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अन्तरराष्ट्रीय अधिकारों में सागरीय क्षेत्र

मध्य-आधार Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources.

Definition[संपादित करें]

Generally a state's EEZ extends to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370 km) out from its coast. The exception to this rule occurs when EEZs overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nautical miles apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual boundary.[1] Otherwise, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the most proximate state.[2]

The Exclusive Economic Zone starts at the coastal baseline and extends 200 nautical miles out into the sea, perpendicular to the baseline. Thus, the EEZ overlaps both the contiguous zone and territorial waters.[3]

Origin of EEZ[संपादित करें]

This concept of allotting nations EEZs to give better control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century and was given binding international recognition by the Third United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1982.

Part V, Article 55 of the Convention states:

Specific legal regime of the Exclusive Economic Zone
The Exclusive Economic Zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, subject to the specific legal regime established in this Part, under which the rights and jurisdiction of the coastal State and the rights and freedoms of other States are governed by the relevant provisions of this Convention.

Fisheries management is a significant aspect of the resulting control.

EEZ disputes[संपादित करें]

Disputes over the exact extent of Exclusive Economic Zones are a common source of conflict between states over marine waters.

Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also sources of potential dispute.[4]

Rankings by area[संपादित करें]

List of countries' EEZ by area
Country EEZ +
Terr. Waters
EEZ only
United States 11,351,000 km²
France 11,035,000 km²
Australia 8 148 250 km²
Russia 7,566,673 km²
Canada 5,599,077 km² 2,755,564 km²
Japan 4,479,358 km²
New Zealand 4,083,744 km²
United Kingdom 3,973,760 km²
Brazil 3,660,955 km²
Chile 2,017,717 km²
Portugal 1,727,408 km²
India 1,641,514 km²
Madagascar 1,225,259 km²
Argentina 1,159,063 km²
China 877,019 km²
List of countries' EEZ
plus territorial waters
plus territories onshore area
Russia 24,641,873 km²
United States 20,982,418 km²
Australia 15,835,100 km²
Canada 15,583,747 km²
Brazil 12,175,831 km²
France 11,709,843 km²
China 10,476,979 km²
India 5,559,733 km²
Japan 4,857,193 km²
New Zealand 4,352,424 km²
Argentina 3,925,953 km²
Chile 2,773,813 km²
Portugal 1,819,799 km²
Madagascar 1,812,299 km²

By country[संपादित करें]

Argentina[संपादित करें]

1,159,063 km²

Australia[संपादित करें]

Australia has the third largest Exclusive Economic Zone, behind the United States and France, but ahead of Russia, with the total area actually exceeding that of its land territory. As per UN convention, Australia's EEZ generally extends 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.[5] Australia has also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, an EEZ of 200 nautical miles (370 km) from its Antarctic Territory but has requested it not be considered, in accordance with the Antarctic Treaty.[6] Nevertheless, Australia maintains the right to explore and exploit the seabed and water column within its EEZ.

EEZ Area (km²)[7]
Heard & McDonald Islands 410,722
Christmas Island 463,371
Cocos Islands 325,021
Norfolk Island 428,618
Macquarie Island 471,837
Australia 6,048,681
TOTAL 8,148,250

Brazil[संपादित करें]

  • Continental shelf: 3,191,827 km²
  • Trindade and Martim Vaz Island: 469,128 km²
  • total: 3,660,955 km²

Source

Canada[संपादित करें]

Canada is unusual in that its Exclusive Economic Zone, covering 2,755,564 km², is slightly smaller than its territorial waters.[8] The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about 300 nautical miles across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelago.

European Union[संपादित करें]

The EEZ of the European Union is shared, so vessels or a national from one country can fish in another country's EEZ.[9] The combined zone amounts to 25 million km², making it larger than the United States' zone, the largest of any single country.[10] '"See: Common Fisheries Policy.

France[संपादित करें]

Due to its numerous overseas départements and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the second-largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,035,000 km² (4,260,000 mi²), just behind the EEZ of the United States (11,351,000 km² / 4,383,000 mi²), but ahead of the EEZ of Australia (8,232,000 km² / 3,178,000 mi²). According to a different calculation cited by the Pew Research Center, the EEZ of France would be 10,084,201 km² (3,893,532 mi²), behind the United States (12,174,629 km² / 4,700,651 mi²), but ahead of Australia (8,980,568 km² / 3,467,416 mi²) and Russia (7,566,673 km² / 2,921,508 mi²).

The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of the Earth.

Greece[संपादित करें]

Greece has not yet claimed an exclusive economic zone, although it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law. The reason for its inaction is the direct Turkish threat of casus belli.[तथ्य वांछित]

Turkey's declaration of casus belli is not related to the EEZ issue. Aegean Sea is a semi-closed sea which has a special nature. Moreover, Turkey is not among the signatories of UNCLOS which allows countries to expand width of their territorial waters up to 12 nautical miles. Besides, Turkey is a persistent objector to the relevant article of UNCLOS. In 1995, just after Greece's ratification of UNCLOS, Turkey declared that if Greece expands the width of her territorial waters over 6 nautical miles (e.g. 12 nautical miles), Turkey would conceive this action as a containment attempt and a direct offence to her sovereignty. So, Turkish Parliament decided that if Greece attempts to expand the width of her territorial waters it would be a cause of war (casus belli). EEZ problem -which is waiting for a viable solution- is just another problem between Turkey and Greece besides other problems.

Portugal[संपादित करें]

Portugal Exclusive Economic Zone

Portugal has the 3rd largest Exclusive Economic Zone of the EU and the 11th in the world.

United Kingdom[संपादित करें]

764,071 km²

India[संपादित करें]

Japan[संपादित करें]

Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbours (Russia, South Korea, PRC and ROC). The above and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project[11][12] both indicates Japan's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account neighbouring power's claims.

New Zealand[संपादित करें]

New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km², according to the Sea Around Us Project,[13][14] which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km².[15] These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency).

Norway[संपादित करें]

Norway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819 620 km² around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km², including fishing zones around Svalbard and Jan Mayen[16]. The fact that the European Union shares its economic zones was a big reason why Norway did not entered the EU as a member.

Pakistan[संपादित करें]

Russia[संपादित करें]

  • Asia: 6,382,530
  • Baltic: 24,549
  • Barents Sea: 1,159,594
  • total 7,566,673 km²

Source

United States[संपादित करें]

information needed

Largest EEZ in the world: 11,351,000 km² / 4,383,000 mi²

References[संपादित करें]

  1. William R. Slomanson, 2006. Fundamental Perspectives on International Law, 5th edn. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth, 294.
  2. UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
  3. William R. Slomanson, 2006. Fundamental Perspectives on International Law, 5th edn. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth, 294.
  4. The Legal Status of Ice in the Antarctic Region
  5. Geoscience Australia. 2005. Maritime Boundary Definitions.
  6. Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea. Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, Submission by Australia
  7. Geoscience Australia, Australian Maritime Boundaries Information System 2001. Area of the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone
  8. Wildlife Habitat Canada. Canada's Marine Waters: Integrating the Boundaries of Politics and Nature.
  9. About the Common Fisheries Policy
  10. EU Glossary europa.eu
  11. Japan (main islands) The Sea Around Us Project
  12. Japan (outer islands) The Sea Around Us Project
  13. New Zealand Sea Around Us Project
  14. Kermadec Islands (New Zealand) The Sea Around Us Project
  15. New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (2007). Improving Regulation of Environmental Effects in New Zealand’s Exclusive Economic Zone: Discussion Paper - Introduction. Published August 2007, Publication number ME824. ISBN 0-9784783-0160-1. Accessed 2006-01-07.
  16. Statistisk årbok 2007 Accessed January 2008
  17. Coastal and Marine Ecosystems — Marine Jurisdictions Accessed 1 November 2006

See also[संपादित करें]

External links[संपादित करें]