साँचा:Citation

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परिचय का प्रतीक साँचा परिचय[देखें] [संपादन] [इतिहास] [पर्ज]

The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used. As with other citation templates, this template can be used either in a footnote (between <ref>...</ref> tags) or in a section that lists sources. This template uses the same Lua code as citation style 1 (CS1) templates with parameters to change the displayed format to citation style 2 (CS2).

If the correct parameters are used, this template produces output identical to that of the Cite templates, such as {{Cite book}} and {{Cite web}}, with one important exception: By default, this Citation template uses commas in places where the Cite templates use periods (full stops) by default; either type of template can use periods (full stops) or commas by using an optional parameter. Also, this template by default generates anchors for Harvard references whereas the Cite templates by default do not (although they can be made to do so).

Regardless of which citation templates are used or even if none are used at all, all citations should have the same format throughout an article in the saved, rendered text.

Note: All parameter names must be lowercase.

Simple citations[संपादित करें]

This section covers the most commonly used parameters. You can copy the horizontal form or vertical form below and then add in extra parameters from the full list. Spacing and ordering of the parameters within the template is irrelevant and does not affect the final, rendered text.

{{Citation |last= |first= |year= |title= |publisher= |publication-place= |page= |url= |accessdate= }}

{{Citation
| last       =
| first      =
| year       =
| title      =
| publisher  =
| publication-place =
| page       =
| url        =
| accessdate =
}}
  • last: The author's surname or last name. Don't use with the author parameter.
  • first: The author's first or given name(s).
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation, unless |date= specifies both month and year.
  • title: Title of the work. Mandatory for web references.
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press. Not normally included where the publication is a periodical which has its own Wikipedia article (e.g. Newsweek, Billboard).
    • publication-place (or place or location): The city of publication. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. Omit when the publication is a periodical whose name specifies the location (e.g. The New York Times, The Times of India)
  • page: For use when one page is cited. Adds "p." before the page number. Do not use with pages.
  • url: A url of an online location where the item can be found. If the url includes double quotes, these must be encoded as "%22".
    • accessdate: Date[n 1] when the url was accessed.

Example[संपादित करें]

{{Citation
| last      = Turner
| first     = Orsamus
| title     = History of the pioneer settlement of
Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve
| publisher = William Alling
| place     = Rochester, New York
| year      = 1851
| ol        = 7120924W
}}
Turner, Orsamus (1851), History of the pioneer settlement of Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve, Rochester, New York: William Alling, OL 7120924W

Full citation parameters[संपादित करें]

These can be used for all types of publication. All are optional and indentation is used simply to group related items — these may be mutually exclusive where indicated. Some hyphenated names can also be placed without hyphens.

{{Citation
| author  =
| last    =
| first   =
| author2 =
| last2   =
| first2  =
| author-link  =
| author2-link =
| author-separator =
| author-name-separator =
| author-mask =
| display-authors =
| editor        =
| editor-last   =
| editor-first  =
| editor2       =
| editor2-last  =
| editor2-first =
| editor-link   =
| editor2-link  =
| translator-last =
| translator-first =
| translator-link = 
| translator2-last =
| translator2-first =
| translator2-link =
| others   =
| publication-date =
| date     =
| year     =
| origyear =
| title    =
| chapter  =
| chapter-url  =
| chapter-format  =
| contribution =
| contribution-url =
| type    =
| journal =
| periodical =
| newspaper  =
| magazine   =
| encyclopedia =
| work =
| edition =
| series  =
| volume  =
| issue   =
| publisher =
| publication-place =
| place    =
| language =
| page  =
| pages =
| nopp  =
| at   =
| id   =
| isbn =
| issn =
| oclc =
| pmid =
| pmc  =
| bibcode =
| doi =
| doi-inactive-date=
| zbl =
| url =
| accessdate  =
| format      =
| archiveurl  =
| archivedate =
| dead-url    =
| quote      =
| layurl =
| laysource  =
| laydate    =
| separator  =
| postscript =
| ref =
}}

Parameters[संपादित करें]

Syntax[संपादित करें]

Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if multiple aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.

साँचा:Citation Style documentation/sep comma

COinS[संपादित करें]

This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing reference management software to retrieve bibliographic metadata. See Wikipedia:COinS. As a general rule, only one data item per parameter. Do not include explanatory or alternate text:

  • Use |date=27 September 2007 not |date=27 September 2007 (print version 25 September)

Use of templates within the citation template is discouraged because many of these templates will add extraneous HTML or CSS that will be included raw in the metadata. Also, HTML entities, for example &nbsp;, &ndash;, etc, should not be used in parameters that contribute to the metadata. Do not include Wiki markup '' (italic font) or ''' (bold font) because these markup characters will contaminate the metadata.

COinS metadata is created for these parameters[संपादित करें]

  • |periodical=, |journal=, |newspaper=, |magazine=, |work=, |website=, |encyclopedia=, |encyclopaedia=, |dictionary=
  • |chapter=, |contribution=, |entry=, |article=, |section=
  • |title=
  • |publication-place=, |publicationplace=, |place=, |location=
  • |date=, |year=, |publication-date=, |publicationdate=
  • |series=, |version=
  • |volume=
  • |issue=, |number=
  • |page=, |pages=, |at=
  • |edition=
  • |publisher=, |distributor=, |institution=
  • |url=
  • |chapter-url=, |chapterurl=, |contribution-url=, |contributionurl=, |section-url=, |sectionurl=
  • |author#=, |author-last#=, |author#-last=, |last#=, |surname#=
  • |author-first#=, |author#-first=, |first#=, |given#=
  • any of the named identifiers (|isbn=, |issn=, |doi=, |pmc=, etc)

Deprecated[संपादित करें]

None of the cs1|2 parameters is deprecated.

Description[संपादित करें]

Authors[संपादित करें]

  • last: Surname of a single author. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. For corporate authors or authors for whom only one name is listed by the source, use last or one of its aliases (e.g. |author=Bono). Aliases: surname, author, last1, surname1, author1.
    • author: this parameter is used to hold the complete name of a single author (first and last) or to hold the name of a corporate author. This parameter should never hold the names of more than one author.
    • first: Given or first names of author; for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. Aliases: given, first1, given1. Requires last; first name will not display if last is empty.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through lastn, firstn, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of authors (each firstn requires a corresponding lastn). See the display parameters to change how many authors are displayed. Aliases: surname1, given1 through surnamen, givenn, or author1 through authorn. For an individual author plus an institutional author, you can use |first1=...|last1=...|author2=....
    • author-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: author-link1, authorlink, authorlink1, author1-link, author1link.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use author-link1 through author-linkn. Aliases: authorlink1 through authorlinkn, or author1-link through authorn-link, or author1link through authornlink.
    • name-list-format: displays authors and editors in Vancouver style when set to vanc and when the list uses last/first parameters for the name list(s).
  • vauthors: comma-separated list of author names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional author names in doubled parentheses:
    |vauthors=Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corp.))
    • author-link and author-mask may be used for the individual names in |vauthors= as described above
  • authors: Free-form list of author names; use of this parameter is discouraged because it does not contribute to a citation's metadata; not an alias of last.
  • contributor-last: Surname of contributor. Do not wikilink—use contributor-link instead. For book cites only, requires contribution; used primarily to cite afterword, foreword, introduction, or preface to author's work. Aliases: contributor-surname, contributor1, contributor1-last, contributor-last1.
    • contributor-first: Given or first names of contributor. Do not wikilink—use contributor-link instead. Aliases: contributor-given, contributor1-first, contributor-first1.
    • OR: for multiple contributors, use contributor-last1, contributor-first1 through contributor-lastn, contributor-firstn where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of contributors (each contributor-firstn requires a corresponding contributor-lastn). Aliases: contributor1-last, contributor1-first through contributorn-last, contributorn-first, or contributor1 through contributorn.
    • contributor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the contributor—not the contributor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: contributor-link1, contributor1-link.
    • OR: for multiple contributors, use contributor-link1 through contributor-linkn. Aliases: contributor1-link through contributorn-link.
  • translator-last: Surname of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-surname, translator1, translator1-last, translator-last1.
    • translator-first: Given or first names of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-given, translator1-first, translator-first1.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-last1, translator-first1 through translator-lastn, translator-firstn, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of translators (each translator-firstn requires a corresponding translator-lastn). Aliases: translator1-last, translator1-first through translatorn-last, translatorn-first, or translator1 through translatorn.
    • translator-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the translator—not the translator's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: translator-link1, translator1-link.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-link1 through translator-linkn. Aliases: translator1-link through translatorn-link.
  • collaboration: Name of a group of authors or collaborators; requires author, last, or vauthors listing one or more primary authors; follows author name-list; appends "et al." to author name-list.
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, including illustrators. For the parameter value, write Illustrated by John Smith.
  • Note: When using Shortened footnotes or Parenthetical referencing styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field, or else the anchor will not match the inline link.

Editors[संपादित करें]

  • editor-last: Surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: editor-last1, editor1-last, editor-surname, editor-surname1, editor1-surname, editor, editor1.
    • editor: this parameter is used to hold the complete name of a single editor (first and last), or the name of an editorial committee. This parameter should never hold the names of more than one editor.
    • editor-first: Given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Aliases: editor-first1, editor1-first, editor-given, editor-given1, editor1-given.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-last1, editor-first1 through editor-lastn, editor-firstn (Aliases: editorn-last, editor-surnamen or editorn-surname; editorn-first, editor-givenn or editorn-given; editorn). For an individual editor plus an institutional editor, you can use |editor-first1=...|editor-last1=... |editor2=....
  • editor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: editor-link1.
  • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-link1 through editor-linkn (alias editorn-link).
  • name-list-format: displays authors and editors in Vancouver style when set to vanc and when the list uses last/first parameters for the name list(s)
  • veditors: comma separated list of editor names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional names in doubled parentheses:
    |veditors=Smythe JB ((Megabux Corp.))
  • editor-linkn and editor-maskn may be used for the individual names in |veditors=, as described above
  • editors: Free-form list of editor names; use of this parameter is discouraged; not an alias of editor-last
Display:
Use display-editors to control the length of the displayed editor name list and to specify when "et al." is included.
If authors: Authors are first, followed by the included work, then "In" and the editors, then the main work.
If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."

Title[संपादित करें]

(See also Help:Citation Style 1 §Titles and chapters.)

  • title: Title of source. Can be wikilinked to an existing Wikipedia article or url may be used to add an external link, but not both. Displays in italics.If script-title is defined, title holds romanized transliteration of title in script-title.
    • script-title: Original title for languages that do not use a Latin-based alphabet (Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, etc); not italicized, follows italicized transliteration defined in title. May be prefixed with an ISO 639-1 two-character code to help browsers properly display the script:
      ... |title=Tōkyō tawā |script-title=ja:東京タワー |trans-title=Tokyo Tower ...
    • trans-title: English translation of the title if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after title; if url is defined, then trans-title is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
Titles containing certain characters will not display and link correctly unless those characters are encoded.
newline [ ] |
space &#91; &#93; {{!}} (preferred)
{{bracket|text}} &#124; or {{pipe}}see also साँचा:Section link
  • title-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the source named in title – do not use a web address; do not wikilink. Alias: titlelink.
  • chapter: The chapter heading of the source. May be wikilinked or may use chapter-url, but not both. Displays in quotes.
    • trans_chapter: English translation of the chapter heading, if the source cited is in a foreign language. Displays in square brackets after the chapter field; if chapter-url is defined, then trans_chapter is included in the link. Use of the language parameter is recommended.
  • type: Provides additional information about the media type of the source. May alternatively be used to identify the type of manuscript linked to in the title, if this is not the final version of a manuscript (e.g. if a preprint of a manuscript is freely available, but the version of record is behind a paywall). Format in sentence case. Displays in parentheses following the title. Examples: Thesis, Booklet, Accepted manuscript, CD liner, Press release. Alias: medium.
  • language: The language in which the source is written. Displays in parentheses with "in" before the language name or names. Use the full language name or ISO 639-1 code. When the source uses more than one language, list them individually, separated by commas, e.g. |language=French, German. The use of language names or language codes recognized by Wikimedia adds the page to the appropriate subcategory of श्रेणी:CS1 foreign language sources; do not use templates or wikilinks. Note: When the language is "English" (or "en"), no language is displayed in the citation. Note: When two or more languages are listed there is no need to include "and" before the last language. "and" is inserted automatically by the template.

Date[संपादित करें]

  • date: Date of source being referenced. Can be full date (day, month, and year) or partial date (month and year, season and year, or year). Use same format as other publication dates in the citations.[date 1] Required when year is used to disambiguate {{sfn}} links to multiple-work citations by the same author in the same year.[more] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and is enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher. For acceptable date formats, see साँचा:Section link.
For approximate year, precede with "c. ", like this: |date=c. 1900.

For no date, or "undated", add as |date=n.d.
  • year: Year of source being referenced. Use of |date= is recommended unless all of the following conditions are met:
    1. The template uses |ref=harv, or the template is {{citation}}, or |mode=cs2
    2. The |date= format is YYYY-MM-DD.
    3. The citation requires a CITEREF disambiguator.
  • orig-year: Original publication year; displays after the date or year. For clarity, please supply specifics. For example: |orig-year=First published 1859 or |orig-year=Composed 1904. Alias: origyear
  • df: date format; sets rendered dates to the specified format; does not support date ranges or seasonal dates. Accepts one value which may be one of these:
    dmy – set publication dates to day month year format; access- and archive-dates are not modified;
    mdy – as above for month day, year format
    ymd – as above for year initial numeric format YYYY-MM-DD
    dmy-all – set publication, access-, and archive-dates to day month year format;
    mdy-all – as above for month day, year format
    ymd-all – as above for year initial numeric format YYYY-MM-DD
  1. Publication dates in references within an article should all have the same format. This may be a different format from that used for archive and access dates. See MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Periodical[संपादित करें]

  • work: Name of the source periodical; may be wikilinked if relevant. Displays in italics. Aliases: journal, newspaper, magazine, periodical, website.
    • issue: When the publication is one of a series that is published periodically. Alias: number. When the issue has a special title of its own, this may be given, in italics, along with the issue number, e.g. |issue=2, ''Modern Canadian Literature''. Displayed in parentheses following volume.
When set, work changes the formatting of other parameters:
title is not italicized and is enclosed in quotes.
chapter does not display in this citation template (and will produce an error message).

Publisher[संपादित करें]

  • publisher: Name of publisher; may be wikilinked if relevant. The publisher is the साँचा:Em that publishes the work being cited. Do साँचा:Em use the publisher parameter for the name of a work (e.g. a website, book, encyclopedia, newspaper, magazine, journal, etc.). Corporate designations such as "Ltd", "Inc.", or "GmbH" are not usually included. Not normally used for periodicals. Omit where the publisher's name is substantially the same as the name of the work (for example, The New York Times Co. publishes The New York Times newspaper, so there is no reason to name the publisher). Displays after title.
  • place: Geographical place of publication; generally not wikilinked; omit when the name of the work includes the location; examples: The Boston Globe, The Times of India. Displays after the title. Alias: location
  • publication-place: If any one of publication-place, place, or location is defined, the location will show after the title; if publication-place and place or location are defined, then place or location is shown before the title prefixed with "written at" and publication-place is shown after the title.
  • publication-date: Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.
  • via: Name of the content deliverer (if different from publisher). via is not a replacement for publisher, but provides additional detail. It may be used when the content deliverer presents the source in a format other than the original (e.g. NewsBank), when the URL provided does not make clear the identity of the deliverer, where no URL or DOI is available (EBSCO), or if the deliverer requests attribution. See also registration and subscription parameters.

Edition, series, volume[संपादित करें]

  • edition: When the publication has more than one edition; for example: "2nd", "Revised", and so forth. Appends the string " ed." after the field, so |edition=2nd produces "2nd ed." Does not display if a periodical field is defined.
  • series or version: When the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal where the issue numbering has restarted.
  • volume: For one publication published in several volumes. Displays after the title and series fields; volume numbers should be entered just as a numeral (e.g. 37) of 4 characters or less, and will appear in bold. Any value of 5 or more characters will be presumed to follow some other convention and will not appear in bold.

In-source locations[संपादित करें]

  • page: Page in the source that supports the content. Displays preceded with p. unless |nopp=y.
  • OR: pages: Pages in the source that supports the content; separate page ranges with an en dash (–); separate non-sequential pages with a comma (,); do not use to indicate the total number of pages in the source. Displays preceded with pp. unless |nopp=y.
    • nopp: Set to y to suppress the p. or pp. notations where this is inappropriate; for example, where |page=Front cover.
  • OR: at: For sources where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient. Overridden by |page= or |pages=.
Examples: page (p.) or pages (pp.); section (sec.), column (col.), paragraph (para.); track; hours, minutes and seconds; act, scene, canto, book, part, folio, stanza, back cover, liner notes, indicia, colophon, dust jacket, verse.

URL[संपादित करें]

  • url: URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found. Cannot be used if title is wikilinked. If applicable, the link may point to the specific page(s) referenced. Remove tracking parameters from URLs, e.g. #ixzz2rBr3aO94 or ?utm_source=google&utm_medium=...&utm_term=...&utm_campaign=.... For linking to pages in PDF files or in Google Books, see WP:PAGELINKS. Do not link to any commercial booksellers, such as Amazon.com; use |ISBN= or |OCLC= to provide neutral search links for books. Invalid URLs, including those containing spaces, will result in an error message.
    • access-date: Full date when the content pointed to by url was last verified to support the text in the article; do not wikilink; requires url; use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations.[date 1] Not required for linked documents that do not change. For example, access-date is required for online sources, such as personal websites, that do not have a publication date; see WP:CITEWEB. Access dates are not required for links to published research papers, published books, or news articles with publication dates. Note that access-date is the date that the URL was found to be working and to support the text being cited. Can be hidden or styled by registered editors. Alias: accessdate.
    • archive-url: The URL of an archived snapshot of a web page. Typically used to refer to services such as Internet Archive (see Wikipedia:Using the Wayback Machine), WebCite (see Wikipedia:Using WebCite) and archive.is (see Wikipedia:Using archive.is); requires archive-date and url. By default (overridden by |dead-url=no) the archived link is displayed first, with the original link at the end. Alias: archiveurl.
      • archive-date: Archive-service snapshot-date; preceded in display by default text "archived from the original on". Use the same format as other access and archive dates in the citations. This does not necessarily have to be the same format that was used for citing publication dates.[date 1] Do not wikilink; templated dates are discouraged. Alias: archivedate.
      • dead-url: the default value of this optional parameter, if omitted, is |dead-url=yes; equivalent values are y or true. Ignored if archive-url is not set. When the URL is still live, but pre-emptively archived, then set |dead-url=no; this changes the display order, with the title retaining the original link and the archive linked at the end. When the original URL has been usurped for the purposes of spam, advertising, or is otherwise unsuitable, setting |dead-url=unfit or |dead-url=usurped suppresses display of the original URL (but |url= and |archive-url= are still required). Alias: deadurl.
    • template-doc-demo: The archive parameters will be error-checked to ensure that all the required parameters are included, or else {{citation error}} is invoked. With errors, main, help and template pages are placed into one of the subcategories of Category:Articles with incorrect citation syntax. Set |template-doc-demo=true to disable categorization; mainly used for documentation where the error is demonstrated. Alias: no-cat.
  • format: Format of the work referred to by url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after title. (For media format, use type.) HTML is implied and should not be specified. Automatically added when a PDF icon is displayed. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add format information for the visually impaired.
URLs must begin with a supported URI scheme: http:// and https:// will be supported by all browsers; irc://, ircs://, ftp://, news:, mailto: and gopher:// will require a plugin or an external application and should normally be avoided. IPv6 host-names are currently not supported.
If URLs in citation template parameters contain certain characters they will display and link incorrectly. Those characters need to be percent-encoded. For example, a space must be replaced by %20. To encode the URL, replace these characters:
sp " ' < > [ ] | }
%20 %22 %27 %3c %3e %5b %5d %7c %7d
Single apostrophes do not need to be encoded; but unencoded multiples will be parsed as italic or bold markup. Single curly closing braces also do not need to be encoded; but an unencoded pair will be parsed as the double closing braces for the template transclusion.
  1. Access-date and archive-date in references should all have the same format – either the format used for publication dates, or YYYY-MM-DD. See MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Chapter URL[संपादित करें]

  • chapter-url: URL of an individual chapter of online source. Should be at the same site as url, if any. If chapter-url is used, url should only be used if the beginning of the work and the cited chapter are on separate webpages at the site. chapter may be wikilinked or chapter-url used, but not both. Aliases: chapterurl, contribution-url, section-url.
  • chapter-format: Format of the work referred to by chapter-url; for example: PDF, DOC, or XLS; displayed in parentheses after chapter. HTML is implied and should not be specified. Does not change the external link icon. Note: External link icons do not include alt text; thus, they do not add format information for the visually impaired.

Anchor[संपादित करें]

साँचा:Citation Style documentation/ref2

Identifiers[संपादित करें]

  • id: A unique identifier, used where none of the specialized identifiers are applicable; wikilink or use a template as applicable.

These identifiers create links and are designed to accept a single value. Using multiple values or other text will break the link and/or invalidate the identifier. In general, the parameters should include only the variable part of the identifier, e.g. rfc=822 or pmc=345678.

Quote[संपादित करें]

  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes.

Laysummary[संपादित करें]

  • layurl: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary". Aliases: laysummary.
    • laysource: Name of the source of the laysummary. Displays in italics and preceded by an endash.
    • laydate: Date of the summary. Displays in parentheses.

Display options[संपादित करें]

  • mode: Sets element separator, default terminal punctuation, and certain capitalization according to the value provided. For |mode=cs1, element separator and terminal punctuation is a period (.); where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are capitalized ('Retrieved...'). For |mode=cs2, element separator is a comma (,); terminal punctuation is omitted; where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are not capitalized ('retrieved...'). To override default terminal punctuation use postscript.
  • author-mask: Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set author-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliographies or bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially such as Shortened footnotes. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed. You can also use editor-mask and translator-mask in the same way.
  • display-authors: Controls the number of author names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of authors, set display-authors to the desired number. For example, |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation. By default, all authors are displayed. |display-authors=etal displays all authors in the list followed by et al. Aliases: displayauthors.
  • display-editors: Controls the number of editor names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of editors, set display-editors to the desired number. For example, |display-editors=2 will display only the first two editors in a citation. By default, all editors are displayed. |display-editors=etal displays all editors in the list followed by et al. Aliases: displayeditors.
  • last-author-amp: Switches the separator between the last two names of the author list to space ampersand space ( & ) when set to y, yes, or true. Example: |last-author-amp=yes
  • postscript: Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to none. Additional text or templates beyond the terminating punctuation may generate an error message. |postscript= is ignored if quote is defined.

Subscription or registration required[संपादित करें]

Citations of online sources that require registration or a subscription are acceptable in Wikipedia as documented in Verifiability – Access to sources. As a courtesy to readers and other editors, editors can signal the access restrictions of the external links included in a citation.

चार उपलब्धता स्तर काम में लिए जा सकते हैं:

  • मुक्त रूप से उपलब्ध free: स्रोत कहीं से भी मुक्त रूप से पढ़ा जा सकता है (यह सामान्यतः मुक्त रूप से उपलब्ध लेखों पर लागू होता है)
  • मुक्त पंजीकरण आवश्यक registration: स्रोत तक पहुँचने के लिए मुक्त पंजीकरण आवश्यक है
  • सीमित परीक्षण के अधीन मुक्त रूप से उपलब्ध, सामान्यतः सब्स्क्रिप्शन (सदस्यता) आवश्यक limited: इसका स्रोत मुक्त रूप से प्राप्त करने के लिए कुछ अन्य बाध्यतायें हैं (जैसे दैनिक दृश्य संख्या परिमित हो)
  • सशुल्क सदस्यता आवश्यकता subscription: स्रोत को केवल सशुल्क सदस्यता ("पेवॉल") लेकर देखा जा सकता है

As there are often multiple external links with different access levels in the same citation, these values are attributed to a particular external link.

Access level of |url=[संपादित करें]

Links inserted with |url= are expected to be free to read by default. If not, editors can use one of

  • |url-access=subscription
  • |url-access=registration
  • |url-access=limited

to indicate the relevant access restriction.

Access level of identifiers[संपादित करें]

Links inserted by identifiers such as |doi= are not expected to offer a free full text by default. If they do, editors can use |doi-access=free (in the case of |doi=) to indicate the relevant access level. The following identifiers are supported:

  • |bibcode= with |bibcode-access=free
  • |doi= with |doi-access=free
  • |hdl= with |hdl-access=free
  • |jstor= with |jstor-access=free
  • |ol= with |ol-access=free
  • |osti= with |osti-access=free

Some identifiers always link to free full texts. In this case, the access level is automatically indicated by the template. This is the case for |arxiv=, |biorxiv=, |citeseerx=, |pmc=, |rfc= and |ssrn=.

Ambiguous access parameters[संपादित करें]

The parameters |registration=yes and |subscription=yes can also be used to indicate the access level of a citation. However, they do not indicate which link they apply to, so editors are encouraged to use |url-access=registration and |url-access=subscription instead, when the restriction applies to |url=. If the restriction applies to an identifier, these parameters should be omitted.

These parameters add a link note to the end of the citation:

  • registration: For online sources that require registration, set |registration=yes (or y, or true); superseded by subscription if both are set.
  • subscription: For online sources that require a subscription, set |subscription=yes (or y, or true); supersedes registration if both are set.

Setting |registration= or |subscription= to any value other than y, yes, or true will generate an error message.

Examples[संपादित करें]

Books[संपादित करें]

Three authors, a volume, and an edition. Ampersand (&) forced before final author's name.
{{Citation
| last1  = Lincoln
| first1 = A.
| last2  = Washington
| first2 = G.
| last3  = Adams
| first3 = J.
| lastauthoramp = yes
| title     = All the Presidents' Names
| publisher = The Pentagon
| place     = Home Base, New York
| volume  = XII
| edition = 2nd
| year    = 2007
}}
Lincoln, A.; Washington, G. & Adams, J. (2007), All the Presidents' Names, XII (2nd संस्करण), Home Base, New York: The Pentagon

Web[संपादित करें]

Web page
{{Citation
| url   = http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/
| title = NPS Focus
| work  = National Register of Historic Places
| publisher  = [[National Park Service]]
| accessdate = November 30, 2010
| ref = none
}}
"NPS Focus", National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, अभिगमन तिथि November 30, 2010
Archived page
{{Citation
| url = http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| title = Earth's Atmosphere
| accessdate = October 25, 2007
| publisher  = [[National Aeronautics and Space Administration]]
| year   = 1995
| author = NASA
| archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20071013232332/http://
liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| archivedate = October 13, 2007
}}
NASA (1995), Earth's Atmosphere, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, मूल से October 13, 2007 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि October 25, 2007

Journals, newspapers, magazines, or other periodicals[संपादित करें]

Journal article
{{Citation
| last  = Hill
| first = Marvin S.
| title = Joseph Smith and the 1826
Trial: New Evidence and New
Difficulties
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume  = 12
| issue   = 2
| year    = 1976
| pages   = 1–8
| url     = https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf
}}
Hill, Marvin S. (1976), "Joseph Smith and the 1826 Trial: New Evidence and New Difficulties" (PDF), BYU Studies, 12 (2): 1–8
Journal article with multiple authors and identifier
{{Citation
| last1  = Mandelkern
| first1 = M,
| last2  = Elias
| first2 = J,
| last3  = Eden
| first3 = D,
| last4  = Crothers
| first4 = D
| display-authors = 2
| title   = The dimensions of DNA in solution
| journal = J Mol Biol
| volume  = 152
| issue   = 1
| pages   = 153–161
| year    = 1981
| pmid    = 7338906
| doi     = 10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1
}}
Mandelkern, M,; Elias, J,; एवं अन्य (1981), "The dimensions of DNA in solution", J Mol Biol, 152 (1): 153–161, PMID 7338906, डीओआइ:10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1
Newspaper article
{{Citation
| last  = Smith
| first = Joseph III
| author-link = Joseph Smith III
| title = Last Testimony of Sister Emma
| newspaper = The Saints' Herald
| publication-place = Plano, IL
| volume = 26
| issue  = 19
| date   = October 1, 1879

| page   = 289
| url    = http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/
IL/sain1872.htm#100179
}}
Smith, Joseph III (October 1, 1879), "Last Testimony of Sister Emma", The Saints' Herald, Plano, IL, 26 (19), पृ॰ 289

Conference papers and public lectures[संपादित करें]

Conference paper
{{Citation
| last   = Sullivan
| first  = D.B.
| contribution = Time and frequency measurement
 at NIST: The first 100 years
| year   = 2001
| title  = 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp.
| publisher = National Institute of Standards and Technology
| contribution-url = http://tf.nist.gov/timefreq/general/pdf/1485.pdf
| chapter-format = PDF
}}
Sullivan, D.B. (2001), "Time and frequency measurement at NIST: The first 100 years" (PDF), 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp., National Institute of Standards and Technology
Lecture
{{Citation
| last   = Habicht
| first  = Christian
| contribution = Hellenistic Athens and her Philosophers
| year   = 1988
| title  = David Magie Lecture, Princeton University Program in the History, Archaeology, and Religions of the Ancient World
| publisher = Princeton University
| page=14 
}}
Habicht, Christian (1988), "Hellenistic Athens and her Philosophers", David Magie Lecture, Princeton University Program in the History, Archaeology, and Religions of the Ancient World, Princeton University, पृ॰ 14

Parts of books, including encyclopedia articles[संपादित करें]

Manuscript published in an edited compilation
{{Citation
| last  = Bidamon
| first = Emma Smith
| author-link = Emma Hale Smith
| chapter = Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim
| date = March 27, 1876
| editor-last  = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title  = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1-56085-072-8
}}
Bidamon, Emma Smith (March 27, 1876), "Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim", प्रकाशित Vogel, Dan, Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books (प्रकाशित 1996), आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 1-56085-072-8
Work with an editor but no author
{{Citation
| editor-last  = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title  = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1-56085-072-8
}}
Vogel, Dan, संपा॰ (1996), Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books, आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 1-56085-072-8
Encyclopedia article by a named author
{{Citation
| last  = Kramer
| first = Martin
| author-link  = Martin Kramer
| year=1999
| title = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last  = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| encyclopedia = Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages  = 719–720
| location = London
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| url = http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm
}}
Kramer, Martin (1999), "Bernard Lewis", प्रकाशित Boyd, Kelley, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, पपृ॰ 719–720
Encyclopedia article with no named author
{{Citation
| title = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| year = 1999
| encyclopedia = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| location = London
| url = http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm
}}
Boyd, Kelley, संपा॰ (1999), "Bernard Lewis", Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, पपृ॰ 719–720

Republications, or edited quotations in a periodical article[संपादित करें]

Manuscript edited and published in a journal
{{Citation
| last = Knight
| first = Joseph, Sr.
| year = 1833
| editor-last = Jessee
| editor-first = Dean
| title = Joseph Knight's Recollection
of Early Mormon History
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume = 17
| issue = 1
| publication-date = 1976
| page = 35
| url = https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf
}}
Knight, Joseph, Sr. (1833), Jessee, Dean, संपा॰, "Joseph Knight's Recollection of Early Mormon History" (PDF), BYU Studies (प्रकाशित 1976), 17 (1): 35
Manuscript written at one date and place, then published in a periodical at a different date and place with commentary by the editor.
{{Citation
| last = Klingensmith
| first = Philip
| type = Affidavit
| date = September 5, 1872
| place = Lincoln County, Nevada
| title = Mountain Meadows Massacre
| editor-last = Toohy
| editor-first = Dennis J.
| journal = Corinne Daily Reporter
| publication-date = September 24, 1872
| publication-place = Corinne, Utah
| volume = 5
| issue = 252
| page = 1
| url = http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359
}}
Klingensmith, Philip (September 5, 1872), Lincoln County, Nevada में लिखित, Toohy, Dennis J., संपा॰, "Mountain Meadows Massacre", Corinne Daily Reporter (Affidavit), Corinne, Utah (प्रकाशित September 24, 1872), 5 (252): 1

Press release[संपादित करें]

Press release with quotation
{{Citation
| url = https://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/04/05ipad.html
| title = Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day
| publisher = Apple Inc
| accessdate = April 10, 2010
| quote = in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3
| ref = none}}
Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day, Apple Inc, अभिगमन तिथि April 10, 2010, in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3

Anchored citations[संपादित करें]

This template can generate a citation that can be combined with shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing. It does this by creating an HTML anchor containing an ID. The special parameter |ref=harv generates an ID suitable for Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} as specified in the next section; this is the default for the {{citation}} template.

To disable anchor generation, specify |ref=none (in contrast, other Cite templates such as {{cite book}} and {{cite news}} do not create an anchor by default). You can also specify the ID directly, using the |ref=ID parameter. For example, suppose an article's References section contains the markup:

  • {{Citation |author=Sigmund Freud |title=Civilization and Its Discontents |year=1930 |ref=CivDis}}

which generates the citation:

  • Sigmund Freud (1930), Civilization and Its Discontents

Then, the markup "([[#CivDis|Freud 1930]])" generates a parenthetical reference "(Freud 1930)" containing a wikilink to the citation (try clicking on the wikilink).

Anchors for Harvard referencing templates[संपादित करें]

IDs compatible with Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} are computed from the last names of the authors (or editors, if no authors are given) and the year of the cited source. For example, the markup "{{harv|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}" generates the Harvard reference "(Wright & Evans 1851, p. ix)", which wikilinks to the citation whose markup and appearance are shown below:

  • {{Citation |last1=Wright |first1=Thomas |last2=Evans |first2=R. H. |title=Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray |location=London |publisher=Henry G. Bohn |year=1851 |oclc=59510372}}
  • Wright, Thomas; Evans, R. H. (1851), Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray, London: Henry G. Bohn, OCLC 59510372

In this example the {{citation}} template defines, and the {{harv}} template uses, the HTML ID "CITEREFWrightEvans1851", composed by concatenating the string "CITEREF" with the last names of the authors and the year. The {{harvid}} template can be used to generate such IDs, for example, {{harvid|Wright|Evans|1851}} generates "CITEREFWrightEvans1851".

Related methods which leave only a number in the text are to use the {{harvnb}} template enclosed in the <ref></ref> html code, or to use the {{sfn}} template alone. The example above would be <ref>{{harvnb|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}</ref> or {{sfn|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}} both of which generate a footnote, such as

17. Wright & Evans 1851, पृष्ठ ix

The names of only the first four authors are used; other author names are not concatenated to the ID. If no author names are given, editor names are used instead.

Last names are used, as specified by the parameters |last1= (or |last=), |last2=, |last3=, and |last4=, and similarly for |editor1-last= etc. and for |inventor1-last= etc. If a full name is given but no last name is specified, this template falls back on the full name, but this usage is not recommended. For example, in "{{Citation | author = Sigmund Freud | title = The Ego and the Id | year = 1923}}" no last name is given, so this citation cannot be combined with the Harvard reference "{{harv|Freud|1923}}". To make these {{citation}} and {{harv}} invocations compatible, either replace "|author=Sigmund Freud" with "|first=Sigmund |last=Freud", or add "|ref={{harvid|Freud|1923}}" to the {{citation}} invocation, or add the same ref parameter (say, "|ref=EgoId") to both the {{citation}} and the {{harv}} invocations.

Similarly, the year is used, as specified by |year=. If no year is given, this template attempts to derive the year from |date= (or, if no date is given, from |publication-date=) by applying the MediaWiki § Time function. This heuristic works with many common date formats (American, International and ISO 8601 standard format YYYY-MM-DD as listed in WP:MOS), but may not work as expected with other formats, so when in doubt it may be safer to use |year=. Note that if only a year, say 2005, is known you must use |year=2005 rather than |date=2005.

IDs must be unique[संपादित करें]

Names, years, and hand-specified IDs must be chosen so that the IDs are unique within a page; otherwise the HTML will not conform to the W3C standards, and any references to the citations will not work reliably. For example, suppose a page contains the following two citations with {{harv}}-compatible IDs:

If these citations were altered to say "2008" rather than "2008a" and "2008b", the resulting page would not work, because the two different citations would both attempt to use the ID "CITEREFMontesHalterman2008". To avoid this problem, distinguish the citations by appending suffixes to the years, e.g. "|year=2008a" and "|year=2008b", as was done above. Any Harvard references to these citations should use years with the same suffixes.

It is good practice to verify that a page does not contain duplicate IDs by using the W3C Markup Validation Service; see External links.

Dates[संपादित करें]

  1. The format of dates in the references of an article should use consistent and unambiguous styles. Example formats used in Wikipedia citations include: Dates should not be linked (say, to a Wikipedia article of the same name) in references. Please see Wikipedia:Manual of Style (dates and numbers) § Dates for more guidance about formatting dates.

Tools[संपादित करें]

See Wikipedia:Citing sources § Citation templates and tools for a list of tools that can help create a reference in the "citation" format.

TemplateData[संपादित करें]

This is the TemplateData documentation for the template used by the new VisualEditor.

Citation

The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.

साँचा प्राचल

प्राचलवर्णनप्रकारस्थिति
Last namelast author author1 authors last1

The surname of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

रेखासुझावित
First namefirst first1

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

रेखासुझावित
title of sourcetitle

Title of source; displays in italics.

स्ट्रिंगआवश्यक
date of sourcedate

Full date of source being referenced in the same format as other publication dates in the citations.[1] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
url of sourceurl

URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Workwork journal website newspaper magazine encyclopedia encyclopaedia dictionary mailinglist

Name of the work in which the cited title is found

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Volumevolume

For one publication published in several volumes

रेखासुझावित
Issueissue number

Issue number

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Pagepage

Page in the source that supports the content; displays after 'p.'

रेखावैकल्पिक
Pagespages

Pages in the source that support the content (not an indication of the number of pages in the source; displays after 'pp.'

रेखासुझावित
Publication Datepublication-date

Date of publication when different from the date the work was written. Displays only if year or date are defined and only if different, else publication-date is used and displayed as date. Use the same format as other dates in the article; do not wikilink. Follows publisher; if work is not defined, then publication-date is preceded by "published" and enclosed in parenthesis.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Date formatdf

Sets rendered dates to the specified format

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Year of publicationyear

Year of the source being referenced; recommended only when date parameter format is YYYY-MM-DD and a CITEREF disambiguator is needed

संख्यावैकल्पिक
Postscriptpostscript

Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to a period (.); for no terminating punctuation, specify |postscript=none – leaving |postscript= empty is the same as omitting it, but is ambiguous. Ignored if quote is defined.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Editor last nameeditor-last editor editor-surname editor-last1 editor-surname1 editor1 editor1-last editor1-surname editors

The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors

अज्ञातवैकल्पिक
Editor first nameeditor-first editor-first1 editor-given1 editor1-first editor1-given

The surname of the editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional editors

अज्ञातवैकल्पिक
Author Maskauthor-mask authormask

Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set author-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliographies or bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially such as shortened footnotes. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed. You can also use editor-mask and translator-mask in the same way.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Original yearorig-year origyear

Original year of publication; provide specifics

संख्यावैकल्पिक
Translated titletrans-title trans_title

An English language title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

सामग्रीवैकल्पिक
Translated chapter titletrans-chapter trans_chapter

An English language chapter title, if the source cited is in a foreign language; 'language' is recommended

सामग्रीवैकल्पिक
Typetype

Additional information about the media type of the source; format in sentence case

सामग्रीवैकल्पिक
Archive URLarchive-url archiveurl

The URL of an archived copy of a web page, if or in case the URL becomes unavailable; requires 'archivedate'

रेखावैकल्पिक
Dead URLdead-url deadurl

If set to 'no', the title display is adjusted; useful for when the URL is archived preemptively but still live

रेखावैकल्पिक
Seriesseries version

Series identifier when the source is part of a series, such as a book series or a journal; alias of 'version'

सामग्रीवैकल्पिक
periodicalperiodical

कोई विवरण नहीं

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Atat

May be used instead of 'page' or 'pages' where a page number is inappropriate or insufficient

रेखावैकल्पिक
No ppnopp

Set to 'y' to suppress the 'p.' or 'pp.' display with 'page' or 'pages' when inappropriate (such as 'Front cover')

रेखावैकल्पिक
Chapterchapter

The chapter heading of the source

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
contributioncontribution

कोई विवरण नहीं

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
chapter-urlchapter-url chapterurl

कोई विवरण नहीं

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
contribution-urlcontribution-url

कोई विवरण नहीं

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
chapter-formatchapter-format

कोई विवरण नहीं

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
othersothers

कोई विवरण नहीं

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Editionedition

When the publication has more than one edition; for example: '2nd', 'Revised' etc.; suffixed with ' ed.'

रेखावैकल्पिक
Location of publicationplace location

Geographical place of publication; usually not wikilinked

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Place of publicationpublication-place

Publication place shows after title; if 'place' or 'location' are also given, they are displayed before the title prefixed with 'written at'

सामग्रीवैकल्पिक
Publisherpublisher

Name of the publisher; displays after title

सामग्रीवैकल्पिक
Languagelanguage

The language in which the source is written, if not English; use the full language name; do not use icons or templates

सामग्रीवैकल्पिक
Formatformat

Format of the work referred to by 'url' ('url' is required when using 'format'); examples: PDF, DOC, XLS; do not specify HTML

सामग्रीवैकल्पिक
arXiv identifierarxiv

An identifier for arXive electronic preprints of scientific papers

रेखावैकल्पिक
ASINasin ASIN

Amazon Standard Identification Number; 10 characters

रेखावैकल्पिक
ASIN TLDasin-tld

ASIN top-level domain for Amazon sites other than the US

रेखावैकल्पिक
Bibcodebibcode

Bibliographic Reference Code (REFCODE); 19 characters

रेखावैकल्पिक
biorXivbiorxiv

biorXiv identifier; 6 digits

रेखावैकल्पिक
CiteSeerXciteseerx

CiteSeerX identifier; found after the 'doi=' query parameter

रेखावैकल्पिक
DOIdoi DOI

Digital Object Identifier; begins with '10.'

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
doi_inactivedatedoi_inactivedate

कोई विवरण नहीं

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
DOI broken datedoi-broken-date

The date that the DOI was determined to be broken

दिनांकवैकल्पिक
ISBNisbn

International Standard Book Number; use the 13-digit ISBN where possible

रेखावैकल्पिक
ISSNissn

International Standard Serial Number (print); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

रेखावैकल्पिक
eISSNeissn

International Standard Serial Number (online); 8 characters; usually split into two groups of four using a hyphen

रेखावैकल्पिक
jfm codejfm

Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik classification code

रेखावैकल्पिक
JSTORjstor

JSTOR identifier

रेखावैकल्पिक
LCCNlccn

Library of Congress Control Number

रेखावैकल्पिक
MRmr

Mathematical Reviews identifier

रेखावैकल्पिक
OCLCoclc

Online Computer Library Center number

संख्यावैकल्पिक
OLol

Open Library identifier

रेखावैकल्पिक
OSTIosti

Office of Scientific and Technical Information identifier

रेखावैकल्पिक
PMCpmc

PubMed Center article number

संख्यावैकल्पिक
PMIDpmid

PubMed Unique Identifier

रेखावैकल्पिक
RFCrfc

Request for Comments number

संख्यावैकल्पिक
SSRNssrn

Social Science Research Network

रेखावैकल्पिक
Zblzbl

Zentralblatt MATH journal identifier

रेखावैकल्पिक
idid

A unique identifier used where none of the specialized ones are applicable

रेखावैकल्पिक
Quotequote

Relevant text quoted from the source; displays last, enclosed in quotes; needs to include terminating punctuation

सामग्रीवैकल्पिक
Refref

An anchor identifier; can be made the target of wikilinks to full references; special value 'harv' generates an anchor suitable for the harv and sfn templates

रेखावैकल्पिक
URL access dateaccess-date accessdate

The full date when the original URL was accessed; do not wikilink

दिनांकवैकल्पिक
Lay URLlaysummary layurl lay-url

URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source

रेखावैकल्पिक
Lay sourcelay-source laysource

Name of the source of the laysummary; displays in italics, preceded by an en dash

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Lay datelay-date laydate

Date of the summary; displays in parentheses

दिनांकवैकल्पिक
Author name separatorauthor-name-separator

Changes the separator between last and first names; defaults to a comma and space; a space must be encoded as &#32;

डिफ़ॉल्ट
,
रेखावैकल्पिक
Last author ampersandlast-author-amp lastauthoramp

When set to any value, changes the separator between the last two names of the author list to 'space ampersand space'

बूलियनवैकल्पिक
Display authorsdisplayauthors display-authors

number of authors to display before 'et al.' is used;

संख्यावैकल्पिक
Archive datearchive-date archivedate

Date when the original URL was archived; do not wikilink

दिनांकवैकल्पिक
Last name 2last2 author2 surname2

The surname of the second author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink2'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
First name 2first2 given2

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second author; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Last name 3last3 author3 surname3

The surname of the third author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink3'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
First name 3first3 given3

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third author; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Last name 4last4 author4 surname4

The surname of the forth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink4'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
First name 4first4 given4

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the forth author; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Last name 5last5 author5 surname5

The surname of the fifth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink5'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
First name 5first5 given5

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth author; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Last name 6last6 author6 surname6

The surname of the sixth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink6'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
First name 6first6

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth author; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Last name 7last7 author7 surname7

The surname of the seventh author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink7'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
First name 7first7 given7

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh author; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Last name 8last8 author8 surname8

The surname of the eighth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink8'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
First name 8first8 given8

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth author; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Last name 9last9 author9 surname9

The surname of the ninth author; don't wikilink, use 'authorlink9'. If nine authors are defined, then only eight will show and 'et al.' will show in place of the last author.

रेखावैकल्पिक
First name 9first9 given9

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth author; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Author linkauthor-link authorlink author1-link authorlink1

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author; can suffix with a numeral to add additional authors

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Author link 2author-link2 author2-link authorlink2

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second author.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Author link 3author-link3 author3-link authorlink3

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third author.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Author link 4author-link4 author4-link authorlink4

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the forth author.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Author link 5author-link5 author5-link authorlink5

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Author link 6author-link6 author6-link authorlink6

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth author.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Author link 7author-link7 author7-link authorlink7

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh author.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Author link 8author-link8 author8-link authorlink8

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth author.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Author link 9author-link9 author9-link authorlink9

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth author.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Editor last name 2editor2-last editor2

The surname of the second editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor2-link'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor first name 2editor2-first editor2-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second editor; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor last name 3editor3-last editor3

The surname of the third editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor3-link'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor first name 3editor3-first editor3-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third editor; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor last name 4editor4-last editor4

The surname of the fourth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor4-link'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor first name 4editor4-first editor4-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth editor; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor last name 5editor5-last editor5

The surname of the fifth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor5-link'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor first name 5editor5-first editor5-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth editor; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor last name 6editor6-last editor6

The surname of the sixth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor6-link'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor first name 6editor6-first editor6-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth editor; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor last name 7editor7-last editor7

The surname of the seventh editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor7-link'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor first name 7editor7-first editor7-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh editor; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor last name 8editor8-last editor8

The surname of the eighth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor8-link'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor first name 8editor8-first editor8-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth editor; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor last name 9editor9-last editor9

The surname of the ninth editor; don't wikilink, use 'editor9-link'.

रेखावैकल्पिक
Editor first name 9editor9-first editor9-given

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth editor; don't wikilink.

रेखावैकल्पिक
editor-linkeditor-link

कोई विवरण नहीं

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
editor1-linkeditor1-link

कोई विवरण नहीं

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
editor2-linkeditor2-link

कोई विवरण नहीं

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
editor3-linkeditor3-link

कोई विवरण नहीं

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
editor4-linkeditor4-link

कोई विवरण नहीं

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Translator last nametranslator-last translator translator-last1 translator1 translator1-last

The surname of the translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional translators.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Translator first nametranslator-first translator1-first translator-first1

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'; can suffix with a numeral to add additional translators.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Translator linktranslator-link translator-link1 translator1-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the translator; can suffix with a numeral to add additional translators.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Translator last name 2translator-last2 translator2 translator2-last

The surname of the second translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Translator first name 2translator-first2 translator2-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the second translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Translator last name 3translator-last3 translator3 translator3-last

The surname of the third translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Translator first name 3translator-first3 translator3-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the third translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Translator last name 4translator-last4 translator4 translator4-last

The surname of the fourth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Translator first name 4translator-first4 translator4-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fourth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Translator last name 5translator-last5 translator5 translator5-last

The surname of the fifth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Translator first name 5translator-first5 translator5-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the fifth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Translator last name 6translator-last6 translator6 translator6-last

The surname of the sixth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Translator first name 6translator-first6 translator6-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the sixth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Translator last name 7translator-last7 translator7 translator7-last

The surname of the seventh translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Translator first name 7translator-first7 translator7-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the seventh translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Translator last name 8translator-last8 translator8 translator8-last

The surname of the eighth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Translator first name 8translator-first8 translator8-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the eighth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Translator last name 9translator-last9 translator9 translator9-last

The surname of the ninth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Translator first name 9translator-first9 translator9-first

Given or first name, middle names, or initials of the ninth translator; don't wikilink, use 'translator-link'.

स्ट्रिंगवैकल्पिक
Translator link 2translator-link2 translator2-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the second translator.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Translator link 3translator-link3 translator3-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the third translator.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Translator link 4translator-link4 translator4-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fourth translator.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Translator link 5translator-link5 translator5-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the fifth translator.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Translator link 6translator-link6 translator6-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the sixth translator.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Translator link 7translator-link7 translator7-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the seventh translator.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Translator link 8translator-link8 translator8-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the eighth translator.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक
Translator link 9translator-link9 translator9-link

Title of existing Wikipedia article about the ninth translator.

पृष्ठवैकल्पिक

This template produces COinS metadata; see COinS in Wikipedia for background information.

See also[संपादित करें]

साँचा:Wikipedia help pages