परजीवी सूची (मानव)

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
यहाँ जाएँ: भ्रमण, खोज


अन्त:परजीवी (Endoparasites)[संपादित करें]

प्रोटोजोवा[संपादित करें]

जन्तु या उससे उत्पन्न रोग का नाम लैटिन नाम(sorted) शरीर का प्रभावित अंग/भाग Diagnostic specimen Prevalence स्रोत/ प्रसार (Reservoir/ Vector)
Babesiosis Babesia B. divergens, B. bigemina, B. equi, B. microfti, B. duncani red blood cells Giemsa-stained thin blood smear New York, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket (different species have worldwide distribution) tick bites
Balantidiasis Balantidium coli intestinal mucosa stool
Blastocystosis Blastocystis intestinal direct microscopy of stool (PCR, anti body) 2 - 20% of population eating food contaminated with feces from an infected human or animal
Coccidia Cryptosporidium intestines stool widespread
Dientamoebiasis Dientamoeba fragilis intestines stool up to 10% in industrialized countries ingesting water or food contaminated with feces
Amoebiasis Entamoeba histolytica Intestines stool areas with poor sanitation, high population density and tropical regions feco-oral transmission
Giardia Giardia lamblia lumen of the small intestine stool widespread ingestion of dormant cysts in fecal contaminated water or food
Isosporiasis Isospora belli epithelial cells of small intestines stool worldwide - less common than Toxoplasma or Cryptosporidium fecal oral route
Leishmaniasis Leishmania cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral visual identification of lesion or microscopic stain with Leishman's or Giemsa's stain Visceral leishmaniasis- Worldwide; Cutaneous leishmaniasis - Old World; Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis - New World Phlebotomus - bite of several species of nocturnal phlebotomus sandflies
Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) [1][2] Naegleria fowleri brain culture rare but deadly Nasal insufflation of contaminated warm fresh water, poorly chlorinated swimming pools, hot springs, soil
Malaria Plasmodium falciparum (80% of cases), Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae red blood cells Blood film tropical - 250 million cases/year Anopheles mosquito, bites at night
Rhinosporidiosis Rhinosporidium seeberi nose, nasopharynx reservoir water and soil India and Sri Lanka nasal mucosa came into contact with infected material through bathing in common ponds
Toxoplasmosis - Parasitic pneumonia Toxoplasma gondii eyes, brain, heart, liver blood and PCR widespread - up to one third of all humans ingestion of uncooked/undercooked pork/lamb/goat with Toxoplasma bradyzoites, ingestion of raw milk with Toxoplasma tachyzoites, ingestion of contaminated water food or soil with oocysts in cat feces that is more than one day old
Trichomoniasis Trichomonas vaginalis female urogenital tract (males asymptomatic) microscopic examination of genital swab 7.4 million Americans sexually transmitted disease
Sleeping sickness Trypanosoma brucei blood lymph and central nervous systems microscopic examination of chancre fluid, lymph node aspirates, blood, bone marrow 50,000 to 70,000 people tsetse fly, bites at night
Chagas disease Trypanosoma cruzi colon, esophagus, heart, nerves, muscle and blood Giemsa stain - blood Mexico, Central America, South America - 16-18 million Triatoma/Reduviidae - Insect Vector, bites at night

कृमि[संपादित करें]

Common name of organism or disease Latin name (sorted) Body parts affected Diagnostic specimen Prevalence Transmission/Vector
Ancylostomiasis/Hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus lungs, small intestine, blood stool common in tropical, warm, moist climates penetration of skin by L3 larva
Roundworm - Parasitic pneumonia Ascaris sp. Ascaris lumbricoides Intestines, liver, appendix, pancreas, lungs, Löffler's syndrome stool common in tropical and subtropical regions
Roundworm Baylisascaris Baylisascaris procyonis, Baylisascaris melis, Baylisascaris transfuga, Baylisascaris columnaris, Baylisascaris devosi, Baylisascaris laevis depending on species: ingestion of material contaminated by stool from raccoons, badgers, bears, otters, martens
Brugia malayi, Brugia timori lymph nodes blood samples tropical regions of Asia Arthropods
Tapeworm - Tapeworm infection Cestoda intestine stool rare
Clonorchiasis Clonorchis sinensis; Clonorchis viverrini
Dicrocoelium dendriticum gall bladder rare ingestion of ants
Diphyllobothriasis - tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum intestines, blood stool (microscope) Europe, Japan, Uganda, Peru, Chile ingestion of raw fresh water fish
Guinea worm - Dracunculiasis Dracunculus medinensis subcutaneous tissues, muscle skin blister/ulcer sub-Saharan Africa, arid regions
Echinococcosis - tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus multilocularis, E. vogeli, E. oligarthrus liver, lungs, kidney, spleen imaging of hydatid cysts in the liver, lungs, kidney and spleen Mediterranean countries as intermediate host, ingestion of material contaminated by feces from a carnivore; as definite host, ingestion of uncooked meat (offal) from a herbivore
Echinostoma echinatum small intestine Far East ingestion of raw fish, mollusks, snails
Liver fluke - Fasciolosis [3] Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica liver, gall blader stool Fasciola hepatica in Europe, Africa, Australia, the Americas and Oceania; Fasciola gigantica only in Africa and Asia, 2.4 million people infected by both species freshwater snails
Fasciolopsiasis - intestinal fluke [4] Fasciolopsis buski intestines stool or vomitus (microscope) East Asia - 10 million people ingestion of infested water plants or water (intermediate host:amphibic snails)
Gnathostomiasis [5] Gnathostoma spinigerum, Gnathostoma hispidum subcutaneous tissues (under the skin) physical examination rare - Southeast Asia ingestion of raw or undercooked meat (eg, freshwater fish, chicken, snails, frogs, pigs) or contaminated water
Hymenolepiasis[6] Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta ingestion of material contaminated by flour beetles, meal worms, cockroaches
Loa loa filariasis, Calabar swellings Loa loa filaria Connective tissue, lungs, eye blood (Giemsa, haematoxylin, eosin stain) rain forest of West Africa - 12-13 million people Tabanidae - horse fly, bites in the day
Mansonelliasis, Filariasis Mansonella streptocerca subcutaneous layer of skin insect
Metagonimiasis - intestinal fluke Metagonimus yokogawai stool Siberia, Manchuria, Balkan states, Israel, Spain ingestion of undercooked or salted fish
Chinese Liver Fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, Opisthorchis felineus, Clonorchis sinensis bile duct 1.5 million people in Russia consuming infected raw, slightly salted or frozen fish
Paragonimiasis, Lung Fluke Paragonimus westermani; Paragonimus africanus; Paragonimus caliensis; Paragonimus kellicotti; Paragonimus skrjabini; Paragonimus uterobilateralis lungs sputum, feces East Asia ingestion of raw or undercooked freshwater crabs crayfishes or other crustaceans
Anisakiasis [7] Anisakis allergic reaction biopsy incidental host ingestion of raw fish, squid, cuttlefish, octopus
Pinworm - Enterobiasis Enterobius vermicularis, Enterobius gregorii intestines, anus stool; tape test around anus widespread; temperate regions
Whipworm Trichuris trichiura, Trichuris vulpis large intestine, anus stool (eggs) common worldwide accidental ingestion of eggs in dry goods such as beans, rice, and various grains or soil contaminated with human feces
Trichinosis Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella britovi, Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella nativa muscle, periorbital region, small intestine blood more common in developing countries due to improved feeding practices in developed countries. ingestion of undercooked pork
ElephantiasisLymphatic filariasis Wuchereria bancrofti lymphatic system thick blood smears stained with hematoxylin. Tropical and subtropical mosquito, bites at night
River blindness Onchocerca volvulus, Onchocerciasis skin, eye, tissue bloodless skin snip Africa, Yemen, Central and South America near cool, fast flowing rivers Simulium/Black fly, bite during the day
Schistosomiasis - bilharzia, bilharziosis or snail fever Schistosoma mansoni - intestinal schistosomiasis; Schistosoma haematobium - urinary schistosomiasis; Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mekongi - Asian intestinal schistosomiasis Schistosoma haematobium - kidney, bladder, ureters, lungs, skin; Schistosoma mansoni/Schistosoma japonicum - intestine, liver, spleen, lungs, skin Schistosoma haematobium - urine; Schistosoma mansoni/Schistosoma japonicum - stool Africa, Caribbean, eastern South America, east Asia, Middle East - 200 million people skin exposure to water contaminated with infected Neritoidea - fresh water snails
Sparganosis Spirometra erinaceieuropaei ingestion of material contaminated with infected dog or cat feces (humans: dead-end host)
Strongyloidiasis - Parasitic pneumonia Strongyloides stercoralis Intestines, lungs, skin (Larva currens) stool, blood skin penetration
Beef tapeworm Taenia saginata Intestines stool worldwide distribution ingestion of undercooked beef
Pork tapeworm Taenia solium ingestion of undercooked pork
Toxocariasis Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati liver, brain, eyes (Toxocara canis - Visceral larva migrans, Ocular larva migrans) blood, ocular examination worldwide distribution pica, unwashed food contamined with Toxocara eggs, undercooked livers of chicken
Swimmer's itch Trichobilharzia regenti, Schistosomatidae skin exposure to contaminated water (snails and vertebrates)
Dioctophyme renalis infection Dioctophyme renale kidneys (typically the right) Urine Worldwide Ingestion of undercooked or raw freshwater fish

अन्य जीव[संपादित करें]

Common name of organism or disease Latin name (sorted) Body parts affected Diagnostic specimen Prevalence Transmission/Vector
parasitic worm Archiacanthocephala
Myiasis Oestroidea, Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae dead or living tissue

वाह्य परजीवी (Ectoparasites)[संपादित करें]

जन्तु या उससे उत्पन्न रोग का नाम वैज्ञानिक नाम(sorted) शरीर का प्रभावित भाग/अंग नैदानिक नमूना (Diagnostic specimen) Prevalence Transmission/Vector
Bedbug Cimicidae Cimex lectularius skin visual sharing of clothing and bedding
Head louse - Pediculosis Pediculus humanus hair follicles visual identification under magnification head-to-head contact
Body louse - Pediculosis Pediculus humanus corporis visual identification under magnification (Vagabond's disease) skin-to-skin contact such as sexual activity and via sharing clothing or bedding
Crab louse - Pediculosis Phthirus pubis pubic area, eye lashes visual identification under magnification skin-to-skin contact such as sexual activity and via sharing clothing or bedding
Scabies Sarcoptes scabiei skin microscopy of surface scrapings skin-to-skin contact such as sexual activity and via sharing clothing or bedding

सन्दर्भ[संपादित करें]

  1. Cogo PE, Scaglia M, Gatti S, Rossetti F, Alaggio R, Laverda AM, et al. Fatal Naegleria fowleri Meningoencephalitis, Italy Emerging Infectious Diseases [serial on the Internet]. 2004 Oct; accessed Jan 2009
  2. Bennett, Nicholas John State University of New York Upstate Medical University Domachowske, Joseph; Khan, Asad A Louisiana State University Health Science Center; King, John W; Cross, J Thomas Naegleria eMedicine; accessed Jan 2009
  3. Yılmaza, Hasan; Gödekmerdan, Ahmet Human fasciolosis in Van province, Turkey doi:10.1016/j.actatropica.2004.04.009
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fasciolopsiasis
  5. Tolan, Robert W Gnathostomiasis eMedicine, updated Feb 2008
  6. Tolan, Robert W Jr Hymenolepiasis eMedicine; updated Feb 2008
  7. Anisakiasis