गर्भपात

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
यहाँ जाएँ: भ्रमण, खोज

गर्भपात (अंग्रेज़ी: Abortion) परिपक्वता अवधि अथवा व्यवहार्यता से पूर्व गर्भ के समापन की अवस्था है जिसमें गर्भाशय से भ्रूण स्वत: निष्काषित हो जाता है या कर दिया जाता है।[note 1] इसके परिणामस्वरूप गर्भावस्था (pregnancy) की समाप्ति हो जाती है। किसी कारण भ्रूण के स्वतः समाप्त हो जाने को गर्भ विफलता (miscarriage) कहा जाता है। सामान्यतः गर्भपात मानव गर्भ को जबरन समाप्त किये जाने को इंगित करता है।

गर्भपात के प्रकार[संपादित करें]

कृत्रिम[संपादित करें]

ऐसा अनुमान है कि पूरे विश्व में लगभग २० करोड़ गर्भधारण की प्रक्रिया प्रति वर्ष घटित होती हैं। इनमें से लगभग एक तिहायी अनैच्छिक होते हैं और लगभग हर पाँचवें की परिणति जबरन गर्भपात में है।[1][2] अधिकतर गर्भपात की घटनाएँ अनैच्छिक गर्भधारण के कारण होती हैं।[3][4] गर्भ को साभिप्राय कई तरीकों से समाप्त किया जा सकता है। गर्भपात का तरीका भ्रूण की गर्भावधि पर निर्भर करता है कि जो कि गर्भ की अवधि बढ़ने के साथ आकार में विकसित होता रहता है।[5][6] कुछ विशिष्ट प्रक्रियाओं का चयन वैधता, स्थानीय उपलब्धता के साथ-साथ चिकित्सक और मरीज़ की वरीयता के आधार पर भी किया जा सकता है।

स्वतः[संपादित करें]

स्वतः गर्भपात, जिसे गर्भ विफलता भी कह सकते हैं, गर्भावधि के २४वें सप्ताह के पूर्व ही निरभिप्राय गर्भ निष्कासन के कारण घटित होता है।[7] ऐसा गर्भ जो ३७ हफ़्तों के पूर्व ही जीवित शिशु प्रसव के साथ समाप्त हो जाए उसे अपरिणत प्रसव (premature birth), अकाल प्रसव या कालपूर्व प्रसव कहा जाता है।[8] गर्भ में परिपक्वता अवधि के पश्चात अथवा प्रसव के दौरान जब भ्रूण की मृत्यु हो जाय तो उसे सामान्यतः मृत प्रसव (stillbirth) या मृतशिशु प्रसव कहा जाता है।[9] बावजूद इसके कि कभी-कभी इन पदों का प्रयोग एक दूसरे में गड्ड-मड्ड हो सकता है, अकाल प्रसव और मृत-प्रसव सामान्यतः गर्भ विफलता के तौर पर नहीं माने जाते।[10]

विधियाँ[संपादित करें]

भेषज (औषधि)[संपादित करें]

गर्भांतक औषधियों के माध्यम से गर्भपात आरोपित करना ही भेषज गर्भपात है। १९७० के दशक में प्रोस्टाग्लैंडिन अनुरूप और १९८० के दौरान प्रतिप्रोजेस्टोजेन माइफप्रिस्टोन की उपलब्धता के पश्चात भेषज गर्भपात साभिप्राय गर्भपात का एक वैकल्पिक तरीका बन गया।[11][12][13]

शल्य[संपादित करें]

अन्य विधियाँ[संपादित करें]

सुरक्षा[संपादित करें]

असुरक्षित गर्भपात[संपादित करें]

१९२५ के आसपास का एक सोवियत पोस्टर, जिसमें गर्भपात कराने वाली दाइयों के विरुद्ध चेतावनी दी गयी है। शीर्षक का अनुवाद है : "अप्रशिक्षित अथवा स्वशिक्षित दाइयों द्वारा गर्भपात न केवल महिलाओं को अक्षम बनाता है बल्कि उनकी मृत्यु का कारण भी बन सकता है।"

गर्भ से छुटकारा पाने की तलाश में महिलाएँ कभी-कभी असुरक्षित तरीकों का भी सहारा लेती हैं, ख़ासकर तब जबकि कानूनी तौर पर अनुमति मिलने में अड़चन हो। ऐसी स्थिति में वे या तो स्वयं कोशिश करती हैं या किसी दूसरे की सहायता लेती हैं जिनका न तो पर्याप्त चिकित्सकीय प्रशिक्षण होता है न ही उचित चिकित्सकीय सुविधाओं तक पहुँच। ऐसे असुरक्षित गर्भपात गंभीर स्वास्थ्य समस्याओं, मसलन अपूर्ण गर्भपात, पूति (sepsis), रक्तस्राव और आंतरिक अंगों को गंभीर क्षति का कारण बन सकते हैं।[14]

इतिहास[संपादित करें]

समाज और संस्कृति[संपादित करें]

गर्भपात संबंधी बहसें[संपादित करें]

कानूनी स्थित[संपादित करें]

कानून की तरफ से गर्भपात इन कारणों के चलते कराया जा सकता है-

  • जब गर्भ के कारण जीवन खतरे में हो।
  • जब पैदा होने वाले शिशु को मानसिक बीमारी होने की आशंका हो।
  • गर्भ बलात्कार के बाद ठहर गया हो, या
  • गर्भ परिवार नियोजन में विफल होने का कारण हो।

लिंग निर्धारित गर्भपात[संपादित करें]

गर्भपात विरोधी हिंसा[संपादित करें]

कला, साहित्य और सिनेमा[संपादित करें]

धार्मिक मान्यता[संपादित करें]

सन्दर्भ[संपादित करें]

  1. Induced abortion: incidence and trends worldwide from 1995 to 2008 Original Research Article in The Lancet – Author Version, द्वारा : G Sedgh ScD, S Singh PhD, S K Henshaw PhD, A Bankole PhD : Guttmacher Institute, New York, NY USA ; I H Shah PhD, E Åhman MA : World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland ; Published inThe Lancet : February 18th, 2012 (Vol. 379, Issue 9816 Pages 625 ‐ 632) Published online January 19th, 2012
  2. Cheng L. (1 नवम्बर 2008). "Surgical versus medical methods for second-trimester induced abortion". The WHO Reproductive Health Library. World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 17 जून 2011. http://apps.who.int/rhl/fertility/abortion/CD006714_chengl_com/en/index.html. अभिगमन तिथि: २४ अक्टूबर २०१३. 
  3. Bankole et al. (1998). "Reasons Why Women Have Induced Abortions: Evidence from 27 Countries". International Family Planning Perspectives 24 (3): 117–127 & 152. http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/2411798.html. 
  4. Finer, Lawrence B.; Frohwirth, Lori F.; Dauphinee, Lindsay A.; Singh, Susheela; Moore, Ann M. (2005). "Reasons U.S. Women Have Abortions: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives" (PDF). Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 37 (3): 110–118. doi:10.1111/j.1931-2393.2005.tb00045.x. PMID 16150658. http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3711005.pdf. 
  5. Stubblefield, Phillip G. (2002). "10. Family Planning". In Berek, Jonathan S.. Novak's Gynecology (13 सं॰). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-0-7817-3262-8. 
  6. Bartlett, LA; Berg, CJ; Shulman, HB; Zane, SB; Green, CA; Whitehead, S; Atrash, HK (2004). "Risk factors for legal induced abortion-related mortality in the United States" (PDF). Obstetrics & Gynecology 103 (4): 729–37. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000116260.81570.60. PMID 15051566. https://www.acog.org/from_home/publications/green_journal/2004/v103n4p729.pdf. 
  7. Churchill Livingstone medical dictionary. Edinburgh New York: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier. 2008. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-0-443-10412-1. "The preferred term for unintentional loss of the product of conception prior to 24 weeks' gestation is miscarriage." 
  8. Annas, George J.; Elias, Sherman (2007). "51. Legal and Ethical Issues in Obstetric Practice". In Gabbe, Steven G.; Niebyl, Jennifer R.; Simpson, Joe Leigh. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies (5 सं॰). Churchill Livingstone. प॰ 669. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-0-443-06930-7. "A preterm birth is defined as one that occurs before the completion of 37 menstrual weeks of gestation, regardless of birth weight." 
  9. "Stillbirth".। (2010)। ऑक्सफोर्ड विश्वविद्यालय प्रेस। “birth of a fetus that shows no evidence of life (heartbeat, respiration, or independent movement) at any time later than 24 weeks after conception”
  10. "Documenting Stillbirth (Fetal Death)" (PDF). United States Department of State. 18 फ़रवरी 2011. Archived from the original on 27 जून 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5zlfxU61B. अभिगमन तिथि: २४ अक्टूबर २०१३. 
  11. Kulier R, Kapp N, Gülmezoglu AM, Hofmeyr GJ, Cheng L, Campana A (2011). "Medical methods for first trimester abortion". Cochrane Database Syst Rev 11 (11): CD002855. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002855.pub4. PMID 22071804. 
  12. Creinin MD, Gemzell-Danielsson K (2009). "Medical abortion in early pregnancy". In Paul M, Lichtenberg ES, Borgatta L, Grimes DA, Stubblefield PG, Creinin MD (eds.). Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: comprehensive abortion care. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 111–134. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 1-4051-7696-2. 
  13. Kapp N, von Hertzen H (2009). "Medical methods to induce abortion in the second trimester". In Paul M, Lichtenberg ES, Borgatta L, Grimes DA, Stubblefield PG, Creinin MD (eds.). Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: comprehensive abortion care. ऑक्सफोर्ड: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 178–192. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 1-4051-7696-2. 
  14. ओकोनोफुआ, एफ. (2006). "Abortion and maternal mortality in the developing world" (PDF). Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada 28 (11): 974–979. PMID 17169222. http://www.jogc.org/abstracts/full/200611_WomensHealth_1.pdf. 

टिप्पणियाँ[संपादित करें]

  1. Definitions of abortion, as with many words, vary from source to source. The following is a partial list of definitions as stated by obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) textbooks, dictionaries, and other encyclopedias:
    Major OB/GYN textbooks
    • The National Center for Health Statistics defines an "abortus" as "[a] fetus or embryo removed or expelled from the uterus during the first half of gestation—20 weeks or less, or in the absence of accurate dating criteria, born weighing < 500 g." They also define "birth" as "[t]he complete expulsion or extraction from the mother of a fetus after 20 weeks' gestation. ... in the absence of accurate dating criteria, fetuses weighing <500 g are usually not considered as births, but rather are termed abortuses for purposes of vital statistics." Cunningham, FG; Leveno, KJ; Bloom, SL एवम् अन्य, सं (2010). "1. Overview of Obstetrics". Williams Obstetrics (23 सं॰). McGraw-Hill Medical. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-0-07-149701-5. 
    • "[T]he standard medical definition of abortion [is] termination of a pregnancy when the fetus is not viable". Annas, George J.; Elias, Sherman (2007). "51. Legal and Ethical Issues in Obstetric Practice". In Gabbe, Steven G.; Niebyl, Jennifer R.; Simpson, Joe Leigh. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies (5 सं॰). Churchill Livingstone. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-0-443-06930-7. 
    • "Termination of a pregnancy, whether spontaneous or induced." Kottke, Melissa J.; Zieman, Mimi (2008). "33. Management of Abortion". In Rock, John A.; Jones III, Howard W.. TeLinde's Operative Gynecology (10 सं॰). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-0-7817-7234-1. 
    Other OB/GYN textbooks
    • "Termination of pregnancy before 20 weeks' gestation calculated from date of onset of last menses. An alternative definition is delivery of a fetus with a weight of less than 500 g. If abortion occurs before 12 weeks' gestation, it is called early; from 12 to 20 weeks it is called late." Katz, Vern L. (2007). "16. Spontaneous and Recurrent Abortion – Etiology, Diagnosis, Treatment". In Katz, Vern L.; Lentz, Gretchen M.; Lobo, Rogerio A. et al.. Katz: Comprehensive Gynecology (5 सं॰). Mosby. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-0-323-02951-3. 
    • "Abortion is the spontaneous or induced termination of pregnancy before fetal viability. Because popular use of the word abortion implies a deliberate pregnancy termination, some prefer the word miscarriage to refer to spontaneous fetal loss before viability ... The National Center for Health Statistics, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the World Health Organization (WHO) define abortion as pregnancy termination prior to 20 weeks' gestation or a fetus born weighing less than 500 g. Despite this, definitions vary widely according to state laws." Schorge, John O.; Schaffer, Joseph I.; Halvorson, Lisa M. एवम् अन्य, सं (2008). "6. First-Trimester Abortion". Williams Gynecology (1 सं॰). McGraw-Hill Medical. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-0-07-147257-9. 
    Major medical dictionaries
    Other medical dictionaries
    • "[T]he termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the embryo or fetus". "Medical Dictionary". Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary. Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 15 जून 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5zTA1aALZ. अभिगमन तिथि: 15 जून 2011. 
    • "Induced termination of pregnancy, involving destruction of the embryo or fetus." "abortion." The American Heritage Science Dictionary. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2005. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-0-618-45504-1. 
    • "Interruption of pregnancy before the fetus has attained a stage of viability, usually before the 24th gestational week." "abortion." Cambridge Dictionary of Human Biology and Evolution. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. 2005. OCLC 54374716. 
    • "[A] spontaneous or deliberate ending of pregnancy before the fetus can be expected to survive." "abortion." Mosby's Emergency Dictionary. Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences. 1998. OCLC 37553784. [verification needed]
    • "[A] situation where a fetus leaves the uterus before it is fully developed, especially during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy, or a procedure which causes this to happen ... [T]o have an abortion to have an operation to make a fetus leave the uterus during the first period of pregnancy." ""abortion"". Dictionary of Medical Terms. London: A & C Black. 2005. OCLC 55634250. 
    • "1. Induced termination of a pregnancy with destruction of the fetus or embryo; therapeutic abortion. 2. Spontaneous abortion." The American Heritage Medical Dictionary (reprint सं॰). Houghton Mifflin. 2008. प॰ 2. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 0-618-94725-6. OCLC 608212441. 
    • "Although the term abortion is generic and implies a premature termination of pregnancy for any reason, the lay public better understands the word 'miscarriage' for involuntary fetal loss or fetal wastage." The Dictionary of Modern Medicine. Parthenon Publishing. 1992. प॰ 3. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 1-85070-321-3. 
    • "The termination of pregnancy or premature expulsion of the products of conception by any means, usually before fetal viability." Churchill's Medical Dictionary. Churchill Livingstone. 1989. प॰ 3. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 0-443-08691-5. 
    Major English dictionaries (general-purpose)
    • "1. a. The expulsion or removal from the womb of a developing embryo or fetus, spec. (Med.) in the period before it is capable of independent survival, occurring as a result either of natural causes (more fully spontaneous abortion) or of a deliberate act (more fully induced abortion); the early or premature termination of pregnancy with loss of the fetus; an instance of this." "abortion, n.". Oxford English Dictionary (Third सं॰). ऑक्सफोर्ड विश्वविद्यालय प्रेस. September 2009; online version September 2011. http://www.oed.com/viewdictionaryentry/Entry/503. 
    • "[A]n operation or other procedure to terminate pregnancy before the fetus is viable" or "[T]he premature termination of pregnancy by spontaneous or induced expulsion of a nonviable fetus from the uterus". "abortion". Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. HarperCollins Publishers. http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/abortion. अभिगमन तिथि: 7 अक्टूबर 2012. 
    • "[T]he removal of an embryo or fetus from the uterus in order to end a pregnancy" or "[A]ny of various surgical methods for terminating a pregnancy, especially during the first six months." "abortion". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc.. 27 जून 2011. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/abortion. 
    • "[T]he termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the embryo or fetus: as (a) spontaneous expulsion of a human fetus during the first 12 weeks of gestation (b) induced expulsion of a human fetus (c) expulsion of a fetus by a domestic animal often due to infection at any time before completion of pregnancy." Merriam-Webster Dictionary, from Merriam-Webster, an Encyclopedia Brittanica Company.
    • "1. medicine the removal of an embryo or fetus from the uterus before it is sufficiently developed to survive independently, deliberately induced by the use of drugs or by surgical procedures. Also called termination or induced abortion. 2. medicine the spontaneous expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus before it is sufficiently developed to survive independently. Also called miscarriage, spontaneous abortion." Chambers 21st Century Dictionary. London: Chambers Harrap, 2001.
    • "a medical operation to end a pregnancy so that the baby is not born alive". Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, online edition.
    Other dictionaries
    Encyclopedias
    • "[T]he expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before it has reached the stage of viability (in human beings, usually about the 20th week of gestation)." "Abortion (pregnancy)". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2011. Archived from the original on 26 जून 2011. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1498/abortion. अभिगमन तिथि: 26 जून 2011. 
    • "Expulsion of the products of conception before the embryo or fetus is viable. Any interruption of human pregnancy prior to the 28th week is known as abortion." “Abortion”। The Columbia Encyclopedia। (2008)। New York: Columbia University Press।
    • "The expulsion or removal of a fetus from the womb before it is capable of independent survival." “Abortion”। World Encyclopedia। (2008)। ऑक्सफोर्ड विश्वविद्यालय प्रेस।
    • "[Abortion] is commonly misunderstood outside medical circles. In general terms, the word 'abortion' simply means the failure of something to reach fulfilment or maturity. Medically, abortion means loss of the fetus, for any reason, before it is able to survive outside the womb. The term covers accidental or spontaneous ending, or miscarriage, of pregnancy as well as deliberate termination. The terms 'spontaneous abortion' and 'miscarriage' are synonymous and are defined as loss of the fetus before the twenty-eighth week of pregnancy. This definition implies a legal perception of the age at which a fetus can survive out of the womb. With great advances in recent years in the ability to keep very premature babies alive, this definition is in need of revision." “Abortion and miscarriage”। The Royal Society of Medicine Health Encyclopedia। (2000)। London: Bloomsbury Publishing।
    • "Abortion is the intentional removal of a fetus or an embryo from a mother's womb for purposes other than that of either producing a live birth or disposing of a dead embryo." “Abortion”। Encyclopedia of Human Rights Issues since 1945 (1)। (1999)। Santa Barbara, California: Routledge।

बाहरी कड़ियाँ[संपादित करें]