The Old Kingdom is the period in the third millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilisational complexity and achievement (the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley), spanning the period when Egypt was ruled by the Third Dynasty through the Sixth Dynasty (2630–2151 BC). Many Egyptologists also include the Memphite Seventh and Eighth Dynasties in the Old Kingdom as a continuation of the administration centralised at Memphis. The Old Kingdom was followed by a period of disunity and relative cultural decline referred to by Egyptologists as the First Intermediate Period -- or, as the Egyptians called it, the "first illness."
The royal capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom was located at Memphis, where Djoser established his court. The Old Kingdom is perhaps best known, however, for the large number of pyramids which were constructed at this time as pharaonic burial places. For this reason, the Old Kingdom is frequently referred to as "the Age of the Pyramids".
Built the Bent Pyramid, which is a pyramid built at a normal angle at the bottom but drastically changes at the top. He also built the first "true" pyramid, known as the Red Pyramid. Some say that he was buried at the Red Pyramid, while others say that he was buried at the Bent Pyramid. Bones have been found at the Red Pyramid, but there is no evidence that this is Sneferu's body.
Greek form: Cheops. Built the great pyramid of Giza. Note that Khufu is spoken of in early sources as being "third" of his family to rule, although there is no known record of a Pharaoh between Sneferu and Khufu. One supposition is that there might have been a very short reign of some elder brother of Khufu, whose inscriptions, name, and monuments have perished for one reason or another.
Believed to have created the Sphinx at Giza as a monument for his deceased father. He also created a pyramid at Abu Rawash however this pyramid is no longer intact as it is believed the Romans recycled the materials it was made from. Before being demolished by the Romans, according to a documentary aired by the History Channel, the pyramid may actually have been the highest ever built (about 20 meters taller than the Great Pyramid of Giza although this is due to its elevated location rather than the size from base to tip).
The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. He had reigned for 94 years, longer than any monarch in history, and died aged 100. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age.
The Union of the Two Kingdoms fell apart and regional leaders had to cope with the resulting famine.
Around the time Memphis fell to the Hyksos, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes declared its independence and set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia
Through military dominance abroad, the New Kingdom saw Egypt's greatest territorial extent. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the Near East. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria.
Two of the best known pharaohs of the New Kingdom are Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as the first instance of monotheism, and Ramesses II, who attempted to recover the territories in modern Israel/Palestine, Lebanon and Syria that had been held in the Eighteenth Dynasty. His reconquest led to the Battle of Qadesh, where he led the Egyptian armies against the army of the Hittite king Muwatalli II.
His name means Lord of the truth is Ra. He ruled Egypt at the peak of her glory, his mortuary temple was the largest ever built, but was destroyed by Rameses II to build his own temple. Thought to be the grandfather of Tutankhamun
Co-regent and successor of Akhenaten. The identity of this individual is uncertain and disputed. Usually believed to be either a son or son-in-law of Akhenaten but sometimes identified as Akhenaten's wife Nefertiti. Other scholars distinguish two individuals between Akhenaten and Tutankhamun, namely Smenkhkare, who is then seen as male, and a female ruler, who is then most often identified as Akhenaten's eldest daughter Meritaten
The Third Intermediate Period marked the end of the New Kingdom after the collapse of the Egyptian empire. A number of dynasties of Libyan origin ruled, giving this period its alternative name of the Libyan Period.
The Twenty-first Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. Theoretically, they were rulers of all Egypt, but in practice their influence was limited to Lower Egypt. They ruled from 1069 to 945 BC
Cleopatra VII had an affair with Roman Dictator Julius Caesar, and Roman General Marc Antony, but it was not until after her suicide in 30 BC (after Marc Antony was defeated by Octavian, who would later be the emperor Augustus) that Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC.
Subsequent Roman Emperors were accorded the title of Pharaoh, although exclusively while in Egypt. One Egyptian king-list lists the Roman Emperors as Pharaohs up to and including Decius. See the list of Roman emperors.
↑Josef Wegner, The Nature and Chronology of the Senwosret III–Amenemhat III Regnal Succession: Some Considerations based on new evidence from the Mortuary Temple of Senwosret III at Abydos, JNES 55, Vol.4, (1996), pp.251