आर (प्रोग्रामन भाषा)

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आर (R)
R logo.svg
पहला अवतरण अगस्त 1993; 25 वर्ष पहले (1993-08)[1]
डिज़ाइनर Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman
निर्माता R Core Team[2]
स्थायी विमोचन 3.5.2 ("Eggshell Igloo")[3] (दिसम्बर 20, 2018; 3 महीने पहले (2018-12-20))
लिखने का तरिका Dynamic
प्रभावकर्ता
प्रभावित Julia[4]
अनुज्ञप्‍तिधारी GNU GPL v2[5]
सामान्य संचिका नाम अनुयोजन .r, .R, .RData, .rds, .rda
वेबसाइट साँचा:Official URL
Wikibooks logo विकिपुस्तक पर R Programming

आर (R) कम्प्यूटर की एक प्रोग्रामन भाषा है जो विशेषत: सांख्यिकी से संबन्धित गणना करने एवं ग्राफ आदि बनाने हेतु उपयोगी है। यह भाषा विश्व के सांख्यिकीविदों में सांख्यिकी से सम्बन्धित सॉफ्ट्वेयरों के निर्माण के लिये मानक भाषा जैसे प्रचलित हो गयी है।

उदाहरण[संपादित करें]

मूलभूत सिन्टैक्स[संपादित करें]

The following examples illustrate the basic syntax of the language and use of the command-line interface.

In R, the generally preferred[6] assignment operator is an arrow made from two characters <-, although = can usually be used instead.[7]

> x <- 1:6  # Create vector.
> y <- x^2  # Create vector by formula.
> print(y)  # Print the vector’s contents.
[1]  1  4  9 16 25 36

> mean(y)  # Arithmetic mean of vector.
[1] 15.16667

> var(y)  # Sample variance of vector.
[1] 178.9667

> model <- lm(y ~ x)  # Linear regression model y = A + B * x.
> print(model)  # Print the model’s results.

Call:
lm(formula = y ~ x)

Coefficients:
(Intercept)            x  
     -9.333        7.000  

> summary(model)  # Display an in-depth summary of the model.

Call:
lm(formula = y ~ x)

Residuals:
      1       2       3       4       5       6 
 3.3333 -0.6667 -2.6667 -2.6667 -0.6667  3.3333 

Coefficients:
            Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)    
(Intercept)  -9.3333     2.8441  -3.282 0.030453 *  
x             7.0000     0.7303   9.585 0.000662 ***
---
Signif. codes:  0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1

Residual standard error: 3.055 on 4 degrees of freedom
Multiple R-squared:  0.9583,	Adjusted R-squared:  0.9478 
F-statistic: 91.88 on 1 and 4 DF,  p-value: 0.000662

> par(mfrow = c(2, 2))  # Create a 2 by 2 layout for figures.
> plot(model)  # Output diagnostic plots of the model.

Diagnostic plots from plotting “model” (q.v. “plot.lm()” function). Notice the mathematical notation allowed in labels (lower left plot).

फ्ंक्शन की संरचना[संपादित करें]

One of R’s strengths is the ease of creating new functions. Objects in the function body remain local to the function, and any data type may be returned.[8] Here is an example user-created function:

# Declare function “f” with parameters “x”, “y“
# that returns a linear combination of x and y.
f <- function(x, y) {
  z <- 3 * x + 4 * y
  return(z)
}
> f(1, 2)
[1] 11

> f(c(1,2,3), c(5,3,4))
[1] 23 18 25

> f(1:3, 4)
[1] 19 22 25

Mandelbrot set[संपादित करें]

Short R code calculating Mandelbrot set through the first 20 iterations of equation z = z2 + c plotted for different complex constants c. This example demonstrates:

  • use of community-developed external libraries (called packages), in this case caTools package
  • handling of complex numbers
  • multidimensional arrays of numbers used as basic data type, see variables C, Z and X.
install.packages("caTools")  # install external package
library(caTools)             # external package providing write.gif function
jet.colors <- colorRampPalette(c("red", "blue", "#007FFF", "cyan", "#7FFF7F",
                                 "yellow", "#FF7F00", "red", "#7F0000"))
dx <- 1500                    # define width
dy <- 1400                    # define height
C  <- complex(real = rep(seq(-2.2, 1.0, length.out = dx), each = dy),
              imag = rep(seq(-1.2, 1.2, length.out = dy), dx))
C <- matrix(C, dy, dx)       # reshape as square matrix of complex numbers
Z <- 0                       # initialize Z to zero
X <- array(0, c(dy, dx, 20)) # initialize output 3D array
for (k in 1:20) {            # loop with 20 iterations
  Z <- Z^2 + C               # the central difference equation
  X[, , k] <- exp(-abs(Z))   # capture results
}
write.gif(X, "Mandelbrot.gif", col = jet.colors, delay = 100)

"Mandelbrot.gif" – graphics created in R with 14 lines of code in Example 2


बाहरी कड़ियाँ[संपादित करें]

  • The R wiki is a community wiki for R.
  • R books has an extensive list (with brief comments) of books related to R.
  • The R Graphical Manual provides a collection of R graphics from all R packages, as well as an index to all functions in all R packages.
  • The R Wikibook.
  1. साँचा:Cite techreport
  2. Hornik, Kurt (November 26, 2015). "R FAQ". The Comprehensive R Archive Network. 2.1 What is R?. अभिगमन तिथि 2018-08-05.
  3. "The Comprehensive R Archive Network". अभिगमन तिथि 2018-12-26.
  4. "Introduction". The Julia Manual. मूल से 20 June 2018 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 5 August 2018.
  5. "R license". r-project. अभिगमन तिथि 2018-08-05.
  6. most used assignment operator in R is <-
  7. R Development Core Team. "Assignments with the = Operator". अभिगमन तिथि 2018-09-11.
  8. Kabacoff, Robert (2012). "Quick-R: User-Defined Functions". statmethods.net. अभिगमन तिथि 2018-09-28.