रासायनिक साम्य

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
यहाँ जाएँ: भ्रमण, खोज
जब अग्रक्रिया और पश्चक्रिया की गति समान हो जाती है तो साम्य की स्थिति होती है।
नीला : अग्रक्रिया
लाल : पश्चक्रिया
क्षैतिज अक्ष पर समय तथा उर्ध्व अक्ष पर अभिक्रिया का वेग है।

किसी रासायनिक अभिक्रिया के सन्दर्भ में रासायनिक साम्य (chemical equilibrium) उस अवस्था को कहते हैं जिसमें समय के साथ अभिकारकों एवं उत्पादों के सांद्रण में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होता। प्रायः यह अवस्था तब आती है जब अग्र क्रिया (forward reaction) की गति पश्चक्रिया (reverse reaction) की गति के समान हो जाती है। ध्यान देने योग्य बात यह है कि अग्रक्रिया एवं पश्च क्रिया के वेग इस अवस्था में शून्य नहीं होते बल्कि समान होते हैं।

इन्हें भी देखें[संपादित करें]

बाहरी कड़ियाँ[संपादित करें]

कंप्यूटर प्रोग्राम[संपादित करें]

There are n mass-balance equations in n unknown free concentrations. This constitutes a set of non-linear equations that must be solved by a method of successive approximations. The most commonly-used method is the Newton-Raphson method, which has been the subject of numerous publications. Some general computer programs are listed here.

  • Geochem-EZ- (freeware) a multi-purpose chemical speciation program, used in plant nutrition and in soil and environmental chemistry research to perform equilibrium speciation computations, allowing the user to estimate solution ion activities and to consider simple complexes and solid phases.
  • HySS Titration simulation and speciation calculations.
  • EQS4WIN A powerful computer program originally developed for gas-phase equilibria but subsequently extended to general applications. Uses the Gibbs energy minimization approach.
  • CHEMEQL A comprehensive computer program for the calculation of thermodynamic equilibrium concentrations of species in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. Many geochemical applications.
  • WinSGW A Windows version of the SOLGASWATER computer program.
  • Visual MINTEQ A Windows version of MINTEQA2 (ver 4.0). MINTEQA2 is a chemical equilibrium model for the calculation of metal speciation, solubility equilibria etc. for natural waters.
  • MINEQL+ A chemical equilibrium modeling system for aqueous systems. Handles a wide range of pH, redox, solubility and sorption scenarios.

सॉफ्टवेयर[संपादित करें]

  • Aqua solution software (Sukhno Igor, Buzko Vladimir, Polushin Alexey) A set of six computer programs for
  • Specific Interaction Theory. An editable database of published SIT parameters. Estimation of SIT parameters and adjustment of stability constants for changes in ionic strength.
  • Calculation of electrolyte activity coefficients, ionic activity coefficients, osmotic coefficients
  • Calculation of acid-base equilibria in electrolyte solutions and sea water
  • Calculation of O2 solubility in water, electrolyte solutions, natural fluids, and seawater as a function of temperature, concentration, salinity, altitude, external pressure, humidity
  • Prediction of temperature dependence of lg K values using various thermodynamic models
  • JESS:A powerful research tool for thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of chemical speciation in complex aqueous environments, with a focus on determining thermodynamic consistency by automatic means.
  • Chemical Equilibrium Calculator
  • Mission to Mars – A chemistry tutorial for high school students