2020 उत्तर-पूर्वी दिल्ली के दंगे

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उत्तर-पूर्वी दिल्ली के दंगे
उत्तर-पूर्वी दिल्ली के दंगे 2020
तिथी 23 फरवरी 2020 – 29 फरवरी 2020 (6 दिन)[1]
जगह उत्तर-पूर्वी दिल्ली, भारत
28°40′55″N 77°16′26″E / 28.682°N 77.274°E / 28.682; 77.274निर्देशांक: 28°40′55″N 77°16′26″E / 28.682°N 77.274°E / 28.682; 77.274
कारण
  • Hate speech[2]
  • Provocation[3]
  • Confrontation[3]
  • Mass mobilization[4]
  • Religious nationalism[2][5]
लक्ष्य * Preventing Citizenship Amendment Act protests[3][4]
  • Ethnic and religious persecution[6]
विधि
  • दंगा
  • मारपीट
  • आगजनी
  • पत्थरबाजी
  • गोलीबारी
आहत
मौत53[8]
हताहत200+[7]
गिरफ्तारी2200 (गिरफ़्तार या हिरासत में)[9]

२०२० उत्तर-पूर्वी दिल्ली के दंगे 23 फरवरी 2020 की रात से शुरू होकर, उत्तर पूर्व दिल्ली के जाफराबाद इलाके में रक्तपात, संपत्ति विनाश, दंगों और हिंसक घटनाओं की एक श्रृंखला थीं। इसमें 53 लोग मारे[10] गए और 200 से अधिक[7][11][12] मारे गए 53 लोगों में से, दो-तिहाई मुसलमान थे जिन्हें गोली मार दी गई थी, तलवार से काट दिया गया एवं आग से जला दिया गया था।[13][14][15] मृतकों में एक पुलिसकर्मी, एक खुफिया अधिकारी और एक दर्जन से अधिक हिंदू शामिल थे। हिंसा समाप्त होने के एक सप्ताह से अधिक समय के बाद, सैकड़ों घायल अपर्याप्त रूप से चिकित्सा सुविधाओं से वंचित थे और लाशें खुली नालियों में पाई जा रही थीं।[16]

24 फरवरी 2020 को जाफराबाद और मौजपुर में हिंसक झड़पें हुईं जिसमें एक पुलिस अधिकारी और एक प्रदर्शनकारी मारे गए। सीएए समर्थक प्रदर्शनकारियों और सीएए विरोधी प्रदर्शनकारियों ने परस्पर एक-दूसरे पर पथराव किया और घरों, वाहनों और दुकानों में तोड़फोड़ की। पुलिसकर्मियों ने प्रदर्शनकारियों के खिलाफ आंसू गैस और लाठीचार्ज का इस्तेमाल किया।

मुसलमानों को हिंसा के लिए निशाना बनाया गया।[17][18][19] मुस्लिम पुरुष का (हिंदुओं के विपरीत) आमतौर पर खतना किया जाता है। व्यक्ति के धर्म का पता लगाने के लिए, पहले उनके निचले कपड़ों को हटाने के लिए मजबूर किया गया।[20][21][22] एक अस्पताल में दर्ज की गई चोटों के बीच जननांगों पर गहरे घाव थे।[23][24] नष्ट की गई संपत्तियां मुस्लिमों के स्वामित्व वाली थीं और इनमें चार मस्जिदें शामिल थीं, जिन्हें दंगाइयों ने तोड़ दिया था। [25] फरवरी के अंत तक, कई मुस्लिमों ने इन इलाकों को छोड़ दिया था। [12] यहां तक कि हिंसा से अछूते दिल्ली के कुछ इलाकों में, कुछ मुसलमान भारत की राजधानी में अपनी व्यक्तिगत सुरक्षा के लिए भयभीत होकर अपने पैतृक गाँवों के लिए रवाना हो गए थे।[26]

दंगों की शुरुआत उत्तर पूर्वी दिल्ली के जाफराबाद में हुई थी, जहां भारत के नागरिकता (संशोधन) अधिनियम, 2019 के खिलाफ महिलाओं द्वारा बैठकर सीलमपुर - जाफराबाद - मौजपुर मार्ग पर जाम लगा था[27] [28] 23 फरवरी 2020 को, सत्तारूढ़ हिंदू राष्ट्रवादी भारतीय जनता पार्टी (भाजपा) के एक नेता, कपिल मिश्रा ने दिल्ली पुलिस से सड़कों को खाली करने का आह्वान किया, जिसमें उन्होंने अपने समर्थकों की मदद से खुद ऐसा करने की धमकी दी। [29] [30] मिश्रा के अल्टीमेटम के बाद हिंसा भड़क उठी। [31] ज्यादातर मौतों का कारण बन्दूक की गोली थी। [32] प्रारंभ में, हिंदू और मुस्लिम हमले समान रूप से घातक थे। [33] लेकिन 25 फरवरी 2020 के बाद मरने वाले लोगों में मुसलमानों की संख्या बढ़ गई थी। [33] हेलमेट पहने और लाठी, पत्थर, तलवार या पिस्तौल लेकर दंगाई हिंदू राष्ट्रवाद के भगवा झंडे लेकर मुस्लिम इलाकों में घुस गए, जबकि पुलिस मूकदर्शक बन कर खड़ी रही । [34] [35] "जय श्री राम" (" भगवान राम की विजय") के नारे लगे । [36] शिव विहार के पड़ोस में, हिंसक हिंदू पुरुषों के समूहों ने तीन दिनों तक मुस्लिम घरों और व्यवसायों पर हमला किया, अक्सर उन्हें खाना पकाने के गैस सिलेंडरों के उपयोग विस्फोटक की तरह किया । पुलिस से प्रतिरोध के बिना उनकी हत्या की गयी । [37] कुछ जगहों पर मुसलमानों ने हिंसा करने वालों पर जवाबी कार्यवाही की ; 25 तारीख को एक मुस्लिम भीड़ ने एक हिंदू बहुल क्षेत्र में पत्थर फेंका, साथ ही मोलोटोव कॉकटेल और बंदूक से गोलीबारी की। [38] इस दौरान, मुस्लिमों के उपचार के लिए सिखों और हिंदुओं के साथ आने की कहानियों भी पप्रकाशित हुई; [39] कुछ पड़ोस में, धार्मिक समुदायों सहने आपसी सहयोग से खुद को हिंसा से बचाया। [40]

भारत सरकार ने तेजी से हिंसा को स्वतःस्फूर्त बताया। [41] दिल्ली पुलिस, जो सीधे तौर पर भारत की केंद्र सरकार द्वारा संचालित है, 26 फरवरी को दिल्ली उच्च न्यायालय ने क्षेत्र में अस्पतालों से घायल पीड़ितों को निकालने में मदद करने का आदेश दिया था। [42] [43] भारत के राष्ट्रीय सुरक्षा सलाहकार, अजीत डोभाल ने इस क्षेत्र का दौरा किया; प्रधानमंत्री नरेंद्र मोदी ने ट्विटर पर शांति की अपील की। [42] प्रभावित नागरिकों, चश्मदीदों, मानवाधिकार संगठनों और दुनिया भर के मुस्लिम नेताओं ने दिल्ली पुलिस पर मुस्लिमों की रक्षा में कमी पड़ने का आरोप लगाया था। [44] वीडियो में पुलिस को मुसलमानों के खिलाफ दंगाइयों के साथ मिलकर हिंसा करते हुए, और कई अवसर पर उद्देश्यपूर्ण रूप से हिंदू गिरोहों की मदद करते हुए देखा गया। [45] प्रत्यक्षदर्शियों ने कहा कि कुछ पुलिस अधिकारी मुसलमानों पर हमलों में भी शामिल हुए। [46]

उत्तर पूर्वी दिल्ली में बसे हिंदू-मुस्लिम के घनी बस्तियों वाले इलाकों में हिंसा भड़काने के बाद, कुछ हिंदू संगठन मुसलमानों के प्रति शत्रुता को और भड़काने के प्रयास से मुस्लिम हिंसा के कथित पीड़ितों की परेड आयोजित की। [47] लगभग 1,000 मुसलमानों ने दिल्ली के बाहरी क्षेत्रों में स्थित राहत शिविर में शरण ली। [48] मुस्लिमों को उनके घरों को छोड़ने से डराने के लिए, कई मुस्लिम इलाकों में हिंदुओं के गिरोह दिखाई दिए। [49] प्रचलित मुस्लिम विरोधी रवैये के बीच, दिल्ली में वरिष्ठ वकील दंगा पीड़ितों की ओर से मामलों को स्वीकार नहीं कर रहे थे। [50] उन मुसलमानों में, जिन्होंने अपने पड़ोस में रहना जारी रखा है, हिंसा ने संभावित रूप से लंबे समय तक रहने वाले विभाजन बनाए हैं। [51] दंगों के बाद कम से कम दो हफ्तों के लिए, दिन के दौरान हिंदू और मुस्लिम एक-दूसरे से बचते थे और रात को बाधाओं के साथ अपनी गलियों को अवरुद्ध कर देते थे। [51]

पृष्ठभूमि[संपादित करें]

दिसंबर 2019 में नागरिकता (संशोधन) अधिनियम (CAA) के पारित होने के जवाब में पूरे भारत में विरोध प्रदर्शन शुरू हो गए। अधिनियम पाकिस्तान, बांग्लादेश और अफगानिस्तान के अप्रवासियों के लिए छह धर्मों से संबंधित लोगों, के लिए तेजी से नागरिकता के प्राकृतिककरण की अनुमति देता है। इस अधिनियम को मुसलमानों के भेदभावपूर्ण और भारत के राष्ट्रीय नागरिक रजिस्टर (NRC) के साथ संयुक्त होने पर मुसलमानों के अस्तित्व के लिए ख़तरे के रूप में देखा गया है। [52] [53] [54] [55] [56]

नई दिल्ली में कई नागरिकता (संशोधन) अधिनियम विरोध प्रदर्शन हुए। कुछ प्रदर्शनकारियों ने वाहनों को जला दिया और सुरक्षा बलों पर पथराव किया। [57] शाहीन बाग में, प्रदर्शनकारियों ने सड़कों को अवरुद्ध कर दिया, जिससे यातायात जाम हो गया। [58]

दिल्ली विधान सभा का चुनाव 8 फरवरी 2020 को हुआ था, जिसमें भारतीय जनता पार्टी (भाजपा) को आम आदमी पार्टी ने हराया था। बीजेपी द्वारा भड़काऊ नारों का व्यापक उपयोग प्रदर्शनकारियों को देश विरोधी तत्वों के बराबर करने और उन्हें गोली मारने के लिए कहा गया। [a] दिल्ली बीजेपी अध्यक्ष, मनोज तिवारी, ने बीजेपी की हार का कारण साथी पार्टी-उम्मीदवार कपिल मिश्रा (जिन्होंने नारे लगाए थे) के नफरत भरे भाषणों को जिम्मेदार ठहराया है। [60] [61]

22 फरवरी को महिलाओं सहित 500 से 1000 प्रदर्शनकारियों ने जाफ़राबाद मेट्रो स्टेशन के पास नागरिकता (संशोधन) अधिनियम के विरोध में धरना दिया । विरोध प्रदर्शन ने सीलमपुर - जाफराबाद - मौजपुर मार्ग के साथ-साथ मेट्रो स्टेशन में प्रवेश और निकास को अवरुद्ध कर दिया। [62] [63] प्रदर्शनकारियों के अनुसार, धरना भीम आर्मी द्वारा बुलाए गए भारत बंद के साथ एकजुटता में था, जो 23 फरवरी से शुरू होने वाला था। स्थल पर पुलिस और अर्धसैनिक बल के जवान तैनात थे। [64]

इन्हें भी देखें[संपादित करें]

सन्दर्भ[संपादित करें]

  1. "Delhi violence live updates: Death toll climbs to 42; warnings over 'attack' alarm cops". The Times of India. Feb 29, 2020. मूल से 1 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 2020-03-04.
  2. "Delhi violence: Four video clips that court made cops watch". India Today. 26 February 2020. मूल से 26 फ़रवरी 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 26 February 2020.
  3. "Two complaints filed against BJP leader Kapil Mishra for inciting violence in North-East Delhi". DNA India (अंग्रेज़ी में). 25 February 2020. मूल से 27 फ़रवरी 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 25 February 2020.
  4. Varma, Shaylaja (24 February 2020). ""We'll Be Peaceful Till Trump Leaves," BJP Leader Kapil Mishra Warns Delhi Police". The NDTV. मूल से 25 फ़रवरी 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 26 February 2020.
  5. "Delhi Riots: Mosque Set on Fire in Ashok Nagar, Hanuman Flag Placed on Minaret". The Wire. मूल से 26 फ़रवरी 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 25 February 2020.
  6. "4 Burnt Mosques In 48 Hours Show Delhi Riots Are About Religion, Not CAA". HuffPost India. 27 February 2020. मूल से 28 फ़रवरी 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 4 मार्च 2020.
  7. "18 FIRs, 106 arrests in Delhi violence; death toll climbs to 27". Livemint (अंग्रेज़ी में). 26 फरवरी 2020. मूल से 27 फ़रवरी 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 27 फरवरी 2020.
  8. Seemi Pasha (12 March 2020). "Ground Report: As Amit Shah Praises Delhi Police, Riot Victims Tell a Different Story". The Wire (अंग्रेज़ी में). मूल से 12 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 14 March 2020.
  9. "Delhi riots: 690 cases registered, violence victims find shelter in relief camps". India Today. March 7, 2020. मूल से 8 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 2020-03-09.
  10. The Polis Project (March 3, 2020). "High cost of riots in northeast Delhi: List of 49 people who died during three days of violence". Firstpost. मूल से 2 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि March 3, 2020.
  11. Ellis-Peterson, Hannah; Azizur Rahman, Shaikh (16 March 2020), "Delhi's Muslims despair of justice after police implicated in riots", The Guardian, Delhi, मूल से 17 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 17 March 2020, As the mob attacks came once, then twice and then a third time in this north-east Delhi neighbourhood, desperate stallholders repeatedly ran to Gokalpuri and Dayalpur police stations crying out for help. But each time they found the gates locked from the inside. For three days, no help came. ... Since the riots broke out in Delhi at the end of February, the worst religious conflict to engulf the capital in decades, questions have persisted about the role that the Delhi police played in enabling the violence, which was predominately Hindu mobs attacking Muslims. Of the 51 people who died, at least three-quarters were Muslim, and many Muslims are still missing.
  12. Gettleman, Jeffrey; Abi-Habib, Maria (1 March 2020), "In India, Modi's Policies Have Lit a Fuse", The New York Times, मूल से 1 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 1 March 2020, This past week, as neighborhoods in India's capital burned and religiously driven bloodletting consumed more than 40 lives, most of them Muslim, India's government was quick to say that the violence was spontaneous... Many Muslims are now leaving, hoisting their unburned things on their heads and trudging away from streets that still smell of smoke.
  13. Gettleman, Jeffrey; Yasir, Sameer; Raj, Suhasini; Kumar, Hari (12 March 2020), Photographs by Loke, Atul, "'If We Kill You, Nothing Will Happen': How Delhi's Police Turned Against Muslims", The New York Times, मूल से 13 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 13 March 2020, Two-thirds of the more than 50 people who were killed and have been identified were Muslim.
  14. Slater, Joanna; Masih, Niha (6 March 2020), "In Delhi's worst violence in decades, a man watched his brother burn", The Washington Post, मूल से 7 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 6 March 2020, At least 53 people were killed or suffered deadly injuries in violence that persisted for two days. The majority of those killed were Muslims, many shot, hacked or burned to death. A police officer and an intelligence officer were also killed. So too were more than a dozen Hindus, most of them shot or assaulted.
  15. Slater, Joanna; Masih, Niha (2 March 2020), "What Delhi's worst communal violence in decades means for Modi's India", The Washington Post, मूल से 3 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 15 March 2020, Zaitoon, 40, who goes by one name, half-cried as she rummaged through the items. She said mobs entered her lane shouting "Jai Shri Ram," or "Victory to Lord Ram," a slogan favored by Modi's party, and demanded to know which houses were occupied by Muslims. She said she saw a neighbor set on fire in front of her, an account repeated by other witnesses.
  16. Frayer, Lauren (7 March 2020), "Delhi Riots Aftermath: 'How Do You Explain Such Violence?'", National Public Radio, मूल से 8 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 7 March 2020, But hundreds of wounded are languishing in understaffed medical facilities. Corpses are still being discovered in drainage ditches. Victims are still dying in hospitals. The death toll has reached 53... Police are facing accusations from victims, witnesses, human rights groups, opposition politicians and Muslim leaders worldwide that they failed to protect Muslim citizens, and in some cases, even incited attacks themselves.
  17. Withnall, Adam (27 February 2020), "Targeted for being Muslim", The Independent, मूल से 4 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 4 March 2020, His was one of around eight homes belonging to Muslims targeted by a rampaging mob in this Delhi neighbourhood on Tuesday afternoon, picked for destruction because they sat next to a mosque in this otherwise mostly Hindu-populated neighbourhood, vandalised, looted and then gutted with fire.
  18. Wamsley, Laurel; Frayer, Lauren (26 February 2020), In New Delhi, Days Of Deadly Violence And Riots, NPR, मूल से 4 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 25 March 2020, Hindu mobs appear to have targeted Muslims primarily – not people protesting the citizenship law.
  19. Abi-Habib, Maria (5 March 2020), "Violence in India Threatens Its Global Ambitions", The New York Times, मूल से 5 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 6 March 2020, But as the leaders celebrated each other in India's capital, Hindu mobs began going after Muslim protesters in neighborhoods just a few miles away while the police looked on or joined in.
  20. Landrin, Sophie (4 March 2020), "Attaques contre les musulmans à New Delhi : " J'ai pensé que j'allais mourir " Trois jours d'attaques meurtrières perpétrées par les nationalistes hindous dans le nord de la capitale indienne laissent des vies dévastées.", Le Monde, मूल से 5 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 25 March 2020, D’autres musulmans ont été déshabillés pour vérifier s’ils étaient circoncis, battus à mort et jetés dans les égouts à ciel ouvert de ce quartier pauvre et poussiéreux. (Other Muslims were stripped naked to check if they were circumcised, beaten to death and thrown into the open sewers of this poor and dusty neighbourhood.)
  21. Ellis-Peterson, Hannah; Azizur Rahman, Shaikh (6 March 2020), "'I cannot find my father's body': Delhi's fearful Muslims mourn riot dead", The Guardian, Delhi, मूल से 6 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 7 March 2020, According to a witness, Arshad kept quiet, so the mob forced down his trousers. On seeing he was circumcised, as is common among Muslims in India, the mob instantly beat him to death. His bloodied body was later found in a gutter, his pants still around his ankles... In the aftermath, even in unaffected areas of Delhi, an exodus of Muslim families began this week, with swathes packing up their bags and returning for good to their home villages, fearing for their safety in the capital.
  22. Wamsley, Laurel; Frayer, Lauren (26 February 2020), In New Delhi, Days Of Deadly Violence And Riots, NPR, मूल से 4 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 25 March 2020, Mobs have stopped people and demanded to know their religion. 'At least one photojournalist said he was asked to remove his pants to prove his religious identity,' the BBC adds. (Circumcision is common among male adherents of Islam.)
  23. Saaliq, Sheikh; Schmall, Emily (28 February 2020), "Prayers at fire-bombed mosques as India's riot toll grows", Associated Press News, मूल से 29 फ़रवरी 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 25 March 2020, Al-Hind hospital, a small clinic with two doctors, was the nearest medical facility for many of the victims. When the riots broke out, it turned into a chaotic emergency ward, its doctors dealing for the first time with injuries such as gunshot wounds, crushed skulls, stabbings and torn genitals.
  24. Landrin, Sophie (4 March 2020), "Attaques contre les musulmans à New Delhi : " J'ai pensé que j'allais mourir " Trois jours d'attaques meurtrières perpétrées par les nationalistes hindous dans le nord de la capitale indienne laissent des vies dévastées.", Le Monde, मूल से 5 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 25 March 2020, A l’entrée de l’hôpital, un homme qui officie à l’accueil a tout consigné sur son registre et son téléphone portable. Quelque 800 personnes, explique-t-il, ont été amenées entre le 23 et 25 février, certaines dans un état épouvantable. Des corps écartelés, carbonisés, des blessures par balles, des visages défigurés par de l’acide, des hommes atteints aux parties génitales. " Nous n’avons que de faibles moyens. Nous avons juste posé des garrots, des pansements et tenté de stopper le saignement des blessés ", confie-t-il. (At the entrance to the hospital, a man who works at the reception desk wrote everything down in his register and his mobile phone. Some 800 people, he says, were brought in between February 23 and 25, some in appalling condition. Torn, charred bodies, gunshot wounds, acid-disfigured faces, men with damage to the genitals. 'We have only weak means. We just put tourniquets, bandages and tried to stop the bleeding of the injured,' he said.
  25. Yasir, Sameer; Raj, Suhasini (28 February 2020), "Indian Police Sweep Through Riot Zone, Making More Arrests", The New York Times, मूल से 3 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 4 March 2020, The property destruction has also been lopsidedly anti-Muslim, with many Muslim-owned motorcycles, cars, houses, shops and factories reduced to ashes. At least four mosques were set on fire during 48 hours of rioting.
  26. Ellis-Peterson, Hannah; Azizur Rahman, Shaikh (6 March 2020), "'I cannot find my father's body': Delhi's fearful Muslims mourn riot dead", The Guardian, Delhi, मूल से 6 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 7 March 2020, According to a witness, Arshad kept quiet, so the mob forced down his trousers. On seeing he was circumcised, as is common among Muslims in India, the mob instantly beat him to death. His bloodied body was later found in a gutter, his pants still around his ankles... In the aftermath, even in unaffected areas of Delhi, an exodus of Muslim families began this week, with swathes packing up their bags and returning for good to their home villages, fearing for their safety in the capital.
  27. Basu, Soma, "Delhi: The Anatomy of a Riot", Diplomat, मूल से 28 फ़रवरी 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 6 March 2020, BJP leader Kapil Mishra issued a 'three-day ultimatum' to police to clear a protest against the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) by women at the Jaffrabad Metro Station.
  28. "Protests at Jaffarabad against CAA; security beefed up, 2 metro stations closed". United News of India. 23 February 2020. मूल से 2 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 2 March 2020. Demanding revocation of Citizenship (Amendment) Act, protesters—mostly women—on Sunday took to streets and blocked the road below Jaffrabad metro station.
  29. "BJP leader Kapil Mishra's 3-day ultimatum to Delhi Police". India Today. मूल से 26 फ़रवरी 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 26 February 2020.
  30. ""We'll Be Peaceful Till Trump Leaves," BJP Leader Kapil Mishra Warns Delhi Police". NDTV.com. मूल से 25 फ़रवरी 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 26 February 2020.
  31. Kuchay, Bilal (24 February 2020). "Fresh violence erupts in Indian capital during anti-CAA protests". Al Jazeera. मूल से 8 मई 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 2020-05-25.
  32. "Donald Trump and Narendra Modi hug as Delhi burns". The Economist. 26 February 2020. मूल से 27 फ़रवरी 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 17 जून 2020. Both sides soon resorted to shooting; most of the fatalities, which included two policemen, were caused by gunfire... The police, which in Delhi are controlled by the central government, only deployed in strength on February 26th. On the orders of a court, they also began registering complaints of incitement. Mr Modi's national-security adviser toured affected districts, giving his 'word of honour' that residents could feel safe. The prime minister himself, after three days of silence, belatedly tweeted a plea for calm.
  33. Gettleman, Jeffrey; Yasir, Sameer; Raj, Suhasini; Kumar, Hari (12 March 2020), Photographs by Loke, Atul, "'If We Kill You, Nothing Will Happen': How Delhi's Police Turned Against Muslims", The New York Times, मूल से 13 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 13 March 2020, When the violence started on Feb. 23 – as Hindu men gathered to forcibly eject a peaceful Muslim protest near their neighborhood – much of it became two-sided. By day's end, both Muslims and Hindus had been attacked, and dozens had been shot, apparently with small-bore homemade guns. But by Feb. 25 the direction had changed.
  34. Landrin, Sophie (26 February 2020). "Inde : New Delhi en proie à de violents conflits intercommunautaires" [India: New Delhi plagued by violent inter-community conflicts]. Le Monde (फ़्रेंच में). मूल से 3 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 4 March 2020. Des hordes d’émeutiers casqués, armés de bâtons, de pierres, de sabres ou de pistolets, portant des drapeaux safran – la couleur des nationalistes hindous – ont pris d’assaut cette zone. Des véhicules, des échoppes, ainsi que des maisons appartenant à des musulmans, ont été incendiés sous les yeux d’une police totalement passive. (Hordes of helmeted rioters, armed with sticks, stones, sabers or pistols, carrying saffron flags - the color of Hindu nationalists - stormed this area. Vehicles, stalls, as well as houses belonging to Muslims, were set on fire in front of a totally passive police force.)
  35. Gettleman, Jeffrey; Yasir, Sameer; Raj, Suhasini; Kumar, Hari (12 March 2020), Photographs by Loke, Atul, "'If We Kill You, Nothing Will Happen': How Delhi's Police Turned Against Muslims", The New York Times, मूल से 13 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 13 March 2020, Hindu mobs fanned out and targeted Muslim families. Violence crackled in the air. Police officers watched as mobs of Hindus, their foreheads marked by saffron stripes, prowled the streets with baseball bats and rusty bars, looking for Muslims to kill. The sky was filled with smoke. Muslim homes, shops and mosques were burned down.
  36. Slater, Joanna; Masih, Niha (2 March 2020), "What Delhi's worst communal violence in decades means for Modi's India", The Washington Post, मूल से 3 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 15 March 2020, Zaitoon, 40, who goes by one name, half-cried as she rummaged through the items. She said mobs entered her lane shouting "Jai Shri Ram," or "Victory to Lord Ram," a slogan favored by Modi's party, and demanded to know which houses were occupied by Muslims. She said she saw a neighbor set on fire in front of her, an account repeated by other witnesses.
  37. Ellis-Peterson, Hannah; Azizur Rahman, Shaikh (6 March 2020), "'I cannot find my father's body': Delhi's fearful Muslims mourn riot dead", The Guardian, Delhi, मूल से 6 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 7 March 2020, In Shiv Vihar, from where they and many others had escaped, almost every Muslim home lay in blackened ruins, and two mosques looked like bomb sites. For three days, Hindu rioters attacked Shiv Vihar's Muslim localities and ran mayhem without any resistance from police. The mobs repeatedly used gas canisters as weapons, setting them alight and exploding them in Muslim properties so that the walls crumbled entirely.
  38. Slater, Joanna; Masih, Niha (2 March 2020), "What Delhi's worst communal violence in decades means for Modi's India", The Washington Post, मूल से 3 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 15 March 2020, In the riots that swept northeastern Delhi, Muslims mobilized to counter perceived threats and clashed with Hindus. A two-lane road separates Muslim-dominated Mustafabad from Hindu-dominated Bhagirathi Vihar. Hindus say a large mob approached from the Muslim side Tuesday night, throwing stones and Molotov cocktails and firing guns. 'It became difficult to save our lives,' said Yogesh Kumar, 24, an accountant. 'When the fire spreads, everything gets torched,' Sanjay Kumar, 40, said bitterly as he looked around at the destroyed storefronts and burned facades along a lane leading from the main road. He blamed Kapil Mishra, the BJP leader who issued the original threat to protesters who mounted a sit-in.
  39. Ellis-Peterson, Hannah (1 March 2020), "Inside Delhi: beaten, lynched and burnt alive", The Guardian, Delhi, मूल से 4 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 27 March 2020, But for all the tales of discord, dozens of accounts were also given to the Observer of how Sikh and Hindu families helped save their Muslim neighbours, sheltering them in their homes as the violence broke out or helping them escape as the mobs descended.
  40. Barton, Naomi (1 March 2020). "How Muslim and Hindu Neighbours Protected Each Other Through the Long Night at Chand Bagh". The Wire. मूल से 2 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 3 March 2020.
  41. Gettleman, Jeffrey; Abi-Habib, Maria (1 March 2020), "In India, Modi's Policies Have Lit a Fuse", The New York Times, मूल से 1 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 1 March 2020, This past week, as neighborhoods in India's capital burned and religiously driven bloodletting consumed more than 40 lives, most of them Muslim, India's government was quick to say that the violence was spontaneous... Many Muslims are now leaving, hoisting their unburned things on their heads and trudging away from streets that still smell of smoke.
  42. "Donald Trump and Narendra Modi hug as Delhi burns". The Economist. 26 February 2020. मूल से 27 फ़रवरी 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 17 जून 2020. Both sides soon resorted to shooting; most of the fatalities, which included two policemen, were caused by gunfire... The police, which in Delhi are controlled by the central government, only deployed in strength on February 26th. On the orders of a court, they also began registering complaints of incitement. Mr Modi's national-security adviser toured affected districts, giving his 'word of honour' that residents could feel safe. The prime minister himself, after three days of silence, belatedly tweeted a plea for calm.
  43. "First the mob, then the law", The Economist, 12 March 2020, मूल से 14 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 15 March 2020, During the riots in Delhi, it was only after the high court ordered police to help evacuate wounded people to hospital that the city's 80,000-person police force began to intervene, after 48 hours of arson and murder.
  44. Frayer, Lauren (7 March 2020), Delhi Riots Aftermath: 'How Do You Explain Such Violence?', NPR, मूल से 8 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 7 March 2020, But hundreds of wounded are languishing in understaffed medical facilities. Corpses are still being discovered in drainage ditches. Victims are still dying in hospitals. The death toll has reached 53... Police are facing accusations from victims, witnesses, human rights groups, opposition politicians and Muslim leaders worldwide that they failed to protect Muslim citizens, and in some cases, even incited attacks themselves.
  45. Gettleman, Jeffrey; Yasir, Sameer; Raj, Suhasini; Kumar, Hari (12 March 2020), Photographs by Loke, Atul, "'If We Kill You, Nothing Will Happen': How Delhi's Police Turned Against Muslims", The New York Times, मूल से 13 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 13 March 2020, Now, more evidence is emerging that the Delhi police, who are under the direct command of Mr. Modi's government and have very few Muslim officers, concertedly moved against Muslims and at times actively helped the Hindu mobs that rampaged in New Delhi in late February, burning down Muslim homes and targeting Muslim families.
  46. Slater, Joanna; Masih, Niha (6 March 2020), "In Delhi's worst violence in decades, a man watched his brother burn", The Washington Post, मूल से 7 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 6 March 2020, The police force – which is directly overseen by the central government – has come under criticism for failing to stop the violence. Witnesses say some officers joined the attacks on Muslims.
  47. Gettleman, Jeffrey; Yasir, Sameer; Raj, Suhasini; Kumar, Hari (12 March 2020), Photographs by Loke, Atul, "'If We Kill You, Nothing Will Happen': How Delhi's Police Turned Against Muslims", The New York Times, मूल से 13 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 13 March 2020, The religiously mixed and extremely crowded neighborhoods in northeastern Delhi that were on fire in late February have cooled. But some Hindu politicians continue to lead so-called peace marches, trotting out casualties of the violence with their heads wrapped in white medical tape, trying to upend the narrative and make Hindus seem like the victims, which is stoking more anti-Muslim hatred.
  48. Gettleman, Jeffrey; Yasir, Sameer; Raj, Suhasini; Kumar, Hari (12 March 2020), Photographs by Loke, Atul, "'If We Kill You, Nothing Will Happen': How Delhi's Police Turned Against Muslims", The New York Times, मूल से 13 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 13 March 2020, Some Muslims are leaving their neighborhoods, having lost all faith in the police. More than 1,000 have piled into a camp for internally displaced people that is rising on Delhi's outskirts.
  49. Gettleman, Jeffrey; Yasir, Sameer; Raj, Suhasini; Kumar, Hari (12 March 2020), Photographs by Loke, Atul, "'If We Kill You, Nothing Will Happen': How Delhi's Police Turned Against Muslims", The New York Times, मूल से 13 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 13 March 2020, India's population is about 80 percent Hindu, and gangs of Hindus threatened Muslims in several Delhi neighborhoods to leave before the Hindu holiday Holi that was celebrated this week.
  50. Wallen, Joe (13 March 2020), "Lawyers representing Delhi riot victims 'attacked by police'", The Telegraph, मूल से 27 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 15 March 2020, Many senior lawyers are refusing to take up cases on behalf of the victims of the riots amidst wider anti-Muslim sentiment, stoked by the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). Instead, volunteer lawyers - who are typically young and Muslim and from organisations like the Indian Civil Liberties Union - are taking on cases for free.
  51. Jain, Rupam; Ahmed, Aftab (16 March 2020), In Indian capital, riots deepen a Hindu-Muslim divide, मूल से 25 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित, अभिगमन तिथि 26 March 2020, But the riots that raged through the district last month appear to have cleaved lasting divisions in the community ...During the day, Hindus and Muslims shun each other in the alleys of the Delhi districts that were hardest hit by the unrest in February. At night, when the threat of violence is greater, they are physically divided by barricades that are removed in the morning.
  52. Rana Ayyub (28 February 2020). "Narendra Modi Looks the Other Way as New Delhi Burns". Time. मूल से 28 फ़रवरी 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 16 जून 2020.
  53. "Ten killed in Delhi violence during Trump visit". BBC News. 25 February 2020. मूल से 26 फ़रवरी 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 25 February 2020.
  54. "Shaheen Bagh: The women occupying Delhi street against citizenship law – 'I don't want to die proving I am Indian'". BBC. 4 January 2020. मूल से 8 January 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 13 January 2020.
  55. Bakshi, Asmita (2 January 2020). "Portraits of resilience: the new year in Shaheen Bagh". Livemint. मूल से 13 January 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 13 January 2020.
  56. "Shaheen Bagh residents brave the cold as anti-CAA stir enters Day 15". The Hindu. 29 December 2019. आइ॰एस॰एस॰एन॰ 0971-751X. मूल से 26 फ़रवरी 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 13 January 2020.
  57. "CAA: Violence, arson in south Delhi as protesters torch four buses; two injured". Livemint. 15 December 2019. मूल से 5 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 1 March 2020. Four buses were set ablaze by a mob and two fire officials were injured in stone pelting as the protests against the newly enacted Citizenship Act" (...) "The situation turned critical when a bus was burned by the protestors and police got into action
  58. Mathur, Aneesha (17 February 2020). "Shaheen Bagh: Protest but don't block roads, SC tells protesters; appoints mediator". India Today. मूल से 17 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 9 March 2020.
  59. "The Graveyard Talks Back". Caravan Magazine. मूल से 12 मार्च 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 12 March 2020.
  60. Gettleman, Jeffrey; Raj, Suhasini; Yasir, Sameer (26 February 2020). "The Roots of the Delhi Riots: A Fiery Speech and an Ultimatum". The New York Times. आइ॰एस॰एस॰एन॰ 0362-4331. मूल से 28 फ़रवरी 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 5 March 2020.
  61. "Hate speech cost BJP Delhi elections, people like Kapil Mishra should be removed: Manoj Tiwari". India Today. 23 February 2020. मूल से 26 फ़रवरी 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 5 March 2020.
  62. "Jaffrabad anti-CAA protests: Over 500 women block road connecting Seelampur with Maujpur and Yamuna Vihar; Delhi Metro shuts station". The First Post. 23 February 2020. मूल से 26 फ़रवरी 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 25 February 2020.
  63. "Began with roses, ended with bullets: How CAA protests in Delhi unfolded". Hindustan Times. 25 February 2020. मूल से 26 फ़रवरी 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 25 February 2020.
  64. "Anti-CAA Protesters Block Seelampur-Jaffrabad Road, Cops Deployed". The Quint. 23 February 2020. मूल से 23 फ़रवरी 2020 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 25 February 2020.


सन्दर्भ त्रुटि: "lower-alpha" नामक सन्दर्भ-समूह के लिए <ref> टैग मौजूद हैं, परन्तु समूह के लिए कोई <references group="lower-alpha"/> टैग नहीं मिला। यह भी संभव है कि कोई समाप्ति </ref> टैग गायब है।