प्रकार्यात्मक समूह

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
(क्रियात्मक समूह से अनुप्रेषित)
यहाँ जाएँ: भ्रमण, खोज
बेंजिल एसिटेट में इस्टर प्रकार्यात्मक समूह (केसरिया घेरे में) उपस्थित है।

कार्बनिक रसायन में, किसी अणु में उपस्थित परमाणुओं या बन्धों का वह विशिष्ट समूह जो उस कार्बनिक यौगिक के रासायनिक गुणों का निर्धारण करता है, प्रकार्यात्मक समूह (फंक्शनल ग्रुप) कहलाता है। विभिन्न अणुओं में उपस्थित प्रकार्यात्मक समूह एक ही या समान रासायनिक अभिक्रिया प्रदर्शित करेगा, चाहे अणु का आकार छोटा हो या बड़ा।

प्रमुख प्रकार्यात्मक समूहों की सारणी[संपादित करें]

हाइड्रोकार्बन[संपादित करें]

रासायनिक वर्ग समूह सूत्र संरचनात्मक सूत्र उपसर्ग (Prefix) प्रत्यय (Suffix) उदाहरण
Alkane Alkyl R(CH2)nH Alkyl alkyl- -ane methane
Ethane
Alkene Alkenyl R2C=CR2 Alkene alkenyl- -ene ethylene
Ethylene
(Ethene)
Alkyne Alkynyl RC≡CR' Alkyne alkynyl- -yne acetylene
Acetylene
(Ethyne)
Benzene derivative Phenyl RC6H5
RPh
Phenyl phenyl- -benzene Cumene
Cumene
(2-phenylpropane)
Toluene derivative Benzyl RCH2C6H5
RBn
Benzyl benzyl- 1-(substituent)toluene Benzyl bromide
Benzyl bromide
(α-Bromotoluene)

हाइड्रोजन वाले प्रकार्यात्मक समूह[संपादित करें]

रासायनिक वर्ग समूह सूत्र संरचनात्मक सूत्र उपसर्ग (Prefix) प्रत्यय (Suffix) उदाहरण
haloalkane halo RX Halide group halo- alkyl halide Chloroethane
Chloroethane
(Ethyl chloride)
fluoroalkane fluoro RF Fluoro group fluoro- alkyl fluoride Fluoromethane
Fluoromethane
(Methyl fluoride)
chloroalkane chloro RCl Chloro group chloro- alkyl chloride Chloromethane
Chloromethane
(Methyl chloride)
bromoalkane bromo RBr Bromo group bromo- alkyl bromide Bromomethane
Bromomethane
(Methyl bromide)
iodoalkane iodo RI Iodo group iodo- alkyl iodide Iodomethane
Iodomethane
(Methyl iodide)

आक्सीजन वाले प्रकार्यात्मक समूह[संपादित करें]

रासायनिक वर्ग समूह सूत्र संरचनात्मक सूत्र उपसर्ग (Prefix) प्रत्यय (Suffix) उदाहरण
Alcohol Hydroxyl ROH Hydroxyl hydroxy- -ol methanol
Methanol
Ketone Carbonyl RCOR' Ketone -oyl- (-COR')
or
oxo- (=O)
-one Butanone
Butanone
(Methyl ethyl ketone)
Aldehyde Aldehyde RCHO Aldehyde formyl- (-COH)
or
oxo- (=O)
-al acetaldehyde
Acetaldehyde
(Ethanal)
Acyl halide Haloformyl RCOX Acyl halide carbonofluoridoyl-
carbonochloridoyl-
carbonobromidoyl-
carbonoiodidoyl-
-oyl halide Acetyl chloride
Acetyl chloride
(Ethanoyl chloride)
Carbonate Carbonate ester ROCOOR Carbonate (alkoxycarbonyl)oxy- alkyl carbonate triphosgene
Triphosgene
(bis(trichloromethyl) carbonate)
Carboxylate Carboxylate RCOO Carboxylate

Carboxylate

carboxy- -oate Sodium acetate
Sodium acetate
(Sodium ethanoate)
Carboxylic acid Carboxyl RCOOH Carboxylic acid carboxy- -oic acid Acetic acid
Acetic acid
(Ethanoic acid)
Ester Ester RCOOR' Ester alkanoyloxy-
or
alkoxycarbonyl
alkyl alkanoate Ethyl butyrate
Ethyl butyrate
(Ethyl butanoate)
Methoxy Methoxy ROCH3 Methoxy methoxy-
Hydroperoxide Hydroperoxy ROOH Hydroperoxy hydroperoxy- alkyl hydroperoxide tert-Butyl hydroperoxide
tert-Butyl hydroperoxide
Peroxide Peroxy ROOR Peroxy peroxy- alkyl peroxide Di-tert-butyl peroxide
Di-tert-butyl peroxide
Ether Ether ROR' Ether alkoxy- alkyl ether Diethyl ether
Diethyl ether
(Ethoxyethane)
Hemiacetal Hemiacetal RCH(OR')(OH) Hemiacetal alkoxy -ol -al alkyl hemiacetal
Hemiketal Hemiketal RC(ORʺ)(OH)R' Hemiketal alkoxy -ol -one alkyl hemiketal
Acetal Acetal RCH(OR')(OR") Acetal dialkoxy- -al dialkyl acetal
Ketal (or Acetal) Ketal (or Acetal) RC(ORʺ)(OR‴)R' Ketal dialkoxy- -one dialkyl ketal
Orthoester Orthoester RC(OR')(ORʺ)(OR‴) Orthoester trialkoxy-
Heterocycle Methylenedioxy PhOCOPh Methylenedioxy chemical structure. methylenedioxy- -dioxole 1,3-Benzodioxole.png
1,2-Methylenedioxybenzene
(1,3-Benzodioxole)
Orthocarbonate ester Orthocarbonate ester C(OR)(OR')(ORʺ)(OR″) tetralkoxy- tetraalkyl orthocarbonate

नाइट्रोजन वाले प्रकार्यात्मक समूह[संपादित करें]

रासायनिक वर्ग समूह सूत्र संरचनात्मक सूत्र उपसर्ग (Prefix) प्रत्यय (Suffix) उदाहरण
Amide Carboxamide RCONR2 Amide carboxamido-
or
carbamoyl-
-amide acetamide
Acetamide
(Ethanamide)
Amines Primary amine RNH2 Primary amine amino- -amine methylamine
Methylamine
(Methanamine)
Secondary amine R2NH Secondary amine amino- -amine dimethylamine
Dimethylamine
Tertiary amine R3N Tertiary amine amino- -amine trimethylamine
Trimethylamine
4° ammonium ion R4N+ Quaternary ammonium cation ammonio- -ammonium choline
Choline
Imine Primary ketimine RC(=NH)R' Imine imino- -imine
Secondary ketimine RC(=NR)R' Imine imino- -imine
Primary aldimine RC(=NH)H Imine imino- -imine Ethanimine
Ethanimine
Secondary aldimine RC(=NR')H Imine imino- -imine
Imide Imide (RCO)2NR' Imide imido- -imide Succinimide
Succinimide
(Pyrrolidine-2,5-dione)
Azide Azide RN3 Organoazide azido- alkyl azide Phenyl azide
Phenyl azide
(Azidobenzene)
Azo compound Azo
(Diimide)
RN2R' Azo.pngl azo- -diazene Methyl orange
Methyl orange
(p-dimethylamino-azobenzenesulfonic acid)
Cyanates Cyanate ROCN Cyanate cyanato- alkyl cyanate Methyl cyanate
Methyl cyanate
Isocyanate RNCO Isocyanate isocyanato- alkyl isocyanate Methyl isocyanate
Methyl isocyanate
Nitrate Nitrate RONO2 Nitrate nitrooxy-, nitroxy-

alkyl nitrate

Amyl nitrate
Amyl nitrate
(1-nitrooxypentane)
Nitrile Nitrile RCN Nitrile cyano- alkanenitrile
alkyl cyanide
Benzonitrile
Benzonitrile
(Phenyl cyanide)
Isonitrile RNC Isocyanide isocyano- alkaneisonitrile
alkyl isocyanide
Methyl isocyanide
Methyl isocyanide
Nitrite Nitrosooxy RONO Nitrite nitrosooxy-

alkyl nitrite

Amyl nitrite
Isoamyl nitrite
(3-methyl-1-nitrosooxybutane)
Nitro compound Nitro RNO2 Nitro nitro-   Nitromethane
Nitromethane
Nitroso compound Nitroso RNO Nitroso nitroso- (Nitrosyl-)   Nitrosobenzene
Nitrosobenzene
Pyridine derivative Pyridyl RC5H4N

4-pyridyl group
3-pyridyl group
2-pyridyl group

4-pyridyl
(pyridin-4-yl)

3-pyridyl
(pyridin-3-yl)

2-pyridyl
(pyridin-2-yl)

-pyridine Nicotine
Nicotine

गंधक वाले प्रकार्यात्मक समूह[संपादित करें]

रासायनिक वर्ग समूह सूत्र संरचनात्मक सूत्र उपसर्ग (Prefix) प्रत्यय (Suffix) उदाहरण
Thiol Sulfhydryl RSH Sulfhydryl sulfanyl-
(-SH)
-thiol Ethanethiol
Ethanethiol
Sulfide
(Thioether)
Sulfide RSR' Sulfide group substituent sulfanyl-
(-SR')
di(substituentsulfide
Dimethyl sulfide

(Methylsulfanyl)methane (prefix) or
Dimethyl sulfide (suffix)
Disulfide Disulfide RSSR' Disulfide substituent disulfanyl-
(-SSR')
di(substituentdisulfide
Dimethyl disulfide

(Methyldisulfanyl)methane (prefix) or
Dimethyl disulfide (suffix)
Sulfoxide Sulfinyl RSOR' Sulfinyl group -sulfinyl-
(-SOR')
di(substituentsulfoxide DMSO
(Methanesulfinyl)methane (prefix) or
Dimethyl sulfoxide (suffix)
Sulfone Sulfonyl RSO2R' Sulfonyl group -sulfonyl-
(-SO2R')
di(substituentsulfone Dimethyl sulfone
(Methanesulfonyl)methane (prefix) or
Dimethyl sulfone (suffix)
Sulfinic acid Sulfino RSO2H Sulfinic-acid-2D.png sulfino-
(-SO2H)
-sulfinic acid Hypotaurine
2-Aminoethanesulfinic acid
Sulfonic acid Sulfo RSO3H Sulfonyl group sulfo-
(-SO3H)
-sulfonic acid Benzenesulfonic acid
Benzenesulfonic acid
Thiocyanate Thiocyanate RSCN Thiocyanate thiocyanato-
(-SCN)
substituent thiocyanate Phenyl thiocyanate
Phenyl thiocyanate
Isothiocyanate RNCS Isothiocyanate isothiocyanato-
(-NCS)
substituent isothiocyanate Allyl isothiocyanate
Allyl isothiocyanate
Thione Carbonothioyl RCSR' Thione -thioyl-
(-CSR')
or
sulfanylidene-
(=S)
-thione Diphenylmethanethione
Diphenylmethanethione
(Thiobenzophenone)
Thial Carbonothioyl RCSH Thial methanethioyl-
(-CSH)
or
sulfanylidene-
(=S)
-thial

फॉस्फोरस वाले प्रकार्यात्मक समूह[संपादित करें]

रासायनिक वर्ग समूह सूत्र संरचनात्मक सूत्र उपसर्ग (Prefix) प्रत्यय (Suffix) उदाहरण
Phosphine
(Phosphane)
Phosphino R3P A tertiary phosphine phosphanyl- -phosphane Methylpropylphosphane
Methylpropylphosphane
Phosphonic acid Phosphono RP(=O)(OH)2 Phosphono group phosphono- substituent phosphonic acid Benzylphosphonic acid
Benzylphosphonic acid
Phosphate Phosphate ROP(=O)(OH)2 Phosphate group phosphonooxy-
or
O-phosphono- (phospho-)
substituent phosphate Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (suffix)
Phosphocholine
O-Phosphonocholine (prefix)
(Phosphocholine)
Phosphodiester Phosphate HOPO(OR)2 Phosphodiester [(alkoxy)hydroxyphosphoryl]oxy-
or
O-[(alkoxy)hydroxyphosphoryl]-
di(substituent) hydrogen phosphate
or
phosphoric acid di(substituentester
DNA
O‑[(2‑Guanidinoethoxy)hydroxyphosphoryl]‑l‑serine (prefix)
(Lombricine)

बोरॉन वाले प्रकार्यात्मक समूह[संपादित करें]

रासायनिक वर्ग समूह सूत्र संरचनात्मक सूत्र उपसर्ग (Prefix) प्रत्यय (Suffix) उदाहरण
Boronic acid Borono RB(OH)2 Boronic-acid-2D.png Borono- substituent
boronic acid
Phenylboronic acid
Phenylboronic acid
Boronic ester Boronate RB(OR)2 Boronate-ester-2D.png O-[bis(alkoxy)alkylboronyl]- substituent
boronic acid
di(substituent) ester
Borinic acid Borino R2BOH Borinic-acid-2D.png Hydroxyborino- di(substituent)
borinic acid
Borinic ester Borinate R2BOR Borinate-ester-2D.png O-[alkoxydialkylboronyl]- di(substituent)
borinic acid
substituent ester
2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate
Diphenylborinic acid 2-aminoethyl ester
(2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate)