEODISC/VIDEOTEX |volume=2 |issue=3 |pages=175 }}
"Disney Releases 10 Titles on Laser Videodisc". VIDEODISC/VIDEOTEX 2 (3): 175. 1982. 

TemplateData[संपादित करें]

This template formats a citation to an article in a magazine or journal, using the provided source information (e.g. journal name, author, title, issue, URL) and various formatting options.

साँचा प्राचल

This template prefers inline formatting of parameters.

प्राचलवर्णनप्रकारस्थिति
लेखक का अंतिम नामlastauthorauthor1authorslast1

The surname of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

रेखासुझावित
लेखक का प्रथम नामfirstfirst1

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

रेखासुझावित
लेखक कड़ीauthor-linkauthorlink

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Last name 2last2author2

The surname of the second author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink2'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
First name 2first2

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second author; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Author link 2author-link2author2-linkauthorlink2

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second author.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Last name 3last3author3

The surname of the third author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink3'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
First name 3first3

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third author; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Author link 3author-link3author3-linkauthorlink3

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third author.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Last name 4last4author4

The surname of the forth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink4'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
First name 4first4

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the forth author; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Author link 4author-link4author4-linkauthorlink4

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the forth author.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Last name 5last5author5

The surname of the fifth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink5'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
First name 5first5

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth author; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Author link 5author-link5author5-linkauthorlink5

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Last name 6last6author6

The surname of the sixth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink6'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
First name 6first6

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth author; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Author link 6author-link6author6-linkauthorlink6

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Last name 7last7author7

The surname of the seventh author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink7'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
First name 7first7

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh author; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Author link 7author-link7author7-linkauthorlink7

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh author.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Last name 8last8author8

The surname of the eighth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink8'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
First name 8first8

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth author; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Author link 8author-link8author8-linkauthorlink8

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth author.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Last name 9last9author9

The surname of the ninth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink9'. If nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and 'et al.' will show in place of the last author.

रेखावैकल्पिक
First name 9first9

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth author; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Author link 9author-link9author9-linkauthorlink9

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth author.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Display authorsdisplayauthorsdisplay-authors

number of authors to display before 'et al.' is used;

संख्यावैकल्पिक
Author maskauthor-mask

Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text; set to a numeric value 'n' to set the dash 'n' em spaces wide; set to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, 'with' instead

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Last author ampersandlast-author-amplastauthoramp

When set to any value, changes the separator between the last two names of the author list to 'space ampersand space'

बूलियनवैकल्पिक
Author separatorauthor-separator

Changes the separator between authors; defaults to a semicolon and space; a space must be encoded as &#32;

डिफ़ॉल्ट
;
रेखावैकल्पिक
Author name separatorauthor-name-separator

Changes the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space; a space must be encoded as &#32;

डिफ़ॉल्ट
,
रेखावैकल्पिक
Vancouver style authorsvauthors

comma-separated list of author names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional author names in doubled parentheses

अज्ञातवैकल्पिक
स्रोत की तिथिdate

Date of the source; do not wikilink. As listed in the publication

उदाहरण
ग्रीष्म 2017
दिनांकसुझावित
Year of publicationyear

Year of the source being referenced; recommended only when date parameter format is YYYY-MM-DD and a CITEREF disambiguator is needed

संख्यावैकल्पिक
Original yearorig-yearorigyear

Original year of publication; provide specifics

संख्यावैकल्पिक
Editor last nameeditor-lasteditor1-last

The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-last', 'editor'

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor first nameeditor-firsteditor1-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-first'

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor linkeditor-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors; alias of 'editor1-link'

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Editor last name 2editor2-lasteditor2

The surname of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor first name 2editor2-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second editor; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor link 2editor2-linkeditor2linkeditorlink2

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second editor.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Editor last name 3editor3-lasteditor3

The surname of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor first name 3editor3-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third editor; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor link 3editor3-linkeditor3linkeditorlink3

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third editor.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Editor last name 4editor4-lasteditor4

The surname of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor first name 4editor4-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth editor; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor link 4editor4-linkeditor4linkeditorlink4

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth editor.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Editor last name 5editor5-lasteditor5

The surname of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor first name 5editor5-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth editor; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor link 5editor5-linkeditor5linkeditorlink5

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth editor.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Editor last name 6editor6-lasteditor6

The surname of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor first name 6editor6-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth editor; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor link 6editor6-linkeditor6linkeditorlink6

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth editor.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Editor last name 7editor7-lasteditor7

The surname of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor first name 7editor7-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh editor; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor link 7editor7-linkeditor7linkeditorlink7

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh editor.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Editor last name 8editor8-lasteditor8

The surname of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor first name 8editor8-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth editor; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor link 8editor8-linkeditor8linkeditorlink8

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth editor.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Editor last name 9editor9-lasteditor9

The surname of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor first name 9editor9-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth editor; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor link 9editor9-linkeditor9linkeditorlink9

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth editor.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
अन्यothers

Used to record other contributions to the work, such as 'Illustrated by John Smith' or 'Translated by John Smith'

सामग्रीवैकल्पिक
शीर्षक (लेख का नाम)title

The title of the article; can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in quotes.

सामग्रीआवश्यक
Script titlescript-title

For titles in languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc). Prefix with two-character ISO639-1 language code followed by a colon. For Japanese use: |script-title=ja:...

रेखावैकल्पिक
अनुवाद के बाद शीर्षकtrans-titletrans_title

An English language title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

सामग्रीवैकल्पिक
यूआरएल (URL)urlURL

The URL of the online location where the text of the publication can be found. Requires schemes of the type "http://..." or maybe even the &nbsp;protocol relative scheme "//..."

उदाहरण
https://www.nytimes.com/...
रेखासुझावित
Dead URLdead-urldeadurl

If set to 'no', the title display is adjusted; useful for when the URL is archived preemptively but still live

रेखावैकल्पिक
Formatformat

Format of the work referred to by 'url' ('url' is required when using 'format'); examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML

सामग्रीवैकल्पिक
Departmentdepartment

Department within the periodical

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
जर्नलjournal

Name of the source journal; may be wikilinked; displays in italics; alias of 'work'

सामग्रीआवश्यक
Chapterchapter

The chapter heading of the source

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Typetype

Additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case

सामग्रीवैकल्पिक
सिरीजseriesversion

Series identifier when the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal; alias of 'version'

सामग्रीवैकल्पिक
भाषाlanguage

The language in which the source is written, if not English; use the full language name; do not use icons or templates

सामग्रीसुझावित
संस्करणedition

When the publication has more than one edition; for example: '2nd', 'Revised' etc.; suffixed with ' ed.'

रेखावैकल्पिक
प्रकाशन की लोकेशनlocation

Geographical place of publication; usually not wikilinked; omit when the publication name includes place; alias of 'place'

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
प्रकाशकpublisher

Name of the publisher; displays after title

सामग्रीवैकल्पिक
प्रकाशन के जगहpublication-place

Publication place shows after title; if 'place' or 'location' are also given, they are displayed before the title prefixed with 'written at'

सामग्रीवैकल्पिक
प्रकाशन तिथिpublication-date

Date of publication when different from the date the work was written; do not wikilink

दिनांकवैकल्पिक
खंड (Volume)volume

For one publication published in several volumes

रेखासुझावित
अंक (Issue)issue

Issue identifier when the source is part of a series that is published periodically

रेखावैकल्पिक
पन्नाpage

Page in the source that supports the content; displays after 'p.'

रेखावैकल्पिक
पन्ना रेंजpages

Pages in the source that support the content (not an indication of the number of pages in the source; displays after 'pp.'

रेखासुझावित
Atat

May be used instead of 'page' or 'pages' where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient

रेखावैकल्पिक
No ppnopp

Set to 'y' to suppress the 'p.' or 'pp.' display with 'page' or 'pages' when inappropriate (such as 'Front cover')

रेखावैकल्पिक
arXiv identifierarxiv

An identifier for arXive electronic preprints of scientific papers

रेखावैकल्पिक
ASINasin

Amazon Standard Identification Number; 10 characters

रेखावैकल्पिक
ASIN TLDasin-tld

ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US

रेखावैकल्पिक
Bibcodebibcode

Bibliographic Reference Code (REFCODE); 19 characters

रेखावैकल्पिक
biorXivbiorxiv

biorXiv identifier; 6 digits

रेखावैकल्पिक
CiteSeerXciteseerx

CiteSeerX identifier; found after the 'doi=' query parameter

रेखावैकल्पिक
DOIdoi

Digital Object Identifier; begins with '10.'

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
DOI broken datedoi-broken-date

The date that the DOI was determined to be broken

दिनांकवैकल्पिक
ISBNisbn

International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possible

रेखावैकल्पिक
ISSNissn

International Standard Serial Number (print); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

रेखावैकल्पिक
eISSNeissn

International Standard Serial Number (online); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

रेखावैकल्पिक
jfm codejfm

Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik classification code

रेखावैकल्पिक
JSTORjstor

JSTOR identifier

रेखावैकल्पिक
LCCNlccn

Library of Congress Control Number

रेखावैकल्पिक
MRmr

Mathematical Reviews identifier

रेखावैकल्पिक
OCLCoclc

Online Computer Library Center number

संख्यावैकल्पिक
OLol

Open Library identifier

रेखावैकल्पिक
OSTIosti

Office of Scientific and Technical Information identifier

रेखावैकल्पिक
PMCpmc

PubMed Center article number

संख्यावैकल्पिक
PMIDpmid

PubMed Unique Identifier

रेखावैकल्पिक
RFCrfc

Request for Comments number

संख्यावैकल्पिक
SSRNssrn

Social Science Research Network

रेखावैकल्पिक
Zblzbl

Zentralblatt MATH journal identifier

रेखावैकल्पिक
idid

A unique identifier used where none of the specialized ones are applicable

रेखावैकल्पिक
URL access levelurl-access

Classification of the access restrictions on the URL ('registration', 'subscription' or 'limited')

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Archive URLarchive-urlarchiveurl

The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archivedate'

रेखावैकल्पिक
Archive datearchive-datearchivedate

Date when the original URL was archived; do not wikilink

दिनांकवैकल्पिक
अभिगमन तिथि (एक्सेस डेट)access-dateaccessdate

The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink

दिनांकवैकल्पिक
Registrationregistration

If the reference requires registration, type 'yes' to notify the reader.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Subscriptionsubscription

If the reference requires a subscription, type 'yes' to notify the reader.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Lay URLlay-urllayurl

URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; alias of 'laysummary'

रेखावैकल्पिक
Lay sourcelay-sourcelaysource

Name of the source of the laysummary; displays in italics, preceded by an en dash

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Lay datelay-datelaydate

Date of the summary; displays in parentheses

दिनांकवैकल्पिक
उद्धरणquote

Relevant text quoted from the source; displays last, enclosed in quotes; needs to include terminating punctuation

सामग्रीवैकल्पिक
Postscriptpostscript

The closing punctuation for the citation; ignored if 'quote' is defined; to suppress use reserved keyword 'none'

डिफ़ॉल्ट
.
रेखावैकल्पिक
Refref

An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv and sfn templates

रेखावैकल्पिक
Separatorseparator

The punctuation used to separate lists of authors, editors, etc.; a space must be encoded as &#32; to suppress use reserved keyword 'none'

डिफ़ॉल्ट
.
रेखावैकल्पिक
सामग्री प्रदाता (उदा.: डेटाबेस)via

जो लेख उपलब्ध करा रहा हो (प्रकाशक नहीं), आमतौर पर कई जर्नल एकत्रित रूप से उपलब्ध कराने वाले जर्नल भंडार यह कार्य करते हैं

उदाहरण
JSTOR, Project MUSE, Elsevier Science Direct
स्ट्रिंगसुझावित
Bibcode access levelbibcode-access

If the full text is available from ADS via this Bibcode, type 'free'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
DOI access leveldoi-access

If the full text is free to read via the DOI, type 'free'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
HDL access levelhdl-access

If the full text is free to read via the HDL, type 'free'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Jstor access leveljstor-access

If the full text is free to read on Jstor, type 'free'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
OpenLibrary access levelol-access

If the full text is free to read on OpenLibrary, type 'free'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
HDL access levelosti-access

If the full text is free to read on OSTI, type 'free'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक

See also[संपादित करें]