अफ्रीका का विघटन

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
नेविगेशन पर जाएँ खोज पर जाएँ

अफ्रीका के उपनिवेशवाद महाद्वीप के रूप में पर अचानक और कट्टरपंथी शासन में परिवर्तन के साथ 1975 तक मध्य से 1950 के दशक में हुआ था, औपनिवेशिक सरकारों को संक्रमण बना स्वतंत्र राज्यों ; यह अक्सर काफी असंगठित था और हिंसा और राजनीतिक उथल-पुथल के साथ शादी कर ली थी। फ्रांसीसी अल्जीरिया में अल्जीरियाई युद्ध , पुर्तगाली अंगोला में आजादी का अंगोला युद्ध , बेल्जियम के कांगो में कांगो संकट और ब्रिटिश केन्या में मऊ माउ विद्रोह सहित उत्तरी और उप-सहारा कालोनियों में संगठित विद्रोह के साथ व्यापक अशांति थी ।

Timeline[संपादित करें]

Dates of independence of African countries
African countries in order of independence
Country Colonial name Colonial power Independence date First head of state
Ethiopia establishment as the
Kingdom of Aksum
1st century BC ?
Liberia Commonwealth of Liberia American Colonization Society July 26, 1847 Joseph Jenkins Roberts
Libya Libya Italy December 24, 1951 Idris
Egypt Egypt Britain 1922/1936/1953 n/a
Sudan Sudan Britain January 1, 1956 Ismail al-Azhari
Tunisia Tunisia France March 20, 1956 Muhammad VIII al-Amin
Morocco Morocco France April 7, 1956 Mohammed V
Ghana Gold Coast Britain March 6, 1957 Kwame Nkrumah
Guinea French West Africa France October 2, 1958 Sékou Touré
Cameroon Cameroun France, Britain January 1, 1960 Ahmadou Ahidjo
Togo French Togoland France April 27, 1960 Sylvanus Olympio
Mali French West Africa France June 20, 1960 Modibo Keita
Senegal French West Africa France June 20, 1960 Léopold Senghor
Madagascar Malagasy Protectorate France June 26, 1960 Philibert Tsiranana
DR Congo Belgian Congo Belgium June 30, 1960 Patrice Lumumba
Somalia Italian Somaliland, British Somaliland Italy, Britain July 1, 1960 Aden Abdullah Osman Daar
Benin French West Africa France August 1, 1960 Hubert Maga
Niger French West Africa France August 3, 1960 Hamani Diori
Burkina Faso French West Africa France August 5, 1960 Maurice Yaméogo
Côte d'Ivoire Côte d'Ivoire France August 7, 1960 Félix Houphouët-Boigny
Chad French Equatorial Africa France August 11, 1960 François Tombalbaye
Central African Republic French Equatorial Africa France August 13, 1960 David Dacko
Congo French Equatorial Africa France August 15, 1960 Fulbert Youlou
Gabon French Equatorial Africa France August 17, 1960 Léon M'ba
Nigeria Nigeria Britain October 1, 1960 Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
Mauritania French West Africa France November 28, 1960 Moktar Ould Daddah
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Britain April 27, 1961 Milton Margai
Tanzania Tanganyika Britain December 9, 1961 Julius Nyerere
Rwanda Ruanda-Urundi Belgium July 1, 1962 Grégoire Kayibanda
Burundi Ruanda-Urundi Belgium July 1, 1962 Mwambutsa IV
Algeria Algeria France July 3, 1962 Ahmed Ben Bella
Uganda British East Africa Britain October 9, 1962 Milton Obote
Kenya British East Africa Britain December 12, 1963 Jomo Kenyatta
Malawi Nyasaland Britain July 6, 1964 Hastings Kamuzu Banda
Zambia Northern Rhodesia Britain October 24, 1964 Kenneth Kaunda
Gambia Gambia Britain February 18, 1965 Dawda Kairaba Jawara
Botswana Bechuanaland Britain September 30, 1966 Seretse Khama
Lesotho Basutoland Britain October 4, 1966 Leabua Jonathan
Swaziland Swaziland Britain September 6, 1968 Sobhuza II
Equatorial Guinea Spanish Guinea Spain October 12, 1968 Francisco Macías Nguema
Guinea-Bissau Portuguese Guinea Portugal September 24, 1973 Luis Cabral
Mozambique Portuguese East Africa Portugal June 25, 1975 Samora Machel
Angola Angola Portugal November 11, 1975 Agostinho Neto
Djibouti French Somaliland France June 27, 1977 Hassan Gouled Aptidon
Zimbabwe Southern Rhodesia Britain April 18, 1980 Robert Mugabe
Namibia South West Africa South Africa March 21, 1990 Sam Nujoma
Eritrea Eritrea Ethiopia May 24, 1993 Isaias Afewerki
South Africa South Africa South Africa (apartheid) April 27, 1994 Nelson Mandela
Sahrawi Republic 1 Spanish Sahara Spain February 27, 1976 El-Ouali Mustapha Sayed

1 The Spanish colonial rule de facto terminated over the Western Sahara (then Rio de Oro), when the territory was passed on to and partitioned between Mauritania and Morocco (which annexes the entire territory in 1979), rendering the declared independence of the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic ineffective to the present day (it controls only a small portion east of the Moroccan Wall). Since Spain did not have the right to give away Western Sahara, under international law de jure the territory is still under Spanish administration. The de facto administrator is however Morocco. See United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories

References[संपादित करें]

See also[संपादित करें]

Sources[संपादित करें]

  • Kevin Shillington (1995). History of Africa (1st ed.). Palgrave Macmillan; Revised edition ISBN 0-312-12598-4