ऊर्जा के परिमाण की कोटि

इस सूची में विभिन्न प्रणालियों में निहित ऊर्जा (जूल में) को परिमाण की कोटि के क्रम में व्यवस्थित किया गया है।

10−34 to 10−1 J

ऊर्जा के परिमाणों की कोटियाँ
गुणक (जूल) एस आई प्री-फिक्स मान प्रणाली
10−34   6.626×10−34 J १ हर्ट्ज आवृत्ति वाले एक फोटॉन की ऊर्जा
10−33   2×10−33 J Average kinetic energy of translational motion of a molecule at the lowest temperature reached, 100 picokelvins 1999 के अनुसार 
10−28   6.6×10−28 J Energy of a typical AM radio photon (1 MHz) (4×10−9 eV)
10−24 Yocto- (yJ) 1.6×10−24 J Energy of a typical microwave oven photon (2.45 GHz) (1×10−5 eV)
10−23   2×10−23 J Average kinetic energy of translational motion of a molecule in the Boomerang Nebula, the coldest place known outside of a laboratory, at a temperature of 1 kelvin
10−22   2-3000×10−22 J Energy of infrared light photons
10−21 Zepto- (zJ) 1.7×10−21 J 1 kJ/mol, converted to energy per molecule
2.1×10−21 J Thermal energy in each degree of freedom of a molecule at 25 °C (kT/2) (0.01 eV)
2.856×10−21 J By Landauer's principle, the minimum amount of energy required at 25 °C to change one bit of information
3–7×10−21 J Energy of a van der Waals interaction between atoms (0.02–0.04 eV)
4.1×10−21 J The "kT" constant at 25 °C, a common rough approximation for the total thermal energy of each molecule in a system (0.03 eV)
7–22×10−21 J Energy of a hydrogen bond (0.04 to 0.13 eV)
10−20   4.5×10−20 J Upper bound of the mass-energy of a neutrino in particle physics (0.28 eV)
10−19   1.6×10−19 J ≈1 electronvolt (eV)
3–5×10−19 J Energy range of photons in visible light
3–14×10−19 J Energy of a covalent bond (2–9 eV)
5–200×10−19 J Energy of ultraviolet light photons
10−18 Atto- (aJ)
10−17   2-2000×10−17 J Energy range of X-ray photons
10−16
10−15 Femto- (fJ) 3 * 10−15 J Average kinetic energy of one human red blood cell.
10−14   1×10−14 J Sound energy (vibration) transmitted to the eardrums by listening to a whisper for one second.
> 2×10−14 J Energy of gamma ray photons
2.7×10−14 J Upper bound of the mass-energy of a muon neutrino
8.2×10−14 J Rest mass-energy of an electron
10−13   1.6×10−13 J 1 megaelectronvolt (MeV)
10−12 Pico- (pJ) 2.3×10−12 J Kinetic energy of neutrons produced by D-T fusion, used to trigger fission (14.1 MeV)
10−11   3.4×10−11 J Average total energy released in the nuclear fission of one uranium-235 atom (215 MeV)
10−10   1.5030×10−10 J Rest mass-energy of a proton
1.505×10−10 J Rest mass-energy of a neutron
1.6×10−10 J 1 gigaelectronvolt (GeV)
3×10−10 J Rest mass-energy of a deuteron
6×10−10 J Rest mass-energy of an alpha particle
7×10−10 J Energy required to raise a grain of sand by 0.1mm (the thickness of a piece of paper).
10−9 Nano- (nJ) 1.6×10−9 J 10 GeV
8×10−9 J Initial operating energy per beam of the CERN Large Electron Positron Collider in 1989 (50 GeV)
10−8   1.3×10−8 J Mass-energy of a W boson (80.4 GeV)
1.5×10−8 J Mass-energy of a Z boson (91.2 GeV)
1.6×10−8 J 100 GeV
2×10−8 J Mass-energy of the Higgs Boson (125.1 GeV)
6.4×10−8 J Operating energy per proton of the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerator in 1976
10−7   1×10−7 J ≡ 1 erg
1.6×10−7 J 1 TeV (teraelectronvolt), about the kinetic energy of a flying mosquito
10−6 Micro- (µJ) 1.04×10−6 J Energy per proton in the CERN Large Hadron Collider in 2015 (6.5 TeV)
10−5
10−4
10−3 Milli- (mJ)
10−2 Centi- (cJ)
10−1 Deci- (dJ) 1.1×10−1 J Energy of an American half-dollar falling 1 metre

1 to 106 J

 100 J 1 J ≡ 1 N·m (Newton–metre) 1 J ≡ 1 W·s (Watt-second) 1 J Kinetic energy produced as an extra small apple (~100 grams) falls 1 meter against Earth's gravity 1 J Energy required to heat 1 gram of dry, cool air by 1-degree Celsius 1.4 J ≈ 1 ft·lbf (foot-pound force) 4.184 J ≡ 1 thermochemical calorie (small calorie) 4.1868 J ≡ 1 International (Steam) Table calorie 8 J Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin theoretical upper limit for the energy of a cosmic ray coming from a distant source 101 Deca- (daJ) 5×101 J The most energetic cosmic ray ever detected was most likely a single proton traveling only slightly slower than the speed of light. 102 1×102 J Flash energy of a typical pocket camera electronic flash capacitor (100–400 µF @ 330 V) 3×102 J Energy of a lethal dose of X-rays 3×102 J Kinetic energy of an average person jumping as high as they can 3.3×102 J Energy to melt 1 g of ice > 3.6×102 J Kinetic energy of 800 g standard men's javelin thrown at > 30 m/s by elite javelin throwers 5–20×102 J Energy output of a typical photography studio strobe light in a single flash 6×102 J Kinetic energy of 2 kg standard men's discus thrown at 24.4 m/s by the world record holder Jürgen Schult 6×102 J Use of a 10-watt flashlight for 1-minute 7.5×102 J A power of 1 horsepower applied for 1 second 7.8×102 J Kinetic energy of 7.26 kg standard men's shot thrown at 14.7 m/s by the world record holder Randy Barnes 8.01×102 J Amount of work needed to lift a man with an average weight (81.7 kg) one meter above earth (or any planet with earth gravity) 103 Kilo- (kJ) 1.1×103 J ≈ 1 British thermal unit (BTU), depending on the temperature 1.4×103 J Total solar radiation received from the Sun by 1 square meter at the altitude of Earth's orbit per second (solar constant) 1.8×103 J Kinetic energy of M16 rifle bullet (5.56×45mm NATO M855, 4.1 g fired at 930 m/s) 2.3×103 J Energy to vaporize 1 g of water into steam 3×103 J Lorentz force can crusher pinch 3.4×103 J Kinetic energy of world-record men's hammer throw (7.26 kg thrown at 30.7 m/s in 1986) 3.6×103 J ≡ 1 W·h (Watt-hour) 4.2×103 J Energy released by explosion of 1 gram of TNT 4.2×103 J ≈ 1 food Calorie (large calorie) ~7×103 J Muzzle energy of an elephant gun, e.g. firing a .458 Winchester Magnum 9×103 J Energy in an alkaline AA battery 104 1.7×104 J Energy released by the metabolism of 1 gram of carbohydrates or protein 3.8×104 J Energy released by the metabolism of 1 gram of fat 4–5×104 J Energy released by the combustion of 1 gram of gasoline 5×104 J Kinetic energy of 1 gram of matter moving at 10 km/s 105 3×105 J—15×105 J Kinetic energy of an automobile at highway speeds (1 to 5 tons at 89 km/h or 55 mph) 5×105 J Kinetic energy of 1 gram of a meteor hitting Earth 106 Mega- (MJ) 1×106 J Kinetic energy of a 2 tonne vehicle at 32 metres per second (115 km/h or 72 mph) 1.2×106 J Approximate food energy of a snack such as a Snickers bar (280 food calories) 3.6×106 J = 1 kWh (kilowatt-hour) (used for electricity) 4.2×106 J Energy released by explosion of 1 kilogram of TNT 8.4×106 J Recommended food energy intake per day for a moderately active woman (2000 food calories)

107 to 1012 J

 107 1×107 J Kinetic energy of the armor-piercing round fired by the assault guns of the ISU-152 tank 1.1×107 J Recommended food energy intake per day for a moderately active man (2600 food calories) 3.7×107 J $1 of electricity at a cost of$0.10/kWh (the US average retail cost in 2009) 4×107 J Energy from the combustion of 1 cubic meter of natural gas 4.2×107 J Caloric energy consumed by Olympian Michael Phelps on a daily basis during Olympic training 6.3×107 J Theoretical minimum energy required to accelerate 1 kg of matter to escape velocity from Earth's surface (ignoring atmosphere) 108 1×108 J Kinetic energy of a 55 tonne aircraft at typical landing speed (59 m/s or 115 knots) 1.1×108 J ≈ 1 therm, depending on the temperature 1.1×108 J ≈ 1 Tour de France, or ~90 hours ridden at 5 W/kg by a 65 kg rider 7.3×108 J ≈ Energy from burning 16 kilograms of oil (using 135 kg per barrel of light crude) 109 Giga- (GJ) 1–10×109 J Energy in an average lightning bolt (thunder) 1.1×109 J Magnetic stored energy in the world's largest toroidal superconducting magnet for the ATLAS experiment at CERN, Geneva 1.2×109 J Inflight 100-ton Boeing 757-200 at 300 knots (154 m/s) 1.4x109 J Theoretical minimum amount of energy required to melt a tonne of steel (380 kWh) 2x109 J Energy of an ordinary 61 liter gasoline tank of a car. 2×109 J Planck energy, the unit of energy in Planck units 3×109 J Inflight 125-ton Boeing 767-200 flying at 373 knots (192 m/s) 3.3×109 J Approximate average amount of energy expended by a human heart muscle over an 80-year lifetime 4.2×109 J Energy released by explosion of 1 ton of TNT. 4.5×109 J Average annual energy usage of a standard refrigerator 6.1×109 J ≈ 1 bboe (barrel of oil equivalent) 1010 2.3×1010 J Kinetic energy of an Airbus A380 at cruising speed (560 tonnes at 562 knots or 289 m/s) 4.2×1010 J ≈ 1 toe (ton of oil equivalent) 5×1010 J Yield energy of a Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb, the second most powerful non-nuclear weapon ever designed 7.3×1010 J Energy consumed by the average U.S. automobile in the year 2000 8.6×1010 J ≈ 1 MW·d (megawatt-day), used in the context of power plants 8.8×1010 J Total energy released in the nuclear fission of one gram of uranium-235 1011 2.4×1011 J Approximate food energy consumed by an average human in an 80-year lifetime. 1012 Tera- (TJ) 3.4×1012 J Maximum fuel energy of an Airbus A330-300 (97,530 liters of Jet A-1) 3.6×1012 J 1 GW·h (gigawatt-hour) 4×1012 J Electricity generated by one 20-kg CANDU fuel bundle assuming ~29% thermal efficiency of reactor 6.4×1012 J Energy contained in jet fuel in a Boeing 747-100B aircraft at max fuel capacity (183,380 liters of Jet A-1)

1013 to 1018 J

 1013 1.1×1013 J Energy of the maximum fuel an Airbus A380 can carry (320,000 liters of Jet A-1) 1.2×1013 J Orbital kinetic energy of the International Space Station (417 tonnes at 7.7 km/s) 6.3×1013 J Yield of the Little Boy atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima in World War II (15 kilotons) 9×1013 J Theoretical total mass-energy of 1 gram of matter 1014 3.75×1014 J Total energy released by the Chelyabinsk meteor. 6×1014 J Energy released by an average hurricane in 1 second 1015 Peta- (PJ) > 1015 J Energy released by a severe thunderstorm 1×1015 J Yearly electricity consumption in Greenland as of 2008 4.2×1015 J Energy released by explosion of 1 megaton of TNT 1016 1×1016 J Estimated impact energy released in forming Meteor Crater 1.1×1016 J Yearly electricity consumption in Mongolia as of 2010 9×1016 J Mass-energy in 1 kilogram of antimatter (or matter) 1017 1×1017 J Energy released on the Earth's surface by the magnitude 9.1–9.3 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake 1.7×1017 J Total energy from the Sun that strikes the face of the Earth each second 2.1×1017 J Yield of the Tsar Bomba, the largest nuclear weapon ever tested (50 megatons) 4.2×1017 J Yearly electricity consumption of Norway as of 2008 4.5×1017 J Approximate energy needed to accelerate one ton to one-tenth of the speed of light 8×1017 J Estimated energy released by the eruption of the Indonesian volcano, Krakatoa, in 1883 1018 Exa- (EJ) 1.4×1018 J Yearly electricity consumption of South Korea as of 2009

1019 to 1024 J

 1019 1.4×1019 J Yearly electricity consumption in the U.S. as of 2009 1.4×1019J Yearly electricity production in the U.S. as of 2009 5×1019 J Energy released in 1-day by an average hurricane in producing rain (400 times greater than the wind energy) 6.4×1019 J Yearly electricity consumption of the world 2008 के अनुसार  6.8×1019 J Yearly electricity generation of the world 2008 के अनुसार  1020 5x1020 J Total world annual energy consumption in 2010 8×1020 J Estimated global uranium resources for generating electricity 2005 1021 Zetta- (ZJ) 6.9×1021 J Estimated energy contained in the world's natural gas reserves as of 2010 7.9×1021 J Estimated energy contained in the world's petroleum reserves as of 2010 1022 1.5×1022J Total energy from the Sun that strikes the face of the Earth each day 2.4×1022 J Estimated energy contained in the world's coal reserves as of 2010 2.9×1022 J Identified global uranium-238 resources using fast reactor technology 3.9×1022 J Estimated energy contained in the world's fossil fuel reserves as of 2010 4×1022 J Estimated total energy released by the magnitude 9.1–9.3 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake 1023 2.2×1023 J Total global uranium-238 resources using fast reactor technology 5×1023 J Approximate energy released in the formation of the Chicxulub Crater in the Yucatán Peninsula 1024 Yotta- (YJ) 5.5×1024 J Total energy from the Sun that strikes the face of the Earth each year

> 1025 J

 1025 6×1025 J Energy released by a typical solar flare 1026 1.3×1026 J Conservative estimate of the energy released by the impact that created the Caloris basin on Mercury 3.8×1026 J Total energy output of the Sun each second 1027 1028 3.8×1028 J Kinetic energy of the Moon in its orbit around the Earth (counting only its velocity relative to the Earth) 1029 2.1×1029 J Rotational energy of the Earth 1030 1.8×1030 J Gravitational binding energy of Mercury 1031 3.3×1031 J Total energy output of the Sun each day 1032 2×1032 J Gravitational binding energy of the Earth 1033 2.7×1033 J Earth's kinetic energy in its orbit 1034 1.2×1034 J Total energy output of the Sun each year 1039 6.6×1039 J Theoretical total mass-energy of the Moon 1041 5.4×1041 J Theoretical total mass-energy of the Earth 6.87×1041 J Gravitational binding energy of the Sun 1043 5×1043 J Total energy of all gamma rays in a typical gamma-ray burst 1044 1–2×1044 J Estimated energy released in a supernova, sometimes referred to as a foe 1.2×१०44 J Approximate lifetime energy output of the Sun. 1045 1.1±0.2×१०45 J Brightest observed hypernova ASASSN-15lh few times×1045 J Beaming-corrected 'True' total energy (Energy in gamma rays+relativistic kinetic energy) of hyper-energetic Gamma Ray Burst 1046 1×1046 J Estimated energy released in a hypernova 1047 1.8×1047 J Theoretical total mass-energy of the Sun 5.4×1047 J Mass-energy emitted as gravitational waves during the merger of two black holes, originally about 30 Solar masses each, as observed by LIGO 8.8×1047 J GRB 080916C - the most powerful Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) ever recorded - total 'apparent'/isotropic (not corrected for beaming) energy output estimated at 8.8 × 1047 joules (8.8 × 1054 erg), or 4.9 times the sun’s mass turned to energy. 1053 6x1053 J Total mechanical energy or enthalpy in the powerful AGN outburst in the RBS 797 1054 3x1054 J Total mechanical energy or enthalpy in the powerful AGN outburst in the Hercules A (3C 348) 1055 1055 J Total mechanical energy or enthalpy in the powerful AGN outburst in the MS 0735.6+7421 1058 4×1058 J Visible mass-energy in our galaxy, the Milky Way 1059 1×1059 J Total mass-energy of our galaxy, the Milky Way, including dark matter and dark energy 1062 1–2×1062 J Total mass-energy of the Virgo Supercluster including dark matter, the Supercluster which contains the Milky Way 1069 4×1069 J Estimated total mass-energy of the observable universe

टिप्पणी

1. "Planck's constant | physics | Britannica.com". britannica.com. अभिगमन तिथि 26 December 2016.
2. Calculated: KE_avg ≈ (3/2) * T * 1.38E-23 = (3/2) * 1E-10 * 1.38E-23 ≈ 2.07E-33 J
3. Calculated: E_photon = hv = 6.626e-34 J-s * 1e6 Hz = 6.6e-28 J. In eV: 6.6e-28 J / 1.6e-19 J/eV = 4.1e-9 eV.
4. "Frequency of a Microwave Oven". The Physics Factbook. अभिगमन तिथि 15 November 2011.
5. Calculated: E_photon = hv = 6.626e-34 J-s * 2.45e8 Hz = 1.62e-24 J. In eV: 1.62e-24 J / 1.6e-19 J/eV = 1.0e-5 eV.
6. "Boomerang Nebula boasts the coolest spot in the Universe". JPL. अभिगमन तिथि 13 November 2011.
7. Calculated: KE_avg ≈ (3/2) * T * 1.38E-23 = (3/2) * 1 * 1.38E-23 ≈ 2.07E-23 J
8. "Wavelength, Frequency, and Energy". Imagine the Universe. NASA. अभिगमन तिथि 15 November 2011.
9. Calculated: 1e3 J / 6.022e23 entities per mole = 1.7e-21 J per entity
10. Calculated: 1.381e-23 J/K * 298.15 K / 2 = 2.1e-21 J
11. "Bond Lengths and Energies". Chem 125 notes. UCLA. अभिगमन तिथि 13 November 2011.
12. Calculated: 2 to 4 kJ/mol = 2e3 J / 6.022e23 molecules/mol = 3.3e-21 J. In eV: 3.3e-21 J / 1.6e-19 J/eV = 0.02 eV. 4e3 J / 6.022e23 molecules/mol = 6.7e-21 J. In eV: 6.7e-21 J / 1.6e-19 J/eV = 0.04 eV.
13. Ansari, Anjum. "Basic Physical Scales Relevant to Cells and Molecules". Physics 450. अभिगमन तिथि 13 November 2011.
14. Calculated: 4 to 13 kJ/mol. 4 kJ/mol = 4e3 J / 6.022e23 molecules/mol = 6.7e-21 J. In eV: 6.7e-21 J / 1.6e-19 eV/J = 0.042 eV. 13 kJ/mol = 13e3 J / 6.022e23 molecules/mol = 2.2e-20 J. In eV: 13e3 J / 6.022e23 molecules/mol / 1.6e-19 eV/J = 0.13 eV.
15. Thomas, S.; Abdalla, F.; Lahav, O. (2010). "Upper Bound of 0.28 eV on Neutrino Masses from the Largest Photometric Redshift Survey". Physical Review Letters. 105 (3): 031301. arXiv:0911.5291. PMID 20867754. डीओआइ:10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.031301. बिबकोड:2010PhRvL.105c1301T.
16. Calculated: 0.28 eV * 1.6e-19 J/eV = 4.5e-20 J
17. "CODATA Value: electron volt". NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
18. "BASIC LAB KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS". अभिगमन तिथि 5 November 2011. Visible wavelengths are roughly from 390 nm to 780 nm
19. Calculated: E = h * c / lambda. E_780_nm = 6.6e-34 kg-m^2/s * 3e8 m/s / (780e-9 m) = 2.5e-19 J. E_390 _nm = 6.6e-34 kg-m^2/s * 3e8 m/s / (390e-9 m) = 5.1e-19 J
20. Calculated: 50 kcal/mol * 4.184 J/calorie / 6.0e22e23 molecules/mol = 3.47e-19 J. (3.47e-19 J / 1.60e-19 eV/J = 2.2 eV.) and 200 kcal/mol * 4.184 J/calorie / 6.0e22e23 molecules/mol = 1.389e-18 J. (7.64e-19 J / 1.60e-19 eV/J = 8.68 eV.)
21. Phillips, Kevin; Jacques, Steven; McCarty, Owen (2012). "How much does a cell weigh?". Physical Review Letters. American Physical Society. 109. डीओआइ:10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.118105. Roughly 27 picograms
22. Bob Berman. "Our Bodies' Velocities, By the Numbers". अभिगमन तिथि 19 August 2016. The [...] blood [...] flow[s] at an average speed of 3 to 4 mph
23. Calculated: 1/2 * 27e-12 g * (3.5 miles per hour)^2 = 3e-15 J
24. "Physics of the Body" (PDF). Notre Dame. अभिगमन तिथि 19 August 2016.. "The eardrum is a [...] membran[e] with an area of 65 mm2."
25. "Intensity and the Decibel Scale". Physics Classroom. अभिगमन तिथि 19 August 2016.
26. Calculated: two eardrums ≈ 1 cm2. 1e-6 W/m2 * 1e-4 m2 * 1 s = 1e-14 J
27. Thomas J Bowles (2000). P. Langacker, संपा॰. Neutrinos in physics and astrophysics: from 10–33 to 1028 cm: TASI 98 : Boulder, Colorado, USA, 1–26 June 1998. World Scientific. पृ॰ 354. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 978-981-02-3887-2. अभिगमन तिथि 11 November 2011. an upper limit ov m_v_u < 170 keV
28. Calculated: 170e3 eV * 1.6e-19 J/eV = 2.7e-14 J
29. "electron mass energy equivalent". NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
30. "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
31. Muller, Richard A. (2002). "The Sun, Hydrogen Bombs, and the physics of fusion". अभिगमन तिथि 5 November 2011. The neutron comes out with high energy of 14.1 MeV
32. "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
33. "Energy From Uranium Fission". HyperPhysics. अभिगमन तिथि 8 November 2011.
34. "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
35. "proton mass energy equivalent". NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
36. "neutron mass energy equivalent". NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
37. "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
38. "deuteron mass energy equivalent". NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
39. "alpha particle mass energy equivalent". NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
40. Calculated: 7e-4 g * 9.8 m/s2 * 1e-4 m
41. "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
42. Myers, Stephen. "The LEP Collider". CERN. अभिगमन तिथि 14 November 2011. the LEP machine energy is about 50 GeV per beam
43. Calculated: 50e9 eV * 1.6e-19 J/eV = 8e-9 J
44. "W". PDG Live. Particle Data Group. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
45. "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
46. Amsler, C.; Doser, M.; Antonelli, M.; Asner, D.; Babu, K.; Baer, H.; Band, H.; Barnett, R.; Bergren, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardi, G.; Bertl, W.; Bichsel, H.; Biebel, O.; Bloch, P.; Blucher, E.; Blusk, S.; Cahn, R. N.; Carena, M.; Caso, C.; Ceccucci, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chen, M. -C.; Chivukula, R. S.; Cowan, G.; Dahl, O.; d'Ambrosio, G.; Damour, T.; De Gouvêa, A.; Degrand, T. (2008). "Review of Particle Physics⁎". Physics Letters B. 667: 1–6. डीओआइ:10.1016/j.physletb.2008.07.018. बिबकोड:2008PhLB..667....1A.
47. "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
48. "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
49. ATLAS; CMS (26 March 2015). "Combined Measurement of the Higgs Boson Mass in pp Collisions at √s=7 and 8 TeV with the ATLAS and CMS Experiments". arXiv:1503.07589.
50. Adams, John. "400 GeV Proton Synchrotron". Excertp from the CERN Annual Report 1976. CERN. अभिगमन तिथि 14 November 2011. A circulating proton beam of 400 GeV energy was first achieved in the SPS on 17 June 1976
51. Calculated: 400e9 eV * 1.6e-19 J/eV = 6.4e-8 J
52. "Appendix B8—Factors for Units Listed Alphabetically". NIST Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI). NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011. 1.355818
53. "Conversion from eV to J". NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
54. "Chocolate bar yardstick". अभिगमन तिथि 24 January 2014. A TeV is actually a very tiny amount of energy. A popular analogy is to a flying mosquito.
55. "First successful beam at record energy of 6.5 TeV". अभिगमन तिथि 28 April 2015.
56. Calculated: 6.5e12 eV per beam * 1.6e-19 J/eV = 1.04e-6 J
57. "Coin specifications". United States Mint. अभिगमन तिथि 2 November 2011. 11.340 g
58. Calculated: m*g*h = 11.34e-3 kg * 9.8 m/s^2 * 1 m = 1.1e-1 J
59. "Apples, raw, with skin (NDB No. 09003)". USDA Nutrient Database. USDA. मूल से 3 March 2015 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 8 December 2011.
60. Calculated: m*g*h = 1e-1 kg * 9.8 m/s^2 * 1 m = 1 J
61. "Specific Heat of Dry Air". Engineering Toolbox. अभिगमन तिथि 2 November 2011.
62. "Footnotes". NIST Guide to the SI. NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
63. "Physical Motivations". ULTRA Home Page (EUSO project). Dipartimento di Fisica di Torino. अभिगमन तिथि 12 November 2011.
64. Calculated: 5e19 eV * 1.6e-19 J/ev = 8 J
65. "The Fly's Eye (1981–1993)". HiRes. अभिगमन तिथि 14 November 2011.
66. Bird, D. J. (March 1995). "Detection of a cosmic ray with measured energy well beyond the expected spectral cutoff due to cosmic microwave radiation". Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X), vol. 441, no. 1, p. 144-150. बिबकोड:1995ApJ...441..144B. अभिगमन तिथि 14 February 2014.
67. "Notes on the Troubleshooting and Repair of Electronic Flash Units and Strobe Lights and Design Guidelines, Useful Circuits, and Schematics". अभिगमन तिथि 8 December 2011. The energy storage capacitor for pocket cameras is typically 100 to 400 uF at 330 V (charged to 300 V) with a typical flash energy of 10 W-s.
68. "Teardown: Digital Camera Canon PowerShot |". electroelvis.com. 2 September 2012. अभिगमन तिथि 6 June 2013.
69. "Ionizing Radiation". General Chemistry Topic Review: Nuclear Chemistry. Bodner Research Web. अभिगमन तिथि 5 November 2011.
70. "Vertical Jump Test". Topend Sports. अभिगमन तिथि 12 December 2011. 41–50 cm (males) 31–40 cm (females)
71. "Mass of an Adult". The Physics Factbook. अभिगमन तिथि 13 December 2011. 70 kg
72. Kinetic energy at start of jump = potential energy at high point of jump. Using a mass of 70 kg and a high point of 40 cm => energy = m*g*h = 70 kg * 9.8 m/s^2 * 40e-2 m = 274 J
73. "Latent Heat of Melting of some common Materials". Engineering Toolbox. अभिगमन तिथि 10 June 2013. 334 kJ/kg
74. "Javelin Throw – Introduction". IAAF. अभिगमन तिथि 12 December 2011.
75. Young, Michael. "Developing Event Specific Strength for the Javelin Throw" (PDF). अभिगमन तिथि 13 December 2011. For elite athletes, the velocity of a javelin release has been measured in excess of 30m/s
76. Calculated: 1/2 * 0.8 kg * (30 m/s)^2 = 360 J
77. Greenspun, Philip. "Studio Photography". अभिगमन तिथि 13 December 2011. Most serious studio photographers start with about 2000 watts-seconds
78. "Discus Throw – Introduction". IAAF. अभिगमन तिथि 12 December 2011.
79. Calculated: 1/2 * 2 kg * (24.4 m/s)^2 = 595.4 J
80. "Shot Put – Introduction". IAAF. अभिगमन तिथि 12 December 2011.
81. Calculated: 1/2 * 7.26 kg * (14.7 m/s)^2 = 784 J
82. Kopp, G.; Lean, J. L. (2011). "A new, lower value of total solar irradiance: Evidence and climate significance" (PDF). Geophysical Research Letters. 38: n/a. डीओआइ:10.1029/2010GL045777. बिबकोड:2011GeoRL..38.1706K.
83. "Intermediate power ammunition for automatic assault rifles". Modern Firearms. World Guns. अभिगमन तिथि 12 December 2011.
84. "Fluids - Latent Heat of Evaporation". Engineering Toolbox. अभिगमन तिथि 10 June 2013. 2257 kJ/kg
85. "Hammer Throw – Introduction". IAAF. अभिगमन तिथि 12 December 2011.
86. Otto, Ralf M. "HAMMER THROW WR PHOTOSEQUENCE – YURIY SEDYKH" (pdf). अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011. The total release velocity is 30.7 m/sec
87. Calculated: 1/2 * 7.26 kg * (30.7 m/s)^2 = 3420 J
88. 4.2e9 J/ton of TNT-equivalent * (1 ton/1e6 grams) = 4.2e3 J/gram of TNT-equivalent
89. ".458 Winchester Magnum" (pdf). Accurate Powder. Western Powders Inc. अभिगमन तिथि 7 September 2010.
90. "Battery energy storage in various battery sizes". AllAboutBatteries.com. अभिगमन तिथि 15 December 2011.
91. "Energy Density of Carbohydrates". The Physics Factbook. अभिगमन तिथि 5 November 2011.
92. "Energy Density of Protein". The Physics Factbook. अभिगमन तिथि 5 November 2011.
93. "Energy Density of Fats". The Physics Factbook. अभिगमन तिथि 5 November 2011.
94. "Energy Density of Gasoline". The Physics Factbook. अभिगमन तिथि 5 November 2011.
95. Calculated: E = 1/2 m*v^2 = 1/2 * (1e-3 kg) * (1e4 m/s)^2 = 5e4 J.
96. "List of Car Weights". LoveToKnow. अभिगमन तिथि 13 December 2011. 3000 to 12000 pounds
97. Calculated: Using car weights of 1 ton to 5 tons. E = 1/2 m*v^2 = 1/2 * (1e3 kg) * (55 mph * 1600 m/mi / 3600 s/hr) = 3.0e5 J. E = 1/2 * (5e3 kg) * (55 mph * 1600 m/mi / 3600 s/hr) = 15e5 J.
98. Muller, Richard A. "Kinetic Energy in a meteor". Old Physics 10 notes.
99. Calculated: KE = 1/2 * 2e3 kg * (32 m/s)^2 = 1.0e6 J
100. "Candies, MARS SNACKFOOD US, SNICKERS Bar (NDB No. 19155)". USDA Nutrient Database. USDA. मूल से 3 March 2015 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 14 November 2011.
101. "How to Balance the Food You Eat and Your Physical Activity and Prevent Obesity". Healthy Weight Basics. National Heart Lung and Blood Institutde. अभिगमन तिथि 14 November 2011.
102. Calculated: 2000 food calories = 2.0e6 cal * 4.184 J/cal = 8.4e6 J
103. Calculated: 1/2 * m * v^2 = 1/2 * 48.78 kg * (655 m/s)^2 = 1.0e7 J.
104. Calculated: 2600 food calories = 2.6e6 cal * 4.184 J/cal = 1.1e7 J
105. "Table 3.3 Consumer Price Estimates for Energy by Source, 1970–2009". Annual Energy Review. US Energy Information Administration. 19 October 2011. अभिगमन तिथि 17 December 2011. $28.90 per million BTU 106. Calculated J per dollar: 1 million BTU/$28.90 = 1e6 BTU / 28.90 dollars * 1.055e3 J/BTU = 3.65e7 J/dollar
107. Calculated cost per kWh: 1 kWh * 3.60e6 J/kWh / 3.65e7 J/dollar = 0.0986 dollar/kWh
108. "Energy in a Cubic Meter of Natural Gas". The Physics Factbook. अभिगमन तिथि 15 December 2011.
109. "The Olympic Diet of Michael Phelps". WebMD. अभिगमन तिथि 28 December 2011.
110. Cline, James E. D. "Energy to Space". अभिगमन तिथि 13 November 2011. 6.27E7 Joules / Kg
111. "Tour de France Winners, Podium, Times". Bike Race Info. अभिगमन तिथि 10 December 2011.
112. "Watts/kg". Flamme Rouge. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
113. Calculated: 90 hr * 3600 seconds/hr * 5 W/kg * 65 kg = 1.1e8 J
114. Smith, Chris. "How do Thunderstorms Work?". The Naked Scientists. अभिगमन तिथि 15 November 2011. It discharges about 1–10 billion joules of energy
115. "Powering up ATLAS's mega magnet". Spotlight on... CERN. अभिगमन तिथि 10 December 2011. magnetic energy of 1.1 Gigajoules
116. "ITP Metal Casting: Melting Efficiency Improvement" (PDF). ITP Metal Casting. U.S. Department of Energy. अभिगमन तिथि 14 November 2011. 377 kWh/mt
117. Calculated: 380 kW-h * 3.6e6 J/kW-h = 1.37e9 J
118. Bell Fuels. "Lead-Free Gasoline Material Safety Data Sheet". NOAA. अभिगमन तिथि 6 July 2008.
119. $E_{p}={\sqrt {\frac {\hbar c^{5}}{G}}}$ 120. "Power of a Human Heart". The Physics Factbook. अभिगमन तिथि 10 December 2011. The mechanical power of the human heart is ~1.3 watts
121. Calculated: 1.3 J/s * 80 years * 3.16e7 s/year = 3.3e9 J
122. "U.S. Household Electricity Uses: A/C, Heating, Appliances". U.S. HOUSEHOLD ELECTRICITY REPORT. EIA. अभिगमन तिथि 13 December 2011. For refrigerators in 2001, the average UEC was 1,239 kWh
123. Calculated: 1239 kWh * 3.6e6 J/kWh = 4.5e9 J
124. Energy Units, by Arthur Smith, 21 January 2005
125. "Top 10 Biggest Explosions". Listverse. अभिगमन तिथि 10 December 2011. a yield of 11 tons of TNT
126. Calculated: 11 tons of TNT-equivalent * 4.184e9 J/ton of TNT-equivalent = 4.6e10 J
127. "Emission Facts: Average Annual Emissions and Fuel Consumption for Passenger Cars and Light Trucks". EPA. अभिगमन तिथि 12 December 2011. 581 gallons of gasoline
128. "200 Mile-Per-Gallon Cars?". अभिगमन तिथि 12 December 2011. a gallon of gas ... 125 million joules of energy
129. Calculated: 581 gallons * 125e6 J/gal = 7.26e10 J
130. Calculated: 1e6 Watts * 86400 seconds/day = 8.6e10 J
131. Calculated: 3.44e-10 J/U-235-fission * 1e-3 kg / (235 amu per U-235-fission * 1.66e-27 amu/kg) = 8.82e-10 J
132. Calculated: 2000 kcal/day * 365 days/year * 80 years = 2.4e11 J
133. "A330-300 Dimensions & key data". Airbus. अभिगमन तिथि 12 December 2011. 97530 litres
134. "Archived copy" (PDF). मूल (PDF) से 8 June 2011 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 2011-08-19.
135. Calculated: 97530 liters * 0.804 kg/L * 43.15 MJ/kg = 3.38e12 J
136. Calculated: 1e9 Watts * 3600 seconds/hour
137. Weston, Kenneth. "Chapter 10. Nuclear Power Plants" (pdf). Energy Conversion. अभिगमन तिथि 13 December 2011. The thermal efficiency of a CANDU plant is only about 29%
138. "CANDU and Heavy Water Moderated Reactors". अभिगमन तिथि 12 December 2011. fuel burnup in a CANDU is only 6500 to 7500 MWd per metric ton uranium
139. Calculated: 7500e6 Watt-days/tonne * (0.020 tonnes per bundle) * 86400 seconds/day = 1.3e13 J of burnup energy. Electricity = burnup * ~29% efficiency = 3.8e12 J
140. "747 Classics Technical Specs". Boeing. मूल से 10 December 2007 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 12 December 2011. 183,380 L
141. Calculated: 183380 liters * 0.804 kg/L * 43.15 MJ/kg = 6.36e12 J
142. "A380-800 Dimensions & key data". Airbus. अभिगमन तिथि 12 December 2011. 320,000 L
143. Calculated: 320,000 l * 0.804 kg/L * 43.15  MJ/kg = 11.1e12 J
144. "International Space Station: The ISS to Date". NASA. अभिगमन तिथि 23 August 2011.
145. "The wizards of orbits". European Space Agency. अभिगमन तिथि 10 December 2011. The International Space Station, for example, flies at 7.7 km/s in one of the lowest practicable orbits
146. Calculated: E = 1/2 m.v2 = 1/2 * 417000 kg * (7700m/s)2 = 1.2e13 J
147. "What was the yield of the Hiroshima bomb?". Warbird's Forum. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011. 21 kt
148. Calculated: 15 kt = 15e9 grams of TNT-equivalent * 4.2e3 J/gram TNT-equivalent = 6.3e13 J
149. "Conversion from kg to J". NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
150. "JPL - Fireballs and bolides". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA. अभिगमन तिथि 13 April 2017.
151. "How much energy does a hurricane release?". FAQ : HURRICANES, TYPHOONS, AND TROPICAL CYCLONES. NOAA. अभिगमन तिथि 12 November 2011.
152. "The Gathering Storms". COSMOS. अभिगमन तिथि 10 December 2011.
153. "Country Comparison :: Electricity – consumption". The World Factbook. CIA. मूल से 28 January 2012 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 11 December 2011.
154. Calculated: 288.6e6 kWh * 3.60e6 J/kWh = 1.04e15 J
155. Calculated: 4.2e9 J/ton of TNT-equivalent * 1e6 tons/megaton = 4.2e15 J/megaton of TNT-equivalent
156. Calculated: 3.02e9 kWh * 3.60e6 J/kWh = 1.09e16 J
157. Calculated: E = mc^2 = 1 kg * (2.998e8 m/s)^2 = 8.99e16 J
158. "USGS Energy and Broadband Solution". National Earthquake Information Center, US Geological Survey. मूल से 4 April 2010 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 9 December 2011.
159. The Earth has a cross section of 1.274×1014 square meters and the solar constant is 1361 watts per square meter.
160. "The Soviet Weapons Program – The Tsar Bomba". The Nuclear Weapon Archive. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
161. Calculated: 50e6 tons TNT-equivalent * 4.2e9 J/ton TNT-equivalent = 2.1e17 J
162. Calculated: 115.6e9 kWh * 3.60e6 J/kWh = 4.16e17 J
163. Alexander, R. McNeill (1989). Dynamics of Dinosaurs and Other Extinct Giants. Columbia University Press. पृ॰ 144. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 0-231-06667-8. the explosion of the island volcano Krakatoa in 1883, had about 200 megatonnes energy.
164. Calculated: 200e6 tons of TNT equivalent * 4.2e9 J/ton of TNT equivalent = 8.4e17 J
165. Calculated: 402e9 kWh * 3.60e6 J/kWh = 1.45e17 J
166. Calculated: 3.741e12 kWh * 3.600e6 J/kWh = 1.347e19 J
167. "United States". The World Factbook. USA. अभिगमन तिथि 11 December 2011.
168. Calculated: 3.953e12 kWh * 3.600e6 J/kWh = 1.423e19 J
169. "World". The World Factbook. CIA. अभिगमन तिथि 11 December 2011.
170. Calculated: 17.8e12 kWh * 3.60e6 J/kWh = 6.41e19 J
171. Calculated: 18.95e12 kWh * 3.60e6 J/kWh = 6.82e19 J
172. "Statistical Review of World Energy 2011" (PDF). BP. मूल (PDF) से 2 September 2011 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 9 December 2011.
173. Calculated: 12002.4e6 tonnes of oil equivalent * 42e9 J/tonne of oil equivalent = 5.0e20 J
174. "Global Uranium Resources to Meet Projected Demand | International Atomic Energy Agency". iaea.org. अभिगमन तिथि 26 December 2016.
175. U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Generation
176. "U.S. EIA International Energy Outlook 2007". eia.doe.gov. अभिगमन तिथि 26 December 2016.
177. Final number is computed. Energy Outlook 2007 shows 15.9% of world energy is nuclear. IAEA estimates conventional uranium stock, at today's prices is sufficient for 85 years. Convert billion kilowatt-hours to joules then: 6.25×1019×0.159×85 = 8.01×1020.
178. Calculated: "6608.9 trillion cubic feet" => 6608.9e3 billion cubic feet * 0.025 million tonnes of oil equivalent/billion cubic feet * 1e6 tonnes of oil equivalent/million tonnes of oil equivalent * 42e9 J/tonne of oil equivalent = 6.9e21 J
179. Calculated: "188.8 thousand million tonnes" => 188.8e9 tonnes of oil * 42e9 J/tonne of oil = 7.9e21 J
180. Calculated: 1.27e14 m^2 * 1370 W/m^2 * 86400 s/day = 1.5e22 J
181. Calculated: 860938 million tonnes of coal => 860938e6 tonnes of coal * (1/1.5 tonne of oil equivalent / tonne of coal) * 42e9 J/tonne of oil equivalent = 2.4e22 J
182. Calculated: natural gas + petroleum + coal = 6.9e21 J + 7.9e21 J + 2.4e22 J = 3.9e22 J
183. "USGS, Harvard Moment Tensor Solution". National Earthquake Information Center. 26 December 2004. मूल से 17 January 2010 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 9 December 2011.
184. Bralower, Timothy J.; Charles K. Paull; R. Mark Leckie (April 1998). "The Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary cocktail: Chicxulub impact triggers margin collapse and extensive sediment gravity flows" (PDF). Geology. 26 (4): 331–334. डीओआइ:10.1130/0091-7613(1998)026<0331:tctbcc>2.3.co;2. बिबकोड:1998Geo....26..331B. मूल (PDF) से 28 November 2007 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 6 June 2013. The kinetic energy derived by the impact is estimated at ~5 × 10^30 ergs
185. Calculated: 1.27e14 m^2 * 1370 W/m^2 * 86400 s/day = 5.5e24 J
186. "Ask Us: Sun: Amount of Energy the Earth Gets from the Sun". Cosmicopia. NASA. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
187. "Moon Fact Sheet". NASA. अभिगमन तिथि 16 December 2011.
188. Calculated: KE = 1/2 * m * v^2. v = 1.023e3 m/s. m = 7.349e22 kg. KE = 1/2 * (7.349e22 kg) * (1.023e3 m/s)^2 = 3.845e28 J.
189. "Moment of Inertia—Earth". Eric Weisstein's World of Physics. अभिगमन तिथि 5 November 2011.
190. Allain, Rhett. "Rotational energy of the Earth as an energy source". .dotphysics. Science Blogs. अभिगमन तिथि 5 November 2011. the Earth takes 23.9345 hours to rotate
191. Calculated: E_rotational = 1/2 * I * w^2 = 1/2 * (8.0e37 kg m^2) * (2*pi/(23.9345 hour period * 3600 seconds/hour))^2 = 2.1e29 J
192. Calculated: 3.8e26 J/s * 86400 s/day = 3.3e31 J
193. "Earth's Gravitational Binding Energy". अभिगमन तिथि 19 March 2012. Variable Density Method: the Earth's gravitational binding energy is −1.711×10^32 J
194. "DutchS/pseudosc/flipaxis". uwgb.edu. अभिगमन तिथि 26 December 2016.
195. Calculated: 3.8e26 J/s * 86400 s/day * 365.25 days/year = 1.2e34 J
196. "Earth: Facts & Figures". Solar System Exploration. NASA. अभिगमन तिथि 29 September 2011.
197. "Conversion from kg to J". NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
198. $U={\frac {(3/5)GM^{2}}{r}}$ Chandrasekhar, S. 1939, An Introduction to the Study of Stellar Structure (Chicago: U. of Chicago; reprinted in New York: Dover), section 9, eqs. 90–92, p. 51 (Dover edition)
Lang, K. R. 1980, Astrophysical Formulae (Berlin: Springer Verlag), p. 272
199. Frail, D. A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Sari, R.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Bloom, J. S.; Galama, T. J.; Reichart, D. E.; Berger, E.; Harrison, F. A.; Price, P. A.; Yost, S. A.; Diercks, A.; Goodrich, R. W.; Chaffee, F. (2001). "Beaming in Gamma-Ray Bursts: Evidence for a Standard Energy Reservoir" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 562: L55. arXiv:astro-ph/0102282. डीओआइ:10.1086/338119. बिबकोड:2001ApJ...562L..55F. "the gamma-ray energy release, corrected for geometry, is narrowly clustered around 5 * 10^50 erg"
200. Calculated: 5e50 erg * 1e-7 J/erg = 5e43 J
201. Khokhlov, A.; Mueller, E.; Hoeflich, P.; Mueller; Hoeflich (1993). "Light curves of Type IA supernova models with different explosion mechanisms". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 270 (1–2): 223–248. बिबकोड:1993A&A...270..223K.
202. Dong, S.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Jha, S. W.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.- S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Thompson, T. A.; Morrell, N.; Thompson, I. B.; एवं अन्य (15 January 2016). "ASASSN-15lh: A highly super-luminous supernova". Science. 351 (6270): 257–260. arXiv:1507.03010. PMID 26816375. डीओआइ:10.1126/science.aac9613. बिबकोड:2016Sci...351..257D.
203. "A Hypernova: The Super-charged Supernova and its link to Gamma-Ray Bursts". Imagine the Universe!. NASA. अभिगमन तिथि 9 December 2011. With a power about 100 times that of the already astonishingly powerful "typical" supernova
204. "Sun Fact Sheet". NASA. अभिगमन तिथि 15 October 2011.
205. "Conversion from kg to J". NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
206. Abbott, B.; एवं अन्य (2016). "Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger". Physical Review Letters. 116 (6): 061102. arXiv:1602.03837. PMID 26918975. डीओआइ:10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.061102. बिबकोड:2016PhRvL.116f1102A.
207. Jim Brau. "The Milky Way Galaxy". अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
208. "Conversion from kg to J". NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
209. Karachentsev, I. D.; Kashibadze, O. G. (2006). "Masses of the local group and of the M81 group estimated from distortions in the local velocity field". Astrophysics. 49 (1): 3–18. डीओआइ:10.1007/s10511-006-0002-6. बिबकोड:2006Ap.....49....3K.
210. "Conversion from kg to J". NIST. अभिगमन तिथि 4 November 2011.
211. Einasto, M.; एवं अन्य (December 2007). "The richest superclusters. I. Morphology". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 476 (2): 697–711. arXiv:0706.1122. डीओआइ:10.1051/0004-6361:20078037. बिबकोड:2007A&A...476..697E.
212. "Big Bang Energy". web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. अभिगमन तिथि 26 December 2016.