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फैरो की सूची

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से

  Ancient Egyptian History      

Dynasties of Ancient Egypt

इस लेख में प्राचीन मिस्र के सभी फैरोगण की सूची है। यह मिस्र का आरंभिक राजवंश काल जो लगभग ३००० ई.पू. था, से लेकर प्टॉल्मिक राजवंश तक, जब कि मिस्र ३० ई.पू. में अगस्तर सीज़र के अधीन प्राचीन रोम का एक प्रांत बना, तब तक की है।

फैरोगणों की प्राथमिक प्राचीन सूची

[संपादित करें]

इस सूची का पाठ अभी अपूर्ण है:

मिथक काल

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आर्कैइक काल

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बहुत ही पुराने समयों में प्रारंभिक राजवंश काल शामिल है, जब निचले मिस्र और ऊपरी मिस्र पर दो अलग साम्राज्य थे - प्रथम और द्वितीय राजवंश

आरंभिक राजवंश: निचला मिस्र

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निचला मिस्र, जिसे काली भूमि भी कहा जाता था, उत्तरी नील और [[[नील नदी|नील]] नदीमुख-भूमि। नीचे दी गई सूची पूर्ण नहीं है:

नाम टिप्पणी तिथियां
तिउ[1] ?
थेश[1] ?
ह्सेक्यु[1] ?
वाज़नेर[1] ३१०० ईसा पूर्व

Early dynastic: Upper Egypt

[संपादित करें]

Upper Egypt, known as the Red Land, consisted of the southern Nile and the deserts. The following list may not be complete (there are many more of uncertain existence):

Name Comments Dates
Scorpion I Oldest tomb at Umm el-Qa'ab had scorpion insignia c. 3200 BC?
Iry-Hor kingship uncertain c. 3150 BC?
Ka[2][3] c. 3100 BC
King Scorpion Potentially pronounced Serqet, but uncertain; possibly the same person as Narmer. c. 3100 BC
Narmer The king who combined Upper and Lower Egypt.[4] c. 3100 BC

The First Dynasty ruled from c.3050 BC to 2890 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Menes Potentially the same person as Narmer, Hor-Aha, Serket II, or any combination of the three. contingent upon identity
Hor-Aha Arguably the unifier of Upper and Lower Egypt.[5] c. 3050 BC
Djer 41 years
Merneith Regent for Den
Djet 23 years
Den 14 to 20.1 years
Anedjib 10 years
Semerkhet 9 years
Qa'a 2916?–2890

The Second Dynasty ruled from 2890 to 2686 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Hotepsekhemwy[6] 2890–?
Raneb[7] 39 years
Nynetjer[8] 40 years
Wneg[9] 8 years
Senedj[10] 20 years
Seth-Peribsen[11] 17 years
Khasekhem(wy)[12][13] ?–2686 BC 17 to 18 years

The Old Kingdom is the period in the third millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilisational complexity and achievement (the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley), spanning the period when Egypt was ruled by the Third Dynasty through the Sixth Dynasty (2630–2151 BC). Many Egyptologists also include the Memphite Seventh and Eighth Dynasties in the Old Kingdom as a continuation of the administration centralised at Memphis. The Old Kingdom was followed by a period of disunity and relative cultural decline referred to by Egyptologists as the First Intermediate Period -- or, as the Egyptians called it, the "first illness."

The royal capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom was located at Memphis, where Djoser established his court. The Old Kingdom is perhaps best known, however, for the large number of pyramids which were constructed at this time as pharaonic burial places. For this reason, the Old Kingdom is frequently referred to as "the Age of the Pyramids".

The Third Dynasty ruled from 2686 to 2613 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Sanakhte 2686-2668
Djoser[14][15] Had the Step Pyramid constructed by Imhotep[16] 2668–2649
Sekhemkhet[17] 2649–2643
Khaba 2643–2637
Huni[18] 2637–2613

The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2498 BC and included the pharaohs who had the Great Pyramids built, Khufu (Cheops), Khafra (Chephren) and Menkaura (Mycerinus).

Nomen (Praenomen) Comments Dates
Sneferu Built the Bent Pyramid, which is a pyramid built at a normal angle at the bottom but drastically changes at the top. He also built the first "true" pyramid, known as the Red Pyramid. Some say that he was buried at the Red Pyramid, while others say that he was buried at the Bent Pyramid. Bones have been found at the Red Pyramid, but there is no evidence that this is Sneferu's body. 2613–2589
Khufu Greek form: Cheops. Built the great pyramid of Giza. Note that Khufu is spoken of in early sources as being "third" of his family to rule, although there is no known record of a Pharaoh between Sneferu and Khufu. One supposition is that there might have been a very short reign of some elder brother of Khufu, whose inscriptions, name, and monuments have perished for one reason or another. 2589–2566
Djedefra (Radjedef) Believed to have created the Sphinx at Giza as a monument for his deceased father. He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash however this pyramid is no longer intact as it is believed the Romans recycled the materials it was made from. Before being demolished by the Romans, according to a documentary aired by the History Channel, the pyramid may actually have been the highest ever built (about 20 meters taller than the Great Pyramid of Giza although this is due to its elevated location rather than the size from base to tip). 2566–2558
Khafra Greek form: Chephren His pyramid is the second largest in Giza. 2558–2532
here some authorities insert Bikheris, following Manetho
Menkaura Greek form: Mycerinus. His pyramid is the third and smallest in Giza. 2532–2503
Shepseskaf 2503–2498
here some authorities insert Thampthis, following Manetho

The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2498 to 2345 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Userkaf 2498–2491
Sahure 2490–2477
Neferirkare Kakai 2477–2467
Shepseskare Isi 2467–2460
Neferefre 2460–2453
Nyuserre Ini 2453–2422
Menkauhor Kaiu 2422–2414
Djedkare Isesi 2414–2375
Unas 2375–2345

The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Teti 2345–2333
Userkare 2333–2332
Pepi I Meryre 2332–2283
Merenre Nemtyemsaf I 2283–2278
Pepi II Neferkare Possible unto 2224 which would explain the following 4 kings. 2278–2184
Neferka Only mentioned in the redford. Reigned during Pepi II; was possibly his son or co-ruler. 2200–2199
Nefer Reign of 2 years, 1 month and a day according to Turin Canon 2197–2193
Aba Reigned for 4 years and 2 months. Reign dates don't follow Turin Canon. Highly unlikely. 2193–2176
Unknown king Unknown king attested here
Merenre Nemtyemsaf II[19] Uncertain pharaoh. 2184
Neitiqerty Siptah This king may have been confused in later years as a supposed female ruler Nitocris.[20] 2184–2181

First intermediate period

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The First Intermediate Period is the period between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom.

The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for 94 years, longer than any monarch in history, and died aged 100. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age.

The Union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.

Around 2160 BC, a new line of pharaohs tried to reunite Lower Egypt from their capital in Herakleopolis Magna. In the meantime, however, a rival line based at Thebes was reuniting Upper Egypt and a clash between the two rival dynasties was inevitable.

Around 2055 BC, a descendant of the pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs, reunited the Two Lands, founded the Eleventh Dynasty and ruled as Mentuhotep II, the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom.

Seventh and Eighth Dynasties (combined)

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The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled from 2181 to 2160 BC. (This table is based on the Abydos Table from the Temple of Seti I, taken from www.narmer.pl/main/abydos_en.html[मृत कड़ियाँ])

Name Comments Dates
Neferkara I -
Netjerkare -
Menkare -
Neferkare II -
Neferkara Nebi -
Djedkara Shemai -
Neferkara Khendu -
Some authorities place here Merenhor
Neferkamin Seneferka -
Nikara -
Neferkara Tereru -
Neferkahor -
Neferkara Pepyseneb -
Neferkamin Anu -
Qakare Ibi -
Neferkara II -
Neferkawhor Khuwihap -
Neferirkara -

The Ninth Dynasty ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Meryibre Khety (Achthoes I) - 2160– ?
Meribre Khety II - ?
Neferkare III - ?
Nebkaure (Acthoes II) - ?
Setut - ?
Wakhare Khety I - ?
Merykare - ?
Wankhare Khety II - ?
Menethoupe I - ?
Wankhare Khety III - ?
Khety II - ?
Khety II's daughter - ?
Merikare's daughter - ? –2130

The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Lower Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Meryhathor 2130– ?
Neferkare IV ?
Wankare (Acthoes III) ?
Merykare ?
— Courtnie ? –2040

The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Upper Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Mentuhotep I Tepy-a
Sehertawy Intef I 2134–2117
Wahankh Intef II 2117–2069
Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef III 2069–2060

The Middle Kingdom is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. In addition to the Twelfth Dynasty, some scholars include the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties in the Middle Kingdom. The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time. This opening of trade eventually led to the downfall of the Middle Kingdom, induced by an invasion from the Hyksos.

Eleventh Dynasty Continued

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The second part of the Eleventh Dynasty is considered to be part of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

Name Comments Dates
Nebhetepre Mentuhotep II[21] Gained all Egypt 2040, Middle Kingdom begins. 2060–2010
Sankhkare Mentuhotep III[22] 2010–1998
Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV[23] 1997–1991

The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BC, and is considered by later Egyptians to have been their greatest dynasty.

Name Comments Dates
Amenemhat I[24][25] 1991–1962
Senusret I[26] (Sesostris I) 1971–1926
Amenemhat II[27] 1929–1895
Senusret II[28] (Sesostris II) 1897–1878
Senusret III[29] (Sesostris III) Most powerful of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs. 1878–1860
Amenemhat III[30] 1860–1815
Amenemhat IV[31] Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at Konosso. 1815–1807
Sobekneferu[32] A rare female ruler. 1807–1803

Second intermediate period

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The Second Intermediate Period is a period of disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. It is best known as when the Hyksos made their appearance in Egypt, whose reign comprised the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Dynasties.

The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the long land of Egypt. The provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the western Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Fourteenth Dynasty.

The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell ed-Dab'a/Khata'na). The Hyksos, led by Salitis, the founder of the Fifteenth Dynasty, overran Egypt during the reign of Dudimose I.

Around the time Memphis fell to the Hyksos, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes declared its independence and set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia

The Thirteenth Dynasty (following the Turin King List) ruled from 1803 to around 1649 BC and lasted 153 or 154 Yrs according to Manetho. This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty

Name Comments Dates
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep or Wegaf Founded the 13th Dynasty. His reign is attested by several Nile Records and Papyri. 1803–1799 4 yrs.
Sekhemkare Amenemhat V Senebef, brother of Sekhemre Khutawy. 3 Yrs.
Amenemhat 1795–1792
Sehetepre ? –1790
Iufni ?
Seankhibre ?
Semenkare ?
Sehetepre ?
Sewadjkare ?
Nedjemibre 7 months ?
Sobekhotep I ?
Renseneb 4 months c. 1775
Awybre Hor I? c. 1775?
Sedjefakare A well known king attested on numerous stelas and other documents. c. 5 to 7 yrs.
Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep Compare Wegaf c. 1767
Khendjer Minimum 4 yrs and 3 months c. 1765
Imyremeshaw ?
Antef V ?
Sobekhotep III 4 years and 2 months c. 1755
Neferhotep I 11 years 1751–1740
Sobekhotep IV 10 or 11 years 1740–1730
Sobekhotep V c. 1730
Wahibre Ibiau 10 years & 8 months c. 1725–1714
Merneferre Ay 23 years & 8 months c. 1714–1691
Merhotepre Ini 2 years & 2 months ?
Sankhenre Sewadjtu ?
Mersekhemre Ini ?
Sewadjkare Hori ?

The position of the following kings is uncertain:

Name Comments Dates
Dudimose I c. 1654
Dudimose II ?
Senebmiu ?
Mentuhotep V ?
Senaaib ?

The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Xois (Avaris), that ruled from around 1705 to around 1690 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Nehesy - c. 1705
Khakherewre ? - ?
Nebefawre - c. 1704
Sehebre ? - ?
Merdjefare - c. 1699
Sewadjkare ? - ?
Nebdjefare - c. 1694
Webenre ? - ?
? - ?
—djefare ? - ?
—webenre - c. 1690

The position of the following kings is uncertain:

Name Comments Dates
Yakubher[33] ?

The Turin King List provides an additional 25 names, some fragmentary, and no dates. None are attested to elsewhere, and all are of very dubious provenance.

The Fifteenth Dynasty arose from among the Hyksos people: desert Bedouins who emerged out of the Fertile Crescent to establish a short-lived governance over much of the Nile region, and ruled from 1674 to 1535 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Sakir-Har - ?
Khyan - 30-40 Years
Apepi - 40 Years or more
Khamudi - ? -1535

The Sixteenth Dynasty was a local native kingdom from Thebes who ruled Egypt for between 80 and 100 years, according to Kim Ryholt.

Name Comments Dates
- name of the first king is lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered -
Djehuti (Sekhemresementawy) 3 yrs
Sobekhotep VIII (Sekhemreseusertawy) 16 yrs
Neferhotep III (Sekhemresankhtawy) 1 yr
Mentuhotep VI (Sankhenre) 1 yr
Nebiriau I (Sewadjenre) 26 yrs
Nebiriau II
Bebiankh (Seuserenre) 12 yrs
(Sekhemre Shedwast)
- The names of five kings are lost here in the Turin King List, and cannot be recovered. Their identity is uncertain -

Some sources include as many as six more names –

The Seventeenth Dynasty was based in Upper Egypt and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Rahotep Sekhemrewahkhau - 1650- ?
Sobekemsaf I Sekhemreshedtawy - 3 years
Intef VI Sekhemrewepmaat - -
Intef VII Nebkheperre -
Intef VIII Sekhemreheruhirmaat - -
Sobekemsaf II Sekhemrewadjkhau - -
Tao I the Elder (ie: Senakhtenre) - c. 1558
Tao II the Brave (Seqenenre) - c. 1558-1554
Kamose - 1554-1549

The New Kingdom is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th century BC to the 11th century BC, between the Second Intermediate Period, and the Third Intermediate Period.

Through military dominance abroad, the New Kingdom saw Egypt's greatest territorial extent. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.

Two of the best known pharaohs of the New Kingdom are Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as the first instance of monotheism, and Ramesses II, who attempted to recover the territories in modern Israel/Palestine, Lebanon and Syria that had been held in the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reconquest led to the Battle of Qadesh, where he led the Egyptian armies against the army of the Hittite king Muwatalli II.

The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from 1550 to 1295 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Ahmose I, Ahmosis I Successor to Kamose, above. 1550-1525
Amenhotep I - 1525-1504
Thutmose I - 1504-1492
Thutmose II - 1492-1479
Thutmose III Often called the "Napoleon of Egypt." Dominated early in his reign by his stepmother Hatshepsut; after she died, he began expanding Egyptian rule into the Levant. 1479-1425
Hatshepsut The second known female ruler, though quite possibly the seventh (the reigns of five other women are likely, but disputed). Recent evidence suggests she died of bone cancer[34]. 1473-1458
Amenhotep II - 1425-1400
Thutmose IV - 1400-1390
Amenhotep III The Magnificent King His name means Lord of the truth is Ra. He ruled Egypt at the peak of her glory, his mortuary temple was the largest ever built, but was destroyed by Rameses II to build his own temple. Thought to be the grandfather of Tutankhamun 1390-1352
Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten Founder of brief period of a solar-centered religion (Atenism) His original name means "Amun is pleased." 1352-1334
Smenkhkare Co-regent and successor of Akhenaten. The identity of this individual is uncertain and disputed. Usually believed to be either a son or son-in-law of Akhenaten but sometimes identified as Akhenaten's wife Nefertiti. Other scholars distinguish two individuals between Akhenaten and Tutankhamun, namely Smenkhkare, who is then seen as male, and a female ruler, who is then most often identified as Akhenaten's eldest daughter Meritaten 1334-1333
Tutankhaten/Tutankhamun Commonly believed to be the son of Akhenaten, probably reinstated the polytheistic religion and the name change reflects the change in primary deity from Aten to Amun. 1333-1324
Ay - 1324-1320
Horemheb Former General and advisor to Tutankhamun. Obliterated images of the Amarna queens and kings (all except Amenhotep III and Tiye). 1320-1292

The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1292 to 1186 BC and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: रामेसेस द्वितीय the Great:

Name Comments Dates
Ramesses I[35] - 1292-1290
Seti I[36] - 1290-1279
रामेसेस द्वितीय the Great[37] The ruler usually associated with Moses; he reached a stalemate with the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh in 1275 BC, after which a peace treaty was signed in 1258 BC. 1279-1213
Merneptah[38] A stele describing his campaigns in Libya and Canaan contains the first known reference to the Israelites. 1213-1203
Amenemses - 1203-1200
Seti II[39] - 1203-1197
Merneptah Siptah[40] - 1197-1191
Tausret A rare female ruler also known as Tawosret in some places, she was probably the wife of Seti II.[41] 1191-1190

The Twentieth Dynasty ruled from 1185 to 1069 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Setnakhte - 1190-1186
Ramesses III Fought the Sea Peoples in 1175 BC. 1186-1155
Ramesses IV - 1155-1149
Ramesses V - 1149-1145
Ramesses VI - 1145-1137
Ramesses VII - 1137-1130
Ramesses VIII - 1130-1129
Ramesses IX - 1129-1111
Ramesses X[42] - 1111-1107
Ramesses XI[43] Ended rule sharing power with High Priest of Amun Herihor ruling in the south and Smendes I ruling in the north, a period known as wehem mesut.[44] 1107-1077

Third intermediate period

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The Third Intermediate Period marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.

The Twenty-first Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. They ruled from 1069 to 945 BC

Name Comments Dates
Nesbanebdjed I[45] Also known as Smendes I 1077-1051
Amenemnisu - 1051-1047
Psusennes I - 1047-1001
Amenemope - 1001-992
Osorkon the Elder - * (Osochor) 992-986
Siamun - 986-967
Psusennes II - 967-943

Twenty-second Dynasty

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The pharaohs of the Twenty-second Dynasty were Libyans, ruling from around 945 to 720 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Shoshenq I Commonly believed to be the biblical Shishaq 943-922
Osorkon I - 922-887
Shoshenq II - 887-885
Takelot I - 885-872
Harsiese A rebel, at Thebes 880-860
Osorkon II - 872-837
Shoshenq III - 837-798
Shoshenq IV - 798-785
Pami - 785-778
Shoshenq V - 778-740
Osorkon IV - 740-720

The Twenty-third Dynasty was a local group, again of Libyan origin, based at Herakleopolis and Thebes that ruled from 836 to c.735 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Takelot II Previously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now known to be the founder of the 23rd 837-813
Pedubast A rebel—seized Thebes from Takelot II 826-801
Iuput I - 812-811
Shoshenq VI Successor to Pedubast 801-795
Osorkon III Son of Takelot II- recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king 795-767
Takelot III - 773-765
Rudamun - 765-762

Not reckoned a dynasty as such, the Libu were yet another group of western nomads (Libyans) who occupied the western Delta from 805 to 732 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Inamunnifnebu - 805-795
? - 795-780
Niumateped - 780-755
Titaru - 763-755
Ker - 755-750
Rudamon - 750-745
Ankhor - 745-736
Tefnakht - 736-732

Twenty-fourth Dynasty

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The Twenty-fourth Dynasty was a short-lived rival dynasty located in the western Delta (Sais), with only two Pharaoh ruling from 732 to 720 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Tefnakhte - 732-725
Bakenrenef (Bocchoris) - 725-720

The Late Period runs from 732 BC to Egypt becoming a province of Rome in 30 BC, and includes periods of rule by Nubians, Persians, and Macedonians.

Nubians invaded Egypt in 732 BC and took the throne of Egypt, establishing the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BC.

Name Comments Dates
Piye King of Nubia; conquered Egypt in 20th year; full reign at least 24 years, possibly 30+ years 752-721
Shabaka - 721-707
Shebitku Synchronism with Sargon II of Assyria establishes his accession date at 707/706 BC 707-690
Taharqa - 690-664
Tantamani lost control of Upper Egypt in 656 BC when Psamtik I extended his authority into Thebes in that year. 664-653

They were ultimately driven back into Nubia, where they established a kingdom at Napata (656-590), and, later, at Meroë (590 BC-4th cent. AD).

The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 672 to 525 BC.[46]

Name Comment Dates
Necho I - 672664 BC
Psamtik I - 664610 BC
Necho II - 610595 BC
Psamtik II - 595589 BC
Wahibre - 589570 BC
Ahmose II - 570526 BC
Psamtik III - 526525 BC

Twenty-seventh Dynasty

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Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 525 BC and annexed by the Persians until 404 BC. The Achaemenid shahs were acknowledged as pharaohs in this era, forming a "Twenty-seventh" Dynasty:

Name Comments Dates
Cambyses II - 525521 BC
Smerdis the Usurper - 522521 BC
Darius I the Great - 521486 BC
Xerxes I the Great - 486465 BC
Artabanus the Hyrcanian - 465464 BC
Artaxerxes I Longhand - 464424 BC
Xerxes II claimant 424423 BC
Sogdianus claimant 424423 BC
Darius II 424404 BC

Twenty-eighth Dynasty

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The Twenty-eighth Dynasty lasted only 6 years, from 404 to 398 BC, with one Pharaoh:

Name Comments Dates
Amyrtaeus Descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty; led a successful revolt against the Persians 404398 BC

The Twenty-ninth Dynasty ruled from 398 to 380 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Nefaarud I Also known as Nepherites 398393 BC
Psammuthes - 393 BC
Hakor (Achoris) - 393380 BC
Nefaarud II - 380 BC

The Thirtieth Dynasty ruled from 380 until Egypt once more came under Persian rule in 343 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Nectanebo I Also known as Nekhtnebef 380362 BC
Teos of Egypt - 362360 BC
Nectanebo II - 360343 BC

Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. After the practice of Manetho, the Persian rulers from 343 to 332 BC are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty:

Name Comments Dates
Artaxerxes III Egypt came under Persian rule for the second time 343–338 BC
Artaxerxes IV Arses Only reigned in Lower Egypt 338–336 BC
Khababash Leader of a Nubian revolt in Upper Egypt 338–335 BC
Darius III Codomannus Upper Egypt returned to Persian control in 335 BC 336–332 BC

The Macedonians under Alexander the Great ushered in the Hellenistic period with his conquest of Persia and Egypt. The Argeads ruled from 332 to 309 BC:

Name Comments Dates
Alexander III the Great Macedon conquered Persia and Egypt 332–323 BC
Philip III Arrhidaeus Feeble-minded half-brother of Alexander III the Great 323–317 BC
Alexander IV of Macedon Son of Alexander III the Great and Roxana 317–309 BC

The second Hellenistic dynasty, the Ptolemies ruled Egypt from 305 BC until Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC (whenever two dates overlap, that means there was a co-regency):

Name Comments Dates
Ptolemy I Soter Abdicated in 285 BC; died in 283 BC 305–285 BC
Berenice I Wife of Ptolemy I ?-285 BC
Ptolemy II Philadelphos - 288–246 BC
Arsinoe I Wife of Ptolemy II 284/81-ca. 274 BC
Arsinoe II Wife of Ptolemy II 277-270 BC
Ptolemy III Euergetes I - 246–222 BC
Berenice II Wife of Ptolemy III 244/3-222 BC
Ptolemy IV Philopator - 222–204 BC
Arsinoe III Wife of Ptolemy IV 220-204 BC
Hugronaphor Revolutionary Pharaoh in the South 205-199 BC
Ankhmakis Revolutionary Pharaoh in the South 199-185 BC
Ptolemy V Epiphanes Upper Egypt in revolt 207–186 BC 204–180 BC
Cleopatra I Wife of Ptolemy V, co-regent with Ptolemy VI during his minority 193-176 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor Died 145 BC 180–164 BC
Cleopatra II Wife of Ptolemy VI 173-164 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Proclaimed king by Alexandrians in 170 BC; ruled jointly with Ptolemy VI Philometor and Cleopatra II from 169 to 164 BC. Died 116 BC 171–163 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor Egypt under the control of Ptolemy VIII 164 BC–163 BC; Ptolemy VI restored 163 BC 163-145 BC
Cleopatra II Married Ptolemy VIII; led revolt against him in 131 BC and became sole ruler of Egypt. 163-127 BC
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Proclaimed co-ruler by father; later ruled under regency of his mother Cleopatra II 145-144 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Restored 145-131 BC
Cleopatra III Second wife of Ptolemy VIII 142-131 BC
Ptolemy Memphitis Proclaimed King by Cleopatra II; soon killed by Ptolemy VIII 131 BC
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Restored 127-116 BC
Cleopatra III Restored with Ptolemy VIII; later co-regent with Ptolemy IX and X. 127-107 BC
Cleopatra II Reconciled with Ptolemy VIII; co-ruled with Cleopatra III and Ptolemy until 116. 124-116 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II Died 80 BC 116–110 BC
Cleopatra IV Shortly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III 116-115 BC
Ptolemy X Alexander I Died 88 BC 110–109 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II Restored 109–107 BC
Ptolemy X Alexander I Restored 107–88 BC
Ptolemy IX Soter II Restored again 88–81 BC
Berenice III Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later 81-80 BC
Ptolemy XI Alexander II Young son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by Sulla; ruled for 80 days before being lynched by citizens for killing Berenice III 80 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) Son of Ptolemy IX; died 51 BC 80–58 BC
Cleopatra V Tryphaena Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV ?-57 BC
Cleopatra VI Daughter of Ptolemy XII ?-58 BC
Berenice IV Daughter of Ptolemy XII; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but has him strangled 58–55 BC
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Restored; reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death 55–51 BC
Cleopatra VII Jointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV; also known simply as Cleopatra 51–30 BC
Ptolemy XIII Brother of Cleopatra VII 51–47 BC
Arsinoe IV In opposition to Cleopatra VII 48-47 BC
Ptolemy XIV Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII 47–44 BC
Ptolemy XV Caesarion Infant son of Cleopatra VII; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra 44–30 BC

Cleopatra VII had an affair with Roman Dictator Julius Caesar, and Roman General Marc Antony, but it was not until after her suicide in 30 BC (after Marc Antony was defeated by Octavian, who would later be the emperor Augustus) that Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC. Subsequent Roman Emperors were accorded the title of Pharaoh, although exclusively while in Egypt. One Egyptian king-list lists the Roman Emperors as Pharaohs up to and including Decius. See the list of Roman emperors.

Imaginative authors have created fictitious monarchs of ancient Egypt, including:

  • Upshe and Hammon-Ra, both from the animated series Count Duckula.


[संपादित करें]
  1. Breasted (1909) p.36
  2. Rice (1999) p.86
  3. Wilkinson (1999) pp.57f.
  4. Shaw (2000) p.196
  5. Wilkinson (1999) pp70-71
  6. Wilkinson (1999) pp. 83-84
  7. Wilkinson (1999) p. 84
  8. Wilkinson (1999) p. 79
  9. Wilkinson (1999) pp 87-88
  10. Pascal Vernus, Jean Yoyotte, The Book of the Pharaohs, Cornell University Press 2003, p.27
  11. [1] Archived 2009-01-07 at the वेबैक मशीन Seth-Peribsen
  12. [2] Archived 2006-09-01 at the वेबैक मशीन King Khasekhem
  13. [3] Archived 2009-02-12 at the वेबैक मशीन King Khasekhemwy
  14. Toby Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge, 1999, pp.83 & 95
  15. Toby Wilkinson, Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt, pp.79 & 258
  16. Verner (2001)
  17. Clayton (1994) p.32
  18. Clayton (1994) p.42
  19. Dodson & Hilton (2004) p.73
  20. Ryholt & Bardrum (2000) pp.87–100.
  21. Labib Habachi: King Nebhepetre Menthuhotep: his monuments, place in history, deification and unusual representations in form of gods. Annales du Service des Antiquités de l'Égypte 19 (1963), p. 16-52
  22. Grajetzki (2006) pp. 23-25
  23. Grajetzki (2006) pp. 25-26
  24. [4] Archived 2013-01-05 at the वेबैक मशीन Amenemhat I
  25. Grajetzki (2006) pp.28-35
  26. Murnane (1977) p.2
  27. Murnane (1977) p.7
  28. Murnane (1977) p.9
  29. Josef Wegner, The Nature and Chronology of the Senwosret III–Amenemhat III Regnal Succession: Some Considerations based on new evidence from the Mortuary Temple of Senwosret III at Abydos, JNES 55, Vol.4, (1996), pp.251
  30. Grajetzki (2006) pp.56-61
  31. "Amenemhat IV Maakherure (1807/06-1798/97 BCE)". Digital Egypt for Universities. मूल से 21 मई 2008 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 14 अप्रैल 2009.
  32. Grajetzk (2006) pp.61-63
  33. "Kings of the 2nd Intermediate Period". मूल से 3 मई 2008 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 14 अप्रैल 2009.
  34. "Tooth clinches identification of Egyptian queen". मूल से 21 मई 2009 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 14 अप्रैल 2009.
  35. "Ramesses I Menpehtire". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. मूल से 11 अप्रैल 2009 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 2007-09-29.
  36. "Sety I Menmaatre". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. मूल से 29 अक्तूबर 2014 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 2007-09-29.
  37. "King Ramesses II". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. मूल से 28 अप्रैल 2009 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 2007-09-29.
  38. "King Merenptah". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. मूल से 10 जुलाई 2013 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 2007-09-29.
  39. "Sety II". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. मूल से 11 अप्रैल 2009 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 2007-10-27.
  40. "Siptah Sekhaenre/Akhenre". Digital Egypt. University College London. 2001. मूल से 11 अप्रैल 2009 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 2007-10-27.
  41. "Tausret". मूल से 3 जनवरी 2009 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 14 अप्रैल 2009.
  42. Grimal (1992) p.291
  43. "Ramesses XI Menmaatre-setpenptah". मूल से 17 सितंबर 2013 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 2007-10-28.
  44. Shaw (ed), Ian (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press. पृ॰ 309.सीएस1 रखरखाव: फालतू पाठ: authors list (link)
  45. Cerny p.645
  46. "Late Period Kings". मूल से 2 अप्रैल 2009 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 2007-10-27.


[संपादित करें]
  • J. H. Breasted, History of Egypt from the Earliest Time to the Persian Conquest, 1909
  • J. Cerny, 'Egypt from the Death of Ramesses III to the End of the Twenty-First Dynasty' in The Middle East and the Aegean Region c.1380-1000 BC, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-08691-4
  • Clayton, Peter A. (1994) Chronicle of the Pharaohs: the reign-by-reign record of the rulers and dynasties of ancient Egypt Thames and Hudson, New York, ISBN 0-500-05074-0
  • Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3
  • Sir Alan Gardiner Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs, Third Edition, Revised. London: Oxford University Press, 1964. Excursus A, pp. 71-76.
  • Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, (Blackwell Books: 1992)
  • Murnane, William J. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization. No. 40. The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1977
  • Michael Rice, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge 1999
  • Ryholt, Kim & Steven Bardrum. 2000. "The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-list and the Identity of Nitocris." Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 127
  • Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt., Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Toby A. H. Wilkinson, Early Dynastic Egypt, Routledge 1999, ISBN 0-415-18633-1
  • Verner, Miroslav, The Pyramids - Their Archaeology and History, Atlantic Books, 2001, ISBN 1-84354-171-8

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