कार्बोक्सिलिक अम्ल

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
यहाँ जाएँ: भ्रमण, खोज
कार्बोक्सिलिक अम्ल की संरचना

जिन कार्बनिक यौगिकों में कार्बोक्सिल समूह (C(O)OH) उपस्थित होता है उन्हें कार्बोक्सिलिक अम्ल (carboxylic acid) कहते हैं। कार्बोक्सिलिक अम्लों का सामान्य सूत्र R-C(O)OH है जहाँ R अणु के शेष को भाग निरूपित करता है। अमिनो अम्ल तथा एसिटिक अम्ल आदि कार्बोक्सिलिक अम्ल हैं।

कार्बोक्सिलिक अम्ल के उदाहरण[संपादित करें]

सरल-शृंखला (Straight-chain) वाले संतृप्त कार्बोक्सिलिक अम्ल
कार्बन परमाणु आम नाम IUPAC नाम रासायनिक सूत्र प्राप्ति एवं उपयोग
1 Formic acid Methanoic acid HCOOH Insect stings
2 Acetic acid Ethanoic acid CH3COOH Vinegar
3 Propionic acid Propanoic acid CH3CH2COOH Preservative for stored grains
4 Butyric acid Butanoic acid CH3(CH2)2COOH Butter
5 Valeric acid Pentanoic acid CH3(CH2)3COOH Valerian
6 Caproic acid Hexanoic acid CH3(CH2)4COOH Goat fat
7 Enanthic acid Heptanoic acid CH3(CH2)5COOH
8 Caprylic acid Octanoic acid CH3(CH2)6COOH Coconuts and breast milk
9 Pelargonic acid Nonanoic acid CH3(CH2)7COOH Pelargonium
10 Capric acid Decanoic acid CH3(CH2)8COOH
11 Undecylic acid Undecanoic acid CH3(CH2)9COOH
12 Lauric acid Dodecanoic acid CH3(CH2)10COOH Coconut oil and hand wash soaps.
13 Tridecylic acid Tridecanoic acid CH3(CH2)11COOH
14 Myristic acid Tetradecanoic acid CH3(CH2)12COOH Nutmeg
15 Pentadecanoic acid CH3(CH2)13COOH
16 Palmitic acid Hexadecanoic acid CH3(CH2)14COOH Palm oil
17 Margaric acid Heptadecanoic acid CH3(CH2)15COOH
18 Stearic acid Octadecanoic acid CH3(CH2)16COOH Chocolate, waxes, soaps, and oils
20 Arachidic acid Icosanoic acid CH3(CH2)18COOH Peanut oil
अन्य कार्बोक्सिलिक अम्ल
यौगिक का वर्ग (Compound class) सदस्य
unsaturated monocarboxylic acids acrylic acid (2-propenoic acid) – CH2=CHCOOH, used in polymer synthesis
Fatty acids medium to long-chain saturated and unsaturated monocarboxylic acids, with even number of carbons examples docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid (nutritional supplements)
Amino acids the building-blocks of proteins
Keto acids acids of biochemical significance that contain a ketone group, e.g. acetoacetic acid and pyruvic acid
Aromatic carboxylic acids benzoic acid, the sodium salt of benzoic acid is used as a food preservative, salicylic acid – a beta hydroxy type found in many skin-care products
Dicarboxylic acids containing two carboxyl groups examples adipic acid the monomer used to produce nylon and aldaric acid – a family of sugar acids
Tricarboxylic acids containing three carboxyl groups example citric acid – found in citrus fruits and isocitric acid
Alpha hydroxy acids containing a hydroxy group example glyceric acid, glycolic acid and lactic acid (2-hydroxypropanoic acid) – found in sour milk tartaric acid – found in wine