# विज्ञान के नियम

(भौतिक नियम से अनुप्रेषित)
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उन भौतिक नियमों को विज्ञान के नियम कहा जाता है जो सार्वत्रिक (universal) समझे जाते हैं तथा जो भौतिक जगत के अपरिवर्तनशील तथ्य हैं।[संदिग्ध] किन्तु फिर भी, यदि कोई नया तथ्य या साक्ष्य मिलता है जो इस नियम के विरुद्ध हो तो विज्ञान के नियम असत्य सिद्ध हो सकते हैं। "नियम", परिकल्पना (hypotheses), सिद्धान्त (theories), अभिगृहीत (postulates), प्रिंसिपल (principle) आदि से इस मामले में अलग है कि नियम विश्लेषणात्मक कथन (analytic statement) होता है जिसमें प्राय: प्रयोग द्वारा कोई नियतांक प्राप्त किया गया होता है। किसी सिद्धान्त में कई नियम हो सकते हैं या वह सिद्धान्त किसी नियम से इंगित होता हो सकता है।

## बिहंगम दृष्टि (Overview)

एक मोटे अनुमान के अनुसार ब्रह्माण्ड में कोई १८ मूल भौतिक नियम होंगे। 

 आर्कीमिडीज का सिद्धान्त (Archimedes’ principle) बल, द्रव्यमान एवं त्वरण केप्लर के उपग्रहीय गति के नियम (तीन नियम) न्यूटन के गति के नियम (तीन नियम) रिजिड बॉडी (rigid body) की गति के यूलर के नियम न्यूटन का सार्वत्रिक गुरुत्वाकर्षण का नियम उष्मा, उर्जा एवं ताप न्यूटन का शीतलन का नियम बॉयल का नियम उर्जा संरक्षण का नियम जूल के नियम (जूल का प्रथम एवं द्वितीय नियम) उष्मागतिकी के नियम (चार नियम) क्वाण्टम यांत्रिकी हाइजेनबर्ग का अनिश्चितता का सिद्धानत

## संरक्षण के नियम (Conservation laws)

संरक्षन के नियम विज्ञान में सर्वाधिक महत्त्व रखते हैं।

• [[द्रव्य की अविनाशिता का नियम
   द्रव्यमान संरक्षण का नियम(Conservation of mass)


ये मूल नियम स्पेस, समय एवं कला (phase) की समांगता (homogeneity) के परिणाम हैं। एमी नीदर का प्रमेय (Emmy Noether theorem) देखिये।

## गैस के नियम

Other less significant (non fundamental) laws are the mathematical consequences of the above conservation laws for derivative physical quantities (mathematically defined as force, pressure, temperature, density, force fields, etc):

## आइंस्टीन के नियम

$E\ =hf$ Special Relativity
• Constancy of the speed of light
• Lorentz transformations - Transformations of Cartesian coordinates between relatively moving reference frames.
$x'=(x-vt)/{\sqrt {1-v^{2}/c^{2}}}$ $y'=y$ $z'=z$ $t'=(t-vx/c^{2})/{\sqrt {1-v^{2}/c^{2}}}$ • Mass-energy equivalence
$\ E=mc^{2}$ (Energy = mass × speed of light2)
General Relativity
• Energy-momentum (including mass via E=mc2) curves spacetime.
This is described by the Einstein field equations:
$R_{ab}-{1 \over 2}R\,g_{ab}={8\pi G \over c^{4}}T_{ab}.$ $R_{ab}$ is the Ricci tensor, $R$ is the Ricci scalar, $g_{ab}$ is the metric tensor, $T_{ab}$ is the stress-energy tensor, and the constant is given in terms of $\pi$ (pi), $c$ (the speed of light) and $G$ (the gravitational constant).
$\ E=mc^{2}$ where $m={\frac {m_{0}}{\sqrt {1-{\frac {v^{2}}{c^{2}}}}}}$ ## न्यूटन के नियम

1. Law of Inertia
2. $\ F=d({\vec {p}})/dt$ . Although it implies $\ F=ma$ , that is not necessarily true.
3. $F_{ab}=-F_{ba}$ . Force of a on b equals the negative force of b on a, or for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
• $F_{g}=G{\frac {m_{1}m_{2}}{r^{2}}}$ • This law is really just the low limit solution of Einstein's field equations and is not accurate with modern high precision gravitational measurements.

## रासायनिक नियम

Chemical laws are those laws of nature relevant to chemistry. The most fundamental concept in chemistry is the law of conservation of mass, which states that there is no detectable change in the quantity of matter during an ordinary chemical reaction. Modern physics shows that it is actually energy that is conserved, and that energy and mass are related; a concept which becomes important in nuclear chemistry. Conservation of energy leads to the important concepts of equilibrium, thermodynamics, and kinetics.

Additional laws of chemistry elaborate on the law of conservation of mass. Joseph Proust's law of definite composition says that pure chemicals are composed of elements in a definite formulation; we now know that the structural arrangement of these elements is also important.

Dalton's law of multiple proportions says that these chemicals will present themselves in proportions that are small whole numbers (i.e. 1:2 O:H in water); although in many systems (notably biomacromolecules and minerals) the ratios tend to require large numbers, and are frequently represented as a fraction.

More modern laws of chemistry define the relationship between energy and transformations.

• In equilibrium, molecules exist in mixture defined by the transformations possible on the timescale of the equilibrium, and are in a ratio defined by the intrinsic energy of the molecules—the lower the intrinsic energy, the more abundant the molecule.
• Transforming one structure to another requires the input of energy to cross an energy barrier; this can come from the intrinsic energy of the molecules themselves, or from an external source which will generally accelerate transformations. The higher the energy barrier, the slower the transformation occurs.
• There is a hypothetical intermediate, or transition structure, that corresponds to the structure at the top of the energy barrier. The Hammond-Leffler Postulate states that this structure looks most similar to the product or starting material which has intrinsic energy closest to that of the energy barrier. Stabilizing this hypothetical intermediate through chemical interaction is one way to achieve catalysis.
• All chemical processes are reversible (law of microscopic reversibility) although some processes have such an energy bias, they are essentially irreversible.

## विद्युतचुम्बकीय नियम (Electromagnetic laws)

$F={\frac {\left|q_{1}q_{2}\right|}{4\pi \epsilon _{0}r^{2}}}$ $V=I\cdot R$ Name Partial Differential form Gauss's law : $\nabla \cdot \mathbf {D} =\rho$ Gauss's law for magnetism: $\nabla \cdot \mathbf {B} =0$ Faraday's law of induction: $\nabla \times \mathbf {E} =-{\frac {\partial \mathbf {B} }{\partial t}}$ Ampère's law + Maxwell's extension: $\nabla \times \mathbf {H} =\mathbf {J} +{\frac {\partial \mathbf {D} }{\partial t}}$ ## उष्मागतिकीय नियम (Thermodynamic laws)

• Zeroth law of thermodynamics
If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium with one another.
• First law of thermodynamics
The change in energy dU in a system is accounted for entirely by the heat δQ absorbed by the system and the work δW done by the system:
$\mathrm {d} U=\delta Q-\delta W\,$ • Second law of thermodynamics
$\int {\frac {\delta Q}{T}}\geq 0$ • Third law of thermodynamics
As the temperature T of a system approaches absolute zero, the entropy S approaches a minimum value C: as T → 0, S → C.
• Onsager reciprocal relations - sometimes called the Fourth Law of Thermodynamics
$\mathbf {J} _{u}=L_{uu}\,\nabla (1/T)-L_{ur}\,\nabla (m/T)\!$ ;
$\mathbf {J} _{r}=L_{ru}\,\nabla (1/T)-L_{rr}\,\nabla (m/T)\!$ .

## क्वाण्टम नियम

• हाइजेनबर्ग का अनिश्चितता का सिद्धान्त - स्थिति की अनिश्चितता एवं संवेग की अनिश्चितता का गुणनफल 'परिवर्तित (reduced) प्लैंक नियतांक' के आधे के बराबर या उससे अधिक होता है।
$\Delta x\Delta p\geq {\frac {\hbar }{2}}$ • Matter wavelength - Laid the foundations of particle-wave duality and was the key idea in the Schrödinger equation.
$\lambda ={\frac {hc}{mc^{2}}}={\frac {h}{mc}}={\frac {h}{p}}$ • Schrödinger equation - Describes the time dependence of a quantum mechanical system.
$H(t)\left|\psi (t)\right\rangle =i\hbar {\partial \over \partial t}\left|\psi (t)\right\rangle$ The Hamiltonian H(t) is a self-adjoint operator acting on the state space, $\psi (t)$ is the instantaneous state vector at time t, i is the unit imaginary number, $\hbar$ is Planck's constant divided by 2π

It is thought that the successful integration of Einstein's field equations with the uncertainty principle and Schrödinger equation, something no one has achieved so far with a testable theory, will lead to a theory of quantum gravity, the most basic physical law sought after today.

## अन्य नियम

$-\nabla p+\mu \left(\nabla ^{2}\mathbf {u} +{1 \over 3}\nabla (\nabla \cdot \mathbf {u} )\right)+\rho \mathbf {u} =\rho \left({\partial \mathbf {u} \over \partial t}+\mathbf {u} \cdot \nabla \mathbf {u} \right)$ $\Phi _{V}={\pi r^{4} \over 8\eta }{\triangle p^{\star } \over l}$ ## टिप्पणी

1. Powell, Michael (2004). Stuff You Should Have Learned at School. Barnes & Noble Books. आई॰ऍस॰बी॰ऍन॰ 0-7607-6279-1.