विभिन्न युक्तियों की आंकड़ा-विनिमय दर

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संपर्क का प्रकार (Connection) बिट (Bit) बाइट (Bytes)

टेलीप्रिन्टर (TTY/Teleprinter) अथवा बहरों के लिये दूरसंचार की युक्ति[संपादित करें]

TTY (V.18) 0.045 kbit/s[1] 6 अक्षर/से॰ (characters/sec)
TTY (V.18) 0.050 kbit/s 6.6 अक्षर/से॰
NTSC Line 21 Closed Captioning 1 kbit/s 0.1 kB/s (~100 cps)

मॉडेम (Modems)[संपादित करें]

ध्यान रहे कि यहाँ दिये हुए आंकड़े अधिकतम मान प्रदर्शित कर रहे हैं। वास्त्विक स्थितियों में (जैसे वैद्युत शोर (न्वायज) की स्थिति में) इनसे कम दर पर ही आंकडा-विनिमय हो पाता है।[2]

Modem 110 baud 0.11 kbit/s 0.010 kB/s (~10 cps)[3]
Modem 300 baud (Bell 103)(V.21) 0.3 kbit/s 0.03 kB/s (~30 cps)[3]
Modem 1200 (600 baud) (Bell 212A)(V.22) 1.2 kbit/s 0.12 kB/s (~120 cps)[3]
Modem 2400 (600 baud) (V.22bis) 2.4 kbit/s 0.24 kB/s[3]
Modem 4800 (1600 baud) (V.27ter) 4.8 kbit/s 0.48 kB/s[3]
Modem 9600 (2400 baud) (V.32) 9.6 kbit/s 0.96 kB/s[3]
Modem 14.4 (2400 baud) (V.32bis) 14.4 kbit/s 1.44 kB/s[3]
Modem 19.2 (2400 baud) (V.34) 19.2 kbit/s 1.92 kB/s[3]
Modem 28.8 (3200 baud) (V.34) 28.8 kbit/s 2.88 kB/s[3]
Modem 33.6 (3429 baud) (V.34) 33.8 kbit/s 3.38 kB/s[3]
Modem 56k (8000/3429 baud) (V.90) down/up 56.0/33.6 kbit/s[4] 5.6/3.36 kB/s[3]
Modem 56k (8000 baud) (V.92) down/up 56.0/48.0 kbit/s[4] 5.6/4.8 kB/s[3]
ISDN Basic Rate Interface & Primary Rate Interface data channel (B-channel) 64 kbit/s[5] 8 kB/s
IDSL 144 kbit/s 18 kB/s
HDSL ITU G.991.1 1544 kbit/s 193kB/s
MSDSL 2,000 kbit/s 250 kB/s
SDSL 2,320 kbit/s 290 KB/s
SHDSL ITU G.991.2 5690 kbit/s 711 kB/s
ADSL[6] down/up 8000/1024 kbit/s 1000/128 kB/s
ADSL2 down/up 12,000/3500 kbit/s 1500/448 kB/s
ADSL2Plus down/up 24,000/3500 kbit/s 3000/448 kB/s
DOCSIS v1.0[7] (Cable modem) down/up 38,000/10,000 kbit/s 4750/1250 kB/s
DOCSIS v2.0[8] (Cable modem) down/up 40,000/30,000 kbit/s 5000/3750 kB/s
DOCSIS v3.0[9] (Cable modem) down/up 160,000/120,000 kbit/s 20,000/15,000 kB/s
Uni-DSL 200,000 kbit/s 25,000 kB/s
VDSL ITU G.993.1 200,000 kbit/s 25,000 kB/s
VDSL2 ITU G.993.2 250,000 kbit/s 31,250 kB/s

Mobile telephone interfaces[संपादित करें]

Note that the values given are maximum values, and actual values may be slower under certain conditions (for example, noise).

GSM CSD 14.4 kbit/s 1.8 kB/s
HSCSD upstream 14.4 kbit/s 1.8 kB/s
HSCSD downstream 43.2 kbit/s 5.4 kB/s
GPRS upstream 28.8 kbit/s 3.6 kB/s
GPRS downstream 57.6 kbit/s 7.2 kB/s
WiDEN 100 kbit/s 12.5 kB/s
EDGE (type 1 MS) 236.8 kbit/s 29.6 kB/s
EDGE (type 2 MS) 473.6 kbit/s 59.2 kB/s
EDGE Evolution (type 1 MS) downstream 1184 kbit/s 148 kB/s
EDGE Evolution (type 1 MS) upstream 473.6 kbit/s 59.2 kB/s
EDGE Evolution (type 2 MS) downstream 1894.4 kbit/s 236.8 kB/s
EDGE Evolution (type 2 MS) upstream 947.2 kbit/s 118.4 kB/s
UMTS downstream 384 kbit/s 48 kB/s
HSDPA downstream 14,400 kbit/s 1800 kB/s
HSUPA upstream 5760 kbit/s 720 kB/s
HSOPA downstream 100,000 kbit/s 12,500 kB/s
LTE (2X2 MIMO) downstream 173,000 kbit/s 21,625 kB/s
LTE (2X2 MIMO) upstream 58,000 kbit/s 7,250 kB/s
LTE (4X4 MIMO) downstream 326,000 kbit/s 40,750 kB/s
LTE (4X4 MIMO) upstream 86,000 kbit/s 10,750 kB/s
CDMA2000 1xRTT downstream 153 kbit/s 18 kB/s
CDMA2000 1xRTT upstream 153 kbit/s 18 kB/s
1xEV-DO Rev. 0 downstream 2457 kbit/s 307.2 kB/s
1xEV-DO Rev. 0 upstream 153 kbit/s 19 kB/s
1xEV-DO Rev. A downstream 3100 kbit/s 396.8 kB/s
1xEV-DO Rev. A upstream 1800 kbit/s 230.4 kB/s
1xEV-DO Rev. B downstream 73,500 kbit/s 9200 kB/s
1xEV-DO Rev. B upstream 14,700 kbit/s 1800 kB/s
1xEV-DO Rev. C downstream 280,000 kbit/s 35,000 kB/s
1xEV-DO Rev. C upstream 75,000 kbit/s 9000 kB/s
UMB (2X2 MIMO) downstream 140,000 kbit/s 17,500 kB/s
UMB (2X2 MIMO) upstream 34,000 kbit/s 4,250 kB/s
UMB (4X4 MIMO) downstream 280,000 kbit/s 35,000 kB/s
UMB (4X4 MIMO) upstream 68,000 kbit/s 8,500 kB/s

Wireless device connection[संपादित करें]

IrDA-Control 72 kbit/s 9 kB/s
IrDA-SIR 115.2 kbit/s 14 kB/s
802.15.4 (2.4 GHz) 250 kbit/s 31.25 kB/s
Bluetooth 1.1 1000 kbit/s 125 kB/s
Bluetooth 2.0+EDR 3000 kbit/s 375 kB/s
IrDA-FIR 4000 kbit/s 510 kB/s
IrDA-VFIR 16,000 kbit/s 2000 kB/s
WUSB-UWB 480,000 kbit/s 60,000 kB/s

Computer buses[संपादित करें]

ISA 8-Bit/4.77 MHz[10] 9.6 Mbit/s 1.2 MB/s
Zorro II 16-Bit/7.14 MHz[11] 28.56 Mbit/s 3.56 MB/s
ISA 16-Bit/8.33 MHz[10] 42.4 Mbit/s 5.3 MB/s
Low Pin Count 133.33 Mbit/s 16.67 MB/s
HP-Precision Bus 184 Mbit/s 23 MB/s
EISA 8-16-32bits/8.33 MHz 320 Mbit/s 32 MB/s
VME64 32-64bits 400 Mbit/s 40 MB/s
NuBus 10 MHz 400 Mbit/s 40 MB/s
DEC TURBOchannel 32-bit/12.5 MHz 400 Mbit/s 50 MB/s
MCA 16-32bits/10 MHz 660 Mbit/s 66 MB/s
NuBus90 20 MHz 800 Mbit/s 80 MB/s
Sbus 32-bit/25 MHz 800 Mbit/s 100 MB/s
DEC TURBOchannel 32-bit/25 MHz 800 Mbit/s 100 MB/s
VLB 32-bit/33 MHz 1067 Mbit/s 133.33 MB/s
PCI 32-bit/33 MHz 1067 Mbit/s 133.33 MB/s
HP GSC-1X 1136 Mbit/s 142 MB/s
Zorro III[12][13][14] 32-Bit/37.5 MHz 1200 Mbit/s 150 MB/s
Sbus 64-bit/25 MHz 1600 Mbit/s 200 MB/s
PCI Express (x1 link)[15] 2000 Mbit/s 250 MB/s
HP GSC-2X 2048 Mbit/s 256 MB/s
PCI 64-bit/33 MHz 2133 Mbit/s 266.7 MB/s
PCI 32-bit/66 MHz 2133 Mbit/s 266.7 MB/s
AGP 1x 2133 Mbit/s 266.7 MB/s
PCI Express (x2 link)[15] 4000 Mbit/s 500 MB/s
AGP 2x 4266 Mbit/s 533.3 MB/s
PCI 64-bit/66 MHz 4266 Mbit/s 533.3 MB/s
PCI-X DDR 16-bit 4266 Mbit/s 533.3 MB/s
PCI 64-bit/100 MHz 6399 Mbit/s 800 MB/s
PCI Express (x4 link)[15] 8000 Mbit/s 1000 MB/s
AGP 4x 8533 Mbit/s 1067 MB/s
PCI-X 133 8533 Mbit/s 1067 MB/s
PCI-X QDR 16-bit 8533 Mbit/s 1067 MB/s
InfiniBand single 4X[16] 8000 Mbit/s 1000 MB/s
UPA 15,360 Mbit/s 1920 MB/s
PCI Express (x8 link)[15] 16,000 Mbit/s 2000 MB/s
AGP 8x 17,066 Mbit/s 2133 MB/s
PCI-X DDR 17,066 Mbit/s 2133 MB/s
HyperTransport (800 MHz, 16-pair) 25,600 Mbit/s 3200 MB/s
HyperTransport (1 GHz, 16-pair) 32,000 Mbit/s 4000 MB/s
PCI Express (x16 link)[15] 32,000 Mbit/s 4000 MB/s
PCI-X QDR 34,133 Mbit/s 4266 MB/s
AGP 8x 64-bit 34,133 Mbit/s 4266 MB/s
PCI Express (x32 link)[15] 64,000 Mbit/s 8000 MB/s
PCI Express 2.0 (x16 link)[17] 64,000 Mbit/s 8000 MB/s
PCI Express 2.0 (x32 link)[17] 128,000 Mbit/s 16,000 MB/s
HyperTransport (2.8 GHz, 32-pair) 179,200 Mbit/s 22,400 MB/s

Portable Computer buses[संपादित करें]

PC Card 16 bit 255ns Byte mode 31.36 Mbit/s 3.92 MB/s
PC Card 16 bit 255ns Word mode 62.72 Mbit/s 7.84 MB/s
PC Card 16 bit 100ns Byte mode 80 Mbit/s 10 MB/s
PC Card 16 bit 100ns Word mode 160 Mbit/s 20 MB/s
PC Card 32 bit (CardBus) Byte mode 267 Mbit/s 33.33 MB/s
ExpressCard USB mode 480 Mbit/s 60 MB/s
PC Card 32 bit (CardBus) Word mode 533 Mbit/s 66.66 MB/s
PC Card 32 bit (CardBus) DWord mode 1067 Mbit/s 133.33 MB/s
ExpressCard PCI Express mode 2,000 Mbit/s 250 MB/s

Computer buses (storage)[संपादित करें]

PC Floppy Disk Controller (1.44MB) 0.5 Mbit/s 0.062 MB/s
CD Controller (1x) 1.2 Mbit/s 0.15 MB/s
MFM 5 Mbit/s .625 MB/s
RLL 7.5 Mbit/s .9375 MB/s
DVD Controller (1x) 11.1 Mbit/s 1.32 MB/s
ESDI 24 Mbit/s 3 MB/s
ATA PIO Mode 0 26.4 Mbit/s 3.3 MB/s
SCSI 1 (5 MHz) 40 Mbit/s 5 MB/s
ATA PIO Mode 1 41.6 Mbit/s 5.2 MB/s
ATA PIO Mode 2 66.4 Mbit/s 8.3 MB/s
Fast SCSI 2 (8 bits/10 MHz) 80 Mbit/s 10 MB/s
ATA PIO Mode 3 88.8 Mbit/s 11.1 MB/s
iSCSI over Fast Ethernet 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
ATA PIO Mode 4 133.3 Mbit/s 16.7 MB/s
Fast Wide SCSI 2 (16 bits/10 MHz) 160 Mbit/s 20 MB/s
Ultra DMA ATA 33 264 Mbit/s 33 MB/s
Ultra Wide SCSI 40 (16 bits/20 MHz) 320 Mbit/s 40 MB/s
Ultra DMA ATA 66 528 Mbit/s 66 MB/s
Ultra-2 wide SCSI 80 (16 bits/40 MHz) 640 Mbit/s 80 MB/s
Serial Storage Architecture SSA 640 Mbit/s 80 MB/s
Ultra DMA ATA 100 800 Mbit/s 100 MB/s
Fibre Channel 1GFC (1.0625 GHz)[18] 850 Mbit/s 106.25 MB/s
iSCSI over Gigabit Ethernet 1000 Mbit/s 125 MB/s
Ultra DMA ATA 133 1064 Mbit/s 133 MB/s
Serial ATA (SATA-150)[19] 1200 Mbit/s 150 MB/s
Ultra-3 SCSI 160 (16 bits/40 MHz DDR) 1280 Mbit/s 160 MB/s
Fibre Channel 2GFC (2.125 GHz)[18] 1700 Mbit/s 212.5 MB/s
Serial ATA (SATA-300)[19] 2400 Mbit/s 300 MB/s
Ultra-320 SCSI (16 bits/80 MHz DDR) 2560 Mbit/s 320 MB/s
Serial Attached SCSI (SAS)[19] 3000 Mbit/s 300 MB/s
Fibre Channel 4GFC (4.25 GHz)[18] 3400 Mbit/s 425 MB/s
Serial ATA (SATA-600) (Not yet implemented)[19] 4800 Mbit/s 600 MB/s
Ultra-640 SCSI (16 bits/160 MHz DDR) (Not yet implemented) 5120 Mbit/s 640 MB/s
Serial Attached SCSI 2 (Not yet implemented)[19] 6000 Mbit/s 750 MB/s
Fibre Channel 8GFC (8.50 GHz) (Not yet implemented)[18] 6800 Mbit/s 850 MB/s
iSCSI over 10G Ethernet (Very few products exist) 10000 Mbit/s 1250 MB/s
iSCSI over 100G Ethernet (Planned) 100000 Mbit/s 12500 MB/s
NFS over Infiniband 120000 Mbit/s 15000 MB/s

Computer buses (external)[संपादित करें]

Apple Desktop Bus 0.010 Mbit/s 0.00125 MB/s
MIDI 0.0313 Mbit/s 0.0039 MB/s
Serial RS-232 max 0.2304 Mbit/s 0.0288 MB/s
Parallel (Centronics) CPP ~133 kHz 1 Mbit/s 0.133 MB/s
Serial 16550 UART max 1.5 Mbit/s 0.15 MB/s
USB Low Speed (USB 1.0) 1.536 Mbit/s 0.192 MB/s
Serial UART max 2.7648 Mbit/s 0.27648 MB/s
Serial RS-422 max 10 Mbit/s 1.25 MB/s
USB Full Speed (USB 1.1) 12 Mbit/s 1.5 MB/s
Parallel (Centronics) EPP 2 MHz 16 Mbit/s 2 MB/s
Serial EIA-485 max 35 Mbit/s 3.5 MB/s
FireWire (IEEE 1394) 100 98.304 Mbit/s 12.288 MB/s
FireWire (IEEE 1394) 200 196.608 Mbit/s 24.576 MB/s
FireWire (IEEE 1394) 400 393.216 Mbit/s 49.152 MB/s
USB Hi-Speed (USB 2.0) 480 Mbit/s 60 MB/s
FireWire (IEEE 1394b) 800[20] 786.432 Mbit/s 98.304 MB/s
Fibre Channel 1Gb SCSI 1062.5 Mbit/s 100 MB/s
FireWire (IEEE 1394b) 1600[20] 1573 Mbit/s 196.6 MB/s
Camera Link base 24bit 85 MHz[21] 2040 Mbit/s 261.12 MB/s
Fibre Channel 2Gb SCSI 2125 Mbit/s 200 MB/s
eSATA (SATA 300) 2400 Mbit/s 300 MB/s
FireWire (IEEE 1394b) 3200[20] 3145.7 Mbit/s 393.216 MB/s
Fibre Channel 4Gb SCSI 4250 Mbit/s 531.25 MB/s
USB 3.0 (Planned) 4800 Mbit/s 600 MB/s
Infiniband QDR 12X 120000 Mbit/s 15000 MB/s

Computer buses (MAC to PHY)[संपादित करें]

MII (4 Lanes) 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
RMII (2 Lanes) 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
SMII (1 Lanes) 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
GMII (8 Lanes) 1.0 Gbit/s 125 MB/s
RGMII (4 Lanes) 1.0 Gbit/s 125 MB/s
SGMII (2 Lanes) 1.0 Gbit/s 125 MB/s
XGMII (32 Lanes) 10.0 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s
XAUI (4 Lanes) 10.0 Gbit/s 1.25 GB/s

Computer buses (PHY to XPDR)[संपादित करें]

XSBI (16 Lanes) 0.995 Gbit/s 0.124 GB/s

Wide area network[संपादित करें]

Note that the values given are maximum values, and actual values may be slower under certain conditions (for example, noise).

DS0 0.064 Mbit/s 0.008 MB/s
G.Lite (aka ADSL Lite) upstream 0.512 Mbit/s 0.064 MB/s
Satellite Internet upstream 1 Mbit/s 0.128 MB/s
ADSL upstream 1.024 Mbit/s 0.128 MB/s
G.Lite (aka ADSL Lite) downstream 1.5 Mbit/s 0.192 MB/s
Satellite Internet/DS1/T1 1.544 Mbit/s 0.192 MB/s
Frame Relay[22] 2 Mbit/s 0.25 MB/s
E1 2.048 Mbit/s 0.256 MB/s
G.SHDSL 2.304 Mbit/s 0.288 MB/s
ADSL2 upstream 3.5 Mbit/s 0.448 MB/s
ADSL2Plus upstream 3.5 Mbit/s 0.448 MB/s
LR-VDSL2 (4 to 5 km [long-]range) (symmetry optional) 4 Mbit/s 0.512 MB/s
SDSL 4.608 Mbit/s 0.576 MB/s
T2 6.312 Mbit/s 0.789 MB/s
ADSL[23] downstream 8 Mbit/s 1 MB/s
E2 8.448 Mbit/s 1.056 MB/s
DOCSIS v1.0[7] (Cable modem) upstream 10 Mbit/s 1.25 MB/s
ADSL2 downstream 12 Mbit/s 1.5 MB/s
Satellite Internet[24] downstream 16 Mbit/s 2 MB/s
ADSL2Plus downstream 24 Mbit/s 3 MB/s
DOCSIS v2.0[8] (Cable modem) upstream 30 Mbit/s 3.75 MB/s
E3 34.368 Mbit/s 4.296 MB/s
DOCSIS v1.0 (Cable modem) downstream 38 Mbit/s 4.75 MB/s
DOCSIS v2.0 (Cable modem) downstream 40 Mbit/s 5 MB/s
DS3/T3 ('45 Meg') 44.736 Mbit/s 5.5925 MB/s
STS-1/EC-1/OC-1/STM-0 51.84 Mbit/s 6.48 MB/s
OC-1 51.84 Mbit/s 6.48 MB/s
VDSL (symmetry optional) 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
DOCSIS v3.0[9] (Cable modem) upstream 120 Mbit/s 15 MB/s
OC-3/STM-1 155.52 Mbit/s 19.44 MB/s
DOCSIS v3.0 (Cable modem) downstream 160 Mbit/s 20 MB/s
VDSL2 (symmetry optional) 250 Mbit/s 31.25 MB/s
T4 274.176 Mbit/s 34.272 MB/s
T5 400.352 Mbit/s 50.044 MB/s
OC-9 466.56 Mbit/s 58.32 MB/s
OC-12/STM-4 622.08 Mbit/s 77.76 MB/s
OC-18 933.12 Mbit/s 116.64 MB/s
OC-24 1244 Mbit/s 155.5 MB/s
OC-36 1900 Mbit/s 237.5 MB/s
OC-48/STM-16 2488 Mbit/s 311.04 MB/s
OC-96 4976 Mbit/s 622 MB/s
OC-192/STM-64 9953 Mbit/s 1244 MB/s
10 Gigabit Ethernet WAN PHY 9953 Mbit/s 1244 MB/s
10 Gigabit Ethernet LAN PHY 10,000 Mbit/s 1250 MB/s
OC-256 13,271 Mbit/s 1659 MB/s
OC-768/STM-256 39,813 Mbit/s 4976 MB/s
OC-1536/STM-512 79,626 Mbit/s 9953 MB/s
OC-3072/STM-1024 159,252 Mbit/s 19,907 MB/s

Local area network[संपादित करें]

LocalTalk 0.230 Mbit/s 0.0288 MB/s
Econet 0.800 Mbit/s 0.1 MB/s
PC-Network 2 Mbit/s 0.25 MB/s
ARCNET (Standard) 2.5 Mbit/s 0.3125 MB/s
Ethernet Experimental 3 Mbit/s 0.375 MB/s
Token Ring (Original) 4 Mbit/s 0.5 MB/s
Ethernet (10base-X) 10 Mbit/s 1.25 MB/s
Token Ring (Later) 16 Mbit/s 2 MB/s
Token Ring IEEE 802.5t 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
Fast Ethernet (100base-X) 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
FDDI 100 Mbit/s 12.5 MB/s
HIPPI 800 Mbit/s 100 MB/s
Token Ring IEEE 802.5v (no known implementations) 1000 Mbit/s 125 MB/s
Gigabit Ethernet (1000base-X) 1000 Mbit/s 125 MB/s
Myrinet 2000 2000 Mbit/s 250 MB/s
Infiniband SDR 1X[16] 2,000 Mbit/s 250 MB/s
Infiniband QDR 1X[16] 8,000 Mbit/s 1,000 MB/s
Infiniband SDR 4X[16] 8,000 Mbit/s 1,000 MB/s
10 gigabit Ethernet (10Gbase-X) 10,000 Mbit/s 1250 MB/s
Myri 10G 10,000 Mbit/s 1250 MB/s
Scalable Coherent Interconnect (SCI) Dual Channel SCI, x8 PCIe 20,000 Mbit/s 2500 MB/s
Infiniband SDR 12X[16] 24,000 Mbit/s 3,000 MB/s
Infiniband QDR 4X[16] 32,000 Mbit/s 4,000 MB/s
Infiniband QDR 12X[16] 96,000 Mbit/s 12,000 MB/s
100 gigabit Ethernet (100Gbase-X) 100,000 Mbit/s 12,500 MB/s

Wireless networking[संपादित करें]

Note: 802.11 networks are half-duplex; all stations share the medium. In access point mode, all traffic has to pass through the AP (Access Point). Two stations on the same AP which are communicating with each other will have all traffic pass the medium twice: once sent by the sender to the AP, then from AP to receiver, thus approximately halving the effective bandwidth.

802.11 legacy 0.125 2.0 Mbit/s 0.25 MB/s
RONJA free space optical wireless 10.0 Mbit/s 1.25 MB/s
802.11b DSSS 0.125 11.0 Mbit/s 1.375 MB/s
802.11b+ non-standard DSSS 0.125 44.0 Mbit/s 5.5 MB/s
802.11a 0.75 54.0 Mbit/s 6.75 MB/s
802.11g OFDM 0.125 54.0 Mbit/s 6.75 MB/s
802.16 (WiMAX) 70.0 Mbit/s 8.75 MB/s
802.11gt DSSS 0.125 (aka Super G) 108.0 Mbit/s 13.5 MB/s
802.11n 248.0 Mbit/s 31 MB/s

Memory Interconnect Buses / RAM[संपादित करें]

NOTE: Dual channel bandwidths are theoretical maximums and do not always reflect real world performance. In many cases, performance may be closer to single channel operation (half the bandwidth).

FPM DRAM 1.408 Gbit/s 0.176 GB/s
EDO DRAM 2.112 Gbit/s 0.264 GB/s
SPARC MBus 2.55 Gbit/s 0.32 GB/s
PC66 SDRAM 4.264 Gbit/s 0.533 GB/s
PC100 SDRAM 6.4 Gbit/s 0.8 GB/s
HP Runway bus 125 MHz 64-bit 6.4 Gbit/s 0.8 GB/s
PC133 SDRAM 8.528 Gbit/s 1.066 GB/s
PC800 RDRAM (single-channel) 12.8 Gbit/s 1.6 GB/s
PC1600 DDR-SDRAM (single channel) 12.8 Gbit/s 1.6 GB/s
HP Runway bus 125 MHz 64-bit DDR 16 Gbit/s 2 GB/s
PC1066 RDRAM (single-channel) 16.8 Gbit/s 2.1 GB/s
PC2100 DDR-SDRAM (single channel) 16.8 Gbit/s 2.1 GB/s
PC1200 RDRAM (single-channel) 19.2 Gbit/s 2.4 GB/s
PC2700 DDR-SDRAM (single channel) 21.6 Gbit/s 2.7 GB/s
PC800 RDRAM (dual-channel) 25.6 Gbit/s 3.2 GB/s
PC1600 DDR-SDRAM (dual channel) 25.6 Gbit/s 3.2 GB/s
PC3200 DDR-SDRAM (single channel) 25.6 Gbit/s 3.2 GB/s
PC2-3200 DDR2-SDRAM (single channel) 25.6 Gbit/s 3.2 GB/s
PC1066 RDRAM (dual-channel) 33.6 Gbit/s 4.2 GB/s
PC2100 DDR-SDRAM (dual channel) 33.6 Gbit/s 4.2 GB/s
PC2-4200 DDR2-SDRAM (single channel) 34.136 Gbit/s 4.267 GB/s
PC4000 DDR-SDRAM (single channel) 34.3 Gbit/s 4.287 GB/s
PC1200 RDRAM (dual-channel) 38.4 Gbit/s 4.8 GB/s
PC2-5300 DDR2-SDRAM (single channel) 42.4 Gbit/s 5.3 GB/s
PC2-5400 DDR2-SDRAM (single channel) 42.664 Gbit/s 5.333 GB/s
PC2700 DDR-SDRAM (dual channel) 43.2 Gbit/s 5.4 GB/s
PC3200 DDR-SDRAM (dual channel) 51.2 Gbit/s 6.4 GB/s
PC2-3200 DDR2-SDRAM (dual channel) 51.2 Gbit/s 6.4 GB/s
PC2-6400 DDR2-SDRAM (single channel) 51.2 Gbit/s 6.4 GB/s
Itanium zx1 bus 51.2 Gbit/s 6.4 GB/s
PC4000 DDR-SDRAM (dual channel) 67.2 Gbit/s 8.4 GB/s
PC2-4200 DDR2-SDRAM (dual channel) 67.2 Gbit/s 8.4 GB/s
PC2-5300 DDR2-SDRAM (dual channel) 84.8 Gbit/s 10.6 GB/s
PC2-5400 DDR2-SDRAM (dual channel) 85.328 Gbit/s 10.666 GB/s
PC2-6400 DDR2-SDRAM (dual channel) 102.4 Gbit/s 12.8 GB/s
PC2-8000 DDR2-SDRAM (dual channel) 128.0 Gbit/s 16.0 GB/s
PC2-8500 DDR2-SDRAM (dual channel) 136.0 Gbit/s 17 GB/s
PC3-8500 DDR3-SDRAM (dual channel) 136.0 Gbit/s 17 GB/s
PC3-10600 DDR3-SDRAM (dual channel) 165.6 Gbit/s 21.2 GB/s
PC3-12800 DDR3-SDRAM (dual channel) 204.8 Gbit/s 25.6 GB/s

बाहरी कड़ियाँ[संपादित करें]


सन्दर्भ[संपादित करें]

  1. TTY, Baudot code कोड का प्रयोग करती है, न कि आस्की (ASCII). यह ८ बिट प्रति अक्षर के बजाय ५ बिट प्रति अक्षर का होता है। इसके अलावा १ आरम्भ बिट (start bit) तथा 1.5 समाप्ति बिट (stop bits) प्रयुक्त होते हैं। (इस प्रकार कुल 7.5 बिट प्रति अक्षर).
  2. http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-V/en
  3. 300 baud modems operating at 30 characters per second, were often described as "reading speed" since the characters scrolled across the screen at the same rate as most people can read. All modems are assumed to be in serial operation with 1 start bit, 8 data bits, no parity, and 1 stop bit (2 stop bits for 110-baud modems). Therefore, a total of 10 bits (11 bits for 110-baud modems) are needed to transmit each 8-bit byte. The "bytes" column reflects the net data transfer rate after the protocol overhead has been removed.
  4. 56K modems: V.90 and V.92 capacity can only be achieved when the upstream (service provider) end of the connection is digital. In addition, certain telecommunications administrations limit the signal strength the modem can transmit onto the telecommunications circuit, which in turn limits the actual maximum data rate to less than the theoretical maximum. In the USA, this limited the possible downstream maximum to 53.3 kbit/s.
  5. Note that effective aggregate bandwidth for an ISDN installation is typically higher than the rates shown for a single channel due to the use of multiple channels. A basic rate interface (BRI) provides 2 "B" channels and one "D" channel. Each B channel provides 64 kbit/s bandwidth and the 'D' channel carries signalling (call setup) information. B channels can be bonded to provide a 128 kbit/s data rate. Primary rate interfaces (PRI) vary depending on whether the region uses E1 (Europe, world) or T1 (North America) bearers. In E1 regions, the PRI carries 30 B-channels and 1 D-channel; in T1 regions the PRI carries 23 B-channels and 1 D-channel. The D-channel has different bandwidth on the two interfaces.
  6. ADSL connections will vary in throughput from 64 kbit/s to several Mbit/s depending on configuration. Most are commonly below 2 Mbit/s. Some ADSL and SDSL connections have a higher bandwidth than T1 but their bandwidth is not guaranteed, and will drop when the system gets overloaded, whereas the T1 type connections are usually guaranteed and have no contention ratios.
  7. DOCSIS 1.0 includes technology which first became available around 1995-1996, and has since become very widely deployed. DOCSIS 1.1 introduces some security improvements and Quality-of-Service (QoS).
  8. DOCSIS 2.0 specifications provide increased upstream throughput for symmetric services.
  9. DOCSIS 3.0 is currently in development by the CableLabs consortium and is slated to include support for channel bonding and IPv6.
  10. http://www.csn.ul.ie/~stephen/buses.html#isa
  11. The Zorro II bus use 4 clocks per 16-Bit of data transferred. See the Zorro III technical specification for more information.
  12. David Hayine, designer of the Zorro III bus, claims in this posting that the theoretical max of the Zorro III bus can be derived by the timing information given in ‘’chapter 5’’ of the Zorro III technical specification.
  13. David Hayine, designer of the Zorro III bus, claims in this posting that Zorro III is an asynchronous bus and with that does not have a classical MHz rating. A maximum theoretical MHz value may be derived by examining timing constraints detailed in the Zorro III technical specification, which should yield about 37.5 MHz. No existing implementation performs to this level.
  14. David Hayine, designer of the Zorro III bus, claims in this posting that Zorro III has a max burst rate of 150 MB/s.
  15. Note that PCI Express lanes use an 8B/10B encoding scheme.
  16. InfiniBand uses an 8B/10B encoding scheme.
  17. PCIe 2.0 effectively doubles the bus standard's bandwidth from 2.5 Gbit/s to 5 Gbit/s
  18. Fibre Channel 1GFC, 2GFC, 4GFC use an 8B/10B encoding scheme. Fibre Channel 10GFC, which uses a 64B/66B encoding scheme, is not compatible with 1GFC, 2GFC and 4GFC, and is used only to interconnect switches.
  19. SATA and SAS use an 8B/10B encoding scheme.
  20. FireWire (IEEE 1394b) uses an 8B/10B coding scheme.
  21. "Getting Camera Link specs right", Steve Scheiber, Test & Measurement World, May 22, 2006. Retrieved 2007-09-28.
  22. Actual frame relay connections will vary in throughput from 8 kbit/s to 45 Mbit/s depending on configuration. Most are commonly below 2 Mbit/s.
  23. ADSL connections will vary in throughput from 64 kbit/s to several Mbit/s depending on configuration. Most are commonly below 2 Mbit/s. Some ADSL & SDSL connections have a higher bandwidth than T1 but their bandwidth is not guaranteed, and will drop when the system gets overloaded where as the T1 type connections are usually guaranteed and have no contention ratios.
  24. Satellite internet may have a high bandwidth but also has a high latency due to the distance between the modem, satellite and hub. One-way satellite connections exist where all the downstream traffic is handled by satellite and the upstream traffic by land-based connections such as 56K modems and ISDN.