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ORCID logo with tagline.svg
पूर्ण नामOpen Researcher and Contributor ID
No. जारी> 727,000
प्रस्तावित16 अक्टूबर 2012 (2012-10-16)
प्रबन्धन संगठनORCID, Inc.
जाँच अंकMOD 11-2

ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) is a nonproprietary alphanumeric code to uniquely identify scientific and other academic authors.[1][2][3][4] This addresses the problem that a particular author's contributions to the scientific literature can be hard to electronically recognize as most personal names are not unique, they can change (such as with marriage), have cultural differences in name order, contain inconsistent use of first-name abbreviations and employ different writing systems. It provides a persistent identity for humans, similar to that created for content-related entities on digital networks by digital object identifiers (DOIs).[5]

The ORCID organization offers an open and independent registry intended to be the de facto standard for author identification in science and related academic publishing. On 16 अक्टूबर 2012, ORCID launched its registry services[6][7] and started issuing user identifiers.[8]

Development and launch[संपादित करें]

ORCID was first organized as the "Open Researcher Contributor Identification Initiative".[9] A prototype was developed on software adapted from that used by Thomson Reuters for its ResearcherID system.[10] The registry is now an independent nonprofit organization, ORCID, Inc.,[11] incorporated in August 2010. Its executive Director, Laure Haak, was appointed in April 2012.[12] ORCID is freely usable and interoperable with other ID systems.[1] ORCID launched its registry services and started issuing user identifiers on 16 अक्टूबर 2012.[6] Formally, ORCID IDs are specified as URIs,[13] for example, the ORCID for John Wilbanks is http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4510-0385.[14] However, some publishers use the short form, e.g. "ORCID: 0000-0002-4510-0385".[15][16]

ORCID is a subset of the International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI),[17] under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (as ISO 27729) and the two organizations are cooperating. ISNI will uniquely identify contributors to books, television programmes, and newspapers, and has reserved a block of identifiers for use by ORCID,[17][18] in the range 0000-0001-5000-0007 to 0000-0003-5000-0001. It is therefore possible for a person to legitimately have both an ISNI and an ORCID[19][20] - effectively, two ISNIs.

Both ORCID and ISNI use 16-character identifiers,[18] using the digits 0-9, and separated into groups of four by hyphens.[16] The final character, which may also be a letter "X" representing the value "10" (for example, Nick Jennings' ORCID is http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0166-248X[16][21]), is a MOD 11-2 check digit conforming to the ISO/IEC 7064:2003 standard.

An ORCID account for a fictitious person, Josiah Carberry, exists as http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1825-0097, for use in testing and training examples.

Uses[संपादित करें]

The aim of ORCID is to aid "the transition from science to e-Science, wherein scholarly publications can be mined to spot links and ideas hidden in the ever-growing volume of scholarly literature".[22] Another suggested use is to provide each researcher with "a constantly updated ‘digital curriculum vitae’ providing a picture of his or her contributions to science going far beyond the simple publication list."[1] The idea is that other organizations will use the open-access ORCID database to build their own services.

It has been noted in an editorial in Nature that ORCID, in addition to tagging the contributions that scientists make to papers, "could also be assigned to data sets they helped to generate, comments on their colleagues’ blog posts or unpublished draft papers, edits of Wikipedia entries and much else besides".[1]

In April 2014, ORCID announced plans to work with the Consortia Advancing Standards in Research Administration Information to record and acknowledge contributions to peer review.[23]

Members, sponsors and registrants[संपादित करें]

By the end of 2013 ORCID had 111 member organizations and over 460,000 registrants.[24][25][26] As of 30 मई 2014, the number of registrants was 727,454.[27] The organizational members include many publishers such as Elsevier, Springer, Wiley and Nature Publishing Group. Others are research institutions (among them Caltech and Cornell University), commercial companies including Thomson Reuters, academic societies and a charitable foundation, the Wellcome Trust.[28]

In June 2014, ORCID announced that it had appointed Andy Mabbett as its Wikipedian in Residence.[29]

Integrations[संपादित करें]

Nick Jennings' ORCID in his Wikidata entry

In addition to members and sponsors, a number of journals, publishers, and other services have included ORCID in their workflows or databases. For example, the Journal of Neuroscience,[30][31] Springer Publishing,[32] the Hindawi Publishing Corporation,[16] Europe PubMed Central,[33] the Japanese National Institute of Informatics's Researcher Name Resolver,[34] Wikipedia,[35] and Wikidata.[36]

Some online services have created tools for exporting date to, or importing data from, ORCID. These include Scopus[37] and Figshare.[38] Thomson Reuters have enabled data exchange between ORCID and its ResearcherID system, and vice versa.[39]

Third-party tools allow the migration of content from other services into ORCID, for example ODIN, for DataCite[40] and Mendeley2ORCID, for Mendeley.[41]

Some ORCID data may also be retrieved as RDF.[42]

See also[संपादित करें]

References[संपादित करें]

  1. Editorial (2009). "Credit where credit is due". Nature. 462: 825. doi:10.1038/462825a
  2. ORCID website
  3. News (30 मई 2012) "Scientists: your number is up: ORCID scheme will give researchers unique identifiers to improve tracking of publications.", Declan Butler, "Nature". 485: 564 doi:10.1038/485564a
  4. "Ten things you need to know about ORCID right now". ImpactStory. 10 अप्रैल 2014. अभिगमन तिथि 15 अप्रैल 2014.
  5. CrossRef & ORCID
  6. "ORCID Launches Registry". अभिगमन तिथि 18 अक्टूबर 2012.
  7. "ORCID vs ISNI; ORCID lanceert vandaag hun Author Register - Artikel - SURFspace". अभिगमन तिथि 24 अक्टूबर 2012.
  8. "Register for an ORCID iD". अभिगमन तिथि 18 अक्टूबर 2012.
  9. "Welcome to the Open Researcher Contributor Identification Initiative (or ORCID) group on Nature Network". अभिगमन तिथि 23 अक्टूबर 2012.
  10. http://about.orcid.org/content/press-release-orcid-funding-and-development-efforts-target[मृत कड़ियाँ]
  11. Craig Van Dyck. "Wiley-Blackwell Publishing News: An Update on the Open Researcher and Contributor Identifier (ORCID)". अभिगमन तिथि 23 अक्टूबर 2012.
  12. Butler, Declan (30 मई 2012). "Scientists: your number is up". Nature. अभिगमन तिथि 31 मई 2014.
  13. "Trademark and iD Display Guidelines". ORCID. अभिगमन तिथि 21 अगस्त 2013.
  14. "Structure of the ORCID Identifier". ORCID.
  15. "Wikipedia: John Wilbanks". Wikipedia. अभिगमन तिथि 21 अगस्त 2013.
  16. "Hiroshi Asakura". Hindawi Publishing Corporation. अभिगमन तिथि 20 अप्रैल 2014.
  17. "ISNI and ORCID". ISNI. अभिगमन तिथि 29 मार्च 2013.[मृत कड़ियाँ]
  18. "What is the relationship between ISNI and ORCID?". अभिगमन तिथि 23 अक्टूबर 2012.
  19. "ISNI 0000000031979523". ISNI. अभिगमन तिथि 20 अप्रैल 2014.
  20. "ORCID 0000-0001-5882-6823". ORCID. अभिगमन तिथि 20 अप्रैल 2014.
  21. "Nick Jennings". ORCID. अभिगमन तिथि 20 अप्रैल 2014.
  22. ORCID: About us
  23. "Latest news on the stm publishing industry from scope e knowledge center pvt ltd". 9 अप्रैल 2014. अभिगमन तिथि 15 अप्रैल 2014.
  24. "2013 Year in review". ORCID, Inc. अभिगमन तिथि 1 फ़रवरी 2014.
  25. "Members". ORCID, Inc. अभिगमन तिथि 20 जुलाई 2013.
  26. O'Beirne, Richard. "OUP and ORCID". Oxford Journals. अभिगमन तिथि 15 अप्रैल 2014.
  27. "ORCID Statistics". ORCID. 30 मई 2014. अभिगमन तिथि 31 मई 2014.
  28. ORCID Sponsors
  29. Haak, Laure (10 जून 2014). "Announcing ORCID's Wikipedian-in-Residence". अभिगमन तिथि 19 जुलाई 2014.
  30. "Announcements". Journal of Neuroscience. अप्रैल 2014. अभिगमन तिथि 20 अप्रैल 2014.
  31. "The Journal of Neuroscience Rolls Out ORCID Integration". Society for Neuroscience. अभिगमन तिथि 20 अप्रैल 2014.
  32. "Author Zone 16 - ORCID". Springer Publishing. अभिगमन तिथि 21 अप्रैल 2014.
  33. "ORCID Article Claiming". Europe PubMed Central. अभिगमन तिथि 16 मई 2014.
  34. "ORCID integration". Researcher Name Resolver. National Institute of Informatics. अभिगमन तिथि 20 अप्रैल 2014.
  35. Wikipedia authors. "Category:Wikipedia articles with ORCID identifiers". Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. अभिगमन तिथि 20 अप्रैल 2014.
  36. Wikidata contributors. "Pages that link to "Property:P496"". Wikdiata. Wikimedia Foundation. अभिगमन तिथि 20 अप्रैल 2014.
  37. "Scopus2Orcid - Use the Scopus to Orcid Author details and documents wizard to collect all your Scopus records in one unique author profile". Scopus. अभिगमन तिथि 7 मई 2014.
  38. "figshare ORCID integration". Figshare. अभिगमन तिथि 7 मई 2014.
  39. "RID - ORCID Integration - IP & Science". Thomson Reuters. अभिगमन तिथि 29 मार्च 2013.
  40. Thorisson, Gudmundur (13 मई 2013). "New ORCID-integrated data citation tool". ODIN Project. अभिगमन तिथि 7 मई 2014.
  41. "Mendeley to ORCID". अभिगमन तिथि 7 मई 2014.
  42. "Q&D RDF Browser". अभिगमन तिथि 17 जून 2014.

External links[संपादित करें]