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The Integrated Authority File (जर्मन : Gemeinsame Normdatei, also known as: Universal Authority File) or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly also by archives and museums. The GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero (CC0) license.[1]

The GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It also comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format.[2]

The Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files which have since been discontinued:

At the time of its introduction (“GND-Grundbestand” from 5 अप्रैल 2012), the GND holds 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalized names.

Other authority files are: Library of Congress Name Authority File (LCNAF) by the Library of Congress, Web NDL Authorities by the National Diet Library (Japan), LIBRIS by the National Library of Sweden, and the Virtual International Authority File (VIAF).

Types of GND high-level entities[संपादित करें]

There are seven main types of GND entities:[3]

Typ German (official) English (translation)
p Person (individualisiert) person (individualized)
n Name (nicht individualisiert) name (not individualized)
k Körperschaft corporate body
v Veranstaltung event
w Werk work
s Sachbegriff topical term
g Geografikum geographical place name

References[संपादित करें]

  1. "Integrated Authority File (GND)". मूल से 4 मार्च 2016 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 12 दिसंबर 2013.
  2. GND Ontology - Namespace Document Archived 2013-01-03 at the Wayback Machine, version 2012-06-30.
  3. Entitätencodierung: Vergaberichtlinien Archived 2015-09-23 at the Wayback Machine (short lists: old and new version)

External links[संपादित करें]