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यह लेख अभी अनुवाद के अधीन है। मुख्य स्रोत हेतु en:States and territories of Australia क्लिक करें

अँग्रे़ई़ भाषा में यह लेख इस प्रकार है:- The states and territories of Australia make up the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government.

States and territories of Australia[संपादित करें]

States[संपादित करें]

नक्शे में Map showing the creation of the colonies/states and mainland territories.
State Abbreviation Capital
Flag of New South Wales.svg New South Wales NSW Sydney
Flag of Queensland.svg Queensland QLD Brisbane
Flag of South Australia.svg South Australia SA Adelaide
Flag of Tasmania.svg Tasmania TAS Hobart
Flag of Victoria (Australia).svg Victoria VIC Melbourne
Flag of Western Australia.svg Western Australia WA Perth
इन्हें भी देखें: Bank State Branch#List of State codes

Territories[संपादित करें]

Mainland[संपादित करें]

Territory Abbreviation Capital
Flag of the Australian Capital Territory.svg Australian Capital Territory ACT Canberra
Flag of Australia.svg Jervis Bay Territory JBT
Flag of the Northern Territory.svg Northern Territory NT Darwin

From 1926 to 1931, Central Australia existed as a separate territory between the 20th and 26th parallels of latitude, before being reincorporated into the Northern Territory.

External[संपादित करें]

Australian external territories

Background and overview[संपादित करें]

The states originated as separate British colonies prior to Federation (in 1901). Their powers are protected by the Australian constitution, and Commonwealth legislation only applies to the states where permitted by the constitution. The territories, by contrast, are from a constitutional perspective directly subject to the Commonwealth government. The Australian Parliament has powers to legislate in the territories that it does not possess in the states.

Most of the territories are directly administered by the Commonwealth government, while three (the Northern Territory, the Australian Capital Territory and Norfolk Island) administer themselves. In the self-governing territories the Australian Parliament retains the full power to legislate, and can override laws made by the territorial institutions, which it has done on rare occasions. For the purposes of Australian (and joint Australia-New Zealand) intergovernmental bodies, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory are treated as states.

Furthermore, the distribution of powers between the Commonwealth and the territories is different from that between the Commonwealth and the states. In the Northern Territory, the Commonwealth retains the power to directly administer uranium mining and Aboriginal lands - powers which it does not possess with respect to the states.

Each state has a Governor, appointed by the Queen, which by convention she does on the advice of the state Premier. The Administrators of the Northern Territory and Norfolk Island are, by contrast, appointed by the Governor-General. The Australian Capital Territory has neither a Governor nor Administrator, but the Governor-General exercises some powers that in other jurisdictions are exercised by the Governor of a state or Administrator of a territory, such as the power to dissolve the Legislative Assembly.

Jervis Bay Territory is unique in being the only non-self-governing territory that is not an external territory. Until 1989 it was a part of the ACT, but was separated when the ACT achieved self-government. Residents of the Jervis Bay Territory are not represented in the ACT Legislative Assembly. However, laws made by that assembly generally apply to them. They are represented in the Australian parliament as part of the Division of Fraser in the ACT and by the ACT's two Senators. In other respects, the territory is administered directly by the Federal Government through the Territories portfolio.

Each state has a bicameral Parliament except Queensland, which abolished its upper house in 1922. The lower house is called the Legislative Assembly, except in South Australia and Tasmania, where it is called the House of Assembly. Tasmania is the only state to use proportional representation for elections to its lower house; all others elect members from single member constituencies, using preferential voting. The upper house is called the Legislative Council, and is generally elected from multi-member constituencies using proportional representation. The three self-governing territories, the ACT, the Northern Territory and Norfolk Island, have unicameral Legislative Assemblies.

The head of government of each state is called the Premier, appointed by the state's Governor. In normal circumstances the Governor will appoint as Premier whoever leads the party or coalition which exercises control of the lower house (in the case of Queensland, the only house) of the state Parliament. However, in times of constitutional crisis, the Governor can appoint someone else as Premier. The head of government of the self-governing internal territories is called the Chief Minister. The Northern Territory's Chief Minister, in normal circumstances whoever controls the Legislative Assembly, is appointed by the Administrator.

Comparative terminology[संपादित करें]

Entity Head of State Head of Government Upper House of Parliament Lower House of Parliament Member of Parliament*
Australia Governor-General Prime Minister Senate House of Representatives Senator MP
New South Wales Governor Premier Legislative Council Legislative Assembly MLC MLA
Queensland Abolished (1922) None MP
South Australia Legislative Council House of Assembly MLC MHA
Western Australia Legislative Assembly MLA
Australian Capital Territory Chief Minister Chief Minister None None
Northern Territory Administrator
Norfolk Island
Christmas Island Mayor/Shire President Shire Council Councillor
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
*Note: The abbreviation MP is an acceptable, and indeed more common term for members of each lower house.

State governors and territorial administrators[संपादित करें]

Post Appointee Appointed
Governor of New South Wales Her Excellency Professor Marie Bashir AC CVO March 2001
Governor of Queensland Her Excellency Ms Quentin Bryce AC July 2003
Administrator of the Northern Territory Mr Ted Egan AO October 2003
Administrator of Norfolk Island The Hon Grant Tambling November 2003
Governor of Tasmania His Excellency the Hon William Cox AC RFD ED December 2004
Governor of Western Australia His Excellency Dr Ken Michael AC October 2005
Administrator of Christmas Island The Hon Neil Lucas PSM January 2006
Administrator of Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Governor of Victoria His Excellency Professor David de Kretser AC April 2006
Governor of South Australia His Excellency Rear Admiral Kevin John Scarce AO, CSC August 2007

Premiers and Chief Ministers of states and territories[संपादित करें]

Post Appointee Political party Appointed
Chief Minister for the Northern Territory of Australia Mr Paul Henderson MLA ALP November 2007
Chief Minister of the Australian Capital Territory Mr Jon Stanhope MLA ALP November 2001
Premier of South Australia The Hon Mike Rann MHA ALP March 2002
Premier of Tasmania The Hon Paul Lennon MHA ALP March 2004
Premier of New South Wales The Hon Morris Iemma MLA ALP August 2005
Premier of Western Australia The Hon Alan Carpenter MLA ALP January 2006
Chief Minister of Norfolk Island Mr Andre Nobbs MLA March 2007
Premier of Victoria The Hon John Brumby‎ MLA ALP July 2007
Premier of Queensland The Hon Anna Bligh MP ALP September 2007

State and territorial parliaments[संपादित करें]

State and territory police forces[संपादित करें]

Statistics[संपादित करें]

State/territory Land area (km²) Rank Population (2006) Rank Population density (/km²) Rank  % of population in capital Rank
Flag of the Australian Capital Territory.svg Australian Capital Territory 2,358 8th 336,400 7th 137.53 1st 99.6% 1st
Flag of New South Wales.svg New South Wales 800,642 5th 6,817,100 1st 8.44 3rd 63% 5th
Flag of Victoria (Australia).svg Victoria 227,416 6th 5,188,100 2nd 22 2nd 71% 4th
Flag of Queensland.svg Queensland 1,730,648 2nd 4,264,590 3rd 2.26 5th 46% 7th
Flag of South Australia.svg South Australia 983,482 4th 1,581,400 5th 1.56 6th 73.5% 2nd
Flag of Western Australia.svg Western Australia 2,529,875 1st 2,105,800 4th 0.79 7th 73.4% 3rd
Flag of Tasmania.svg Tasmania 68,401 7th 492,700 6th 7.08 4th 41% 8th
Flag of the Northern Territory.svg Northern Territory 1,349,129 3rd 215,000 8th 0.15 8th 54% 6th

Distance table[संपादित करें]

Distance Table Australia
2673 Albany
1533 3588 Alice Springs
1578 3633 443 Ayers Rock
2045 4349 3038 3254 Brisbane
2483 1943 2483 1223 3317 Broome
3352 5656 2457 2900 1716 2496 Cairns
1196 3846 3706 2751 1261 3275 2568 Canberra
3022 4614 1489 1932 3463 1803 2882 4195 Darwin
1001 3674 2534 2579 1944 3636 3251 918 4023 Hobart
3219 3787 1686 2129 3660 1045 3079 4392 827 4220 Kununurra
2783 5087 2505 2948 976 2840 740 1999 2930 2682 3127 Mackay
731 3404 2264 2309 1674 3124 2981 648 3753 270 3950 2412 Melbourne
2742 5106 1209 1652 1829 1834 1248 2561 1634 3075 1831 1296 2805 Mount Isa
2781 409 3696 3741 4457 2389 5764 3954 4205 3782 3378 5195 3512 4905 Perth
1412 3970 3830 2875 1001 3373 2495 286 4034 1142 4516 1926 872 2400 4078 Sydney

distance in Kilometre.

State and territory codes[संपादित करें]

State/Territory Callsigns Postcodes Telephone area codes Time zone
AM/FM TV Amateur Std Summer
Australian Capital Territory 1xx(x) xx(x)Cn VK1xx 02nn*, 26nn, 29nn 02 +10 +11
New South Wales 2xx(x) xx(x)Nn VK2xx 1nnn*, 2nnn 02 +10 +11
Victoria 3xx(x) xx(x)Vn VK3xx 3nnn, 8nnn* 03 +10 +11
Queensland 4xx(x) xx(x)Qn VK4xx 4nnn, 9nnn* 07 +10
South Australia 5xx(x) xx(x)Sn VK5xx 5nnn 08 +9½ +10½
Western Australia 6xx(x) xx(x)Wn VK6xx 6nnn 08 +8 +9
Tasmania 7xx(x) xx(x)Tn VK7xx 7nnn 03 +10 +11
Northern Territory 8xx(x) xx(x)Dn VK8xx 08nn 08 +9½
External Territories
Norfolk Island 2xx(x) VK9xx (NSW) +672 3 +11½
Christmas Island (WA) (WA) +7
Cocos Island +6½
Australian Antarctic Territory none VK0xx (Tas) +672 1 +6 to +8
Macquarie Island none +10 +11
* used for PO box and Large Users only

See also[संपादित करें]

External links[संपादित करें]