हिन्दू धर्म की शब्दावली

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
नेविगेशन पर जाएँ खोज पर जाएँ

संख्यावाची लिए संख्यावाची विशिष्ट गूढ़ार्थक शब्द देखें।

यहाँ हिन्दू धर्म (सनातन धर्म) से सम्बन्धित धार्मिक एवं दार्शनिक अवधारणाओं को व्यक्त करने वाले शब्दों की संक्षेप में व्याख्या की गयी है। अधिकांश शब्द संस्कृत के हैं, किन्तु कुछ शब्द हिन्दी या प्रादेशिक भाषाओं के भी हो सकते हैं।

[संपादित करें]

  • अदिति : आकाश, चेतना, भूत, भविष्य की देवी ;
  • अहिंसा : A religious concept which advocates non-violence and a respect for all life.
  • ऐरावत : Indra's most favourite elephant which he gained from the Samudra Manthan (the Churning of Sea) .
  • अमरकंटक : Amarkantak is a unique natural heritage area in eastern Madhya Pradesh, India. This is the meeting point of the Vindhyas and the Satpuras, with the Maikal Hills being the fulcrum. This is the place from where the Narmada River, the Sone River and Johila River emerge.
  • अम्‍बा , Ambikā (अम्‍बिका), Ambālikā (अम्‍बालिका): The three daughters of King of Benares(now Varanasi), Eldest daughter Ambā was in love with King Shālwa.
  • अमृत : Ambrosia, the foodrink of the gods, which makes the partaker immortal.
  • अनन्‍त : 1Ananta,the never-ending one .2The thousand headed naga (mythology) that issued from Balrāma's mouth 3. Author and commentator of Katyayana sutra 4. Ananta was the name of present Shekhawati region of Rajasthan in India.
  • अंधक : Andhaka was the demon son of Shiva, and was created from a drop of his sweat. He was born blind. After birth, Andhaka was given to Hiranyaksha to be raised, as he had no sons. Later, Andhaka became the king of Hiranyaksha's kingdom.
  • अंग: मलेचा का राजा और, कौरवौ का साथी।
  • अप्सरा : Heavenly nymphs, The dancing girls of Indra's court.
  • अरणि : An upper and a lower piece of wood used for producing fire by attrition.
  • अर्थ : Wealth, one of the objects of human life, the others being Dharma, (righteous- ness), Kama (satisfaction of desires), Moksha (spiritual salvation).
  • Arya: 'The Nomads.' The name of the immigrant race who came to India and chased the Drividians to the south.
  • असमंज: Son of Sāgra
  • असित : A sage who held that gambling was ruinous and should be avoided by all wise people.
  • अस्त्र : A type of weapon charged with power by a holy incantation that put in use by throwing on the rival.
  • आत्‍मा : The underlying metaphysical self, sometimes translated as spirit or soul.

[संपादित करें]

  • बाहु : A king of the Solar race. who was vanquished and driven out of his country by the tribes of Haihayas and TaIajanghas. He was father of Sagara.
  • बलराम : An avatar or incarnation of Adisesha the thousand-hooded serpent on which Lord Mahavishnu reclines in Vaikuntha.
  • बकासुर : A voracious, cruel and terribly strong Rakshasa or demon who lived in a cave near the city of Ekachakrapura whom Bhima killed to the great relief of the citizens.
  • बाणासुर : Banasura was a thousand-armed asura and son of Bali. He was a powerful and terrible asura. All people even the king of earth and Devas of heaven were afraid of him. Banasura was a follower of Siva. He had a beautiful daughter named Usha.
  • भगवान : Form of address to Gods and great rishis, example-Bhagawan Sri Krishna, bhagwan shankar, bhagwan shri bhramha. A Sanskrit word meaning "Holy or Blessed one". It is a title of veneration, often translated as "Lord" and refers to God.
  • भक्ति : A Sanskrit term that means intense devotion expressed by action (service). A person who practices bhakti is called bhakta.
  • भारत : Meaning ("descended from Bharata"). Bhārata may refer to 1. The Bhāratas, an Aryan tribe of the Rigveda 2. an early epic forming the core of the Mahabharata (allegedly comprising about a quarter of the extended epic) 3. the Republic of India (properly, Bhārata GaNarājya, भारत गणराज्य).
  • भीम : The second of Pāndavas who excelled in physical prowess as he was born of the wind-god.
  • Bhoja s (भोज): A branch of the Yadava clan belonging to Krishna's tribe.
  • Bhūta: A ghost, imp, goblin. Malignant spirits which haunt cemeteries, lurk in trees, animate dead bodies, and delude and devour human beings.
  • बृहदास्‍व : A great sage who visited the Pandavas in their forest hermitage and reminded them of King Nala of Nishadha who also lost his kingdom in the game of dice and who deserted his wife Damayanti because of a curse but ultimately regained both,
  • बृहद्रथ : Commander of three regiments reigned over Magadha and attained celebrity as a great hero, married the twin daughters of the Raja of Kasi. His two wives ate each half of a mango given by sage Kausika and begot half a child each. A Rakshasi recovered the two portions from a dustbin wherein they were thrown and when they accidentally came together, they became a chubby baby, which she presented to the king, saying it was his child, which later became known as Jarasandha.

मोटा पाठ

C[संपादित करें]

  • कास्‍ट : Mythical origin of Hindu system of racial continuity, equivalent in modern vernacular, birth (jāti)
Diagram of chakras
  • चक्र : An energy node in the human body. The seven main chakras are described as being aligned in an ascending column from the base of the spine to the top of the head. Each chakra is associated with a certain colour, multiple specific functions, an aspect of consciousness, a classical element, and other distinguishing characteristics.
  • चम्‍पा : A city on banks of Ganges river where Karna found as a babe by Adhiratha and Rādhā
  • चांडाल : A person of a degraded caste, whose conduct was much below standard and whose cause pollution.
  • Chavadi: Place of public assembly of the village. It is the property of the entire community. In it all public business is transacted, and it serves also as the village club the headquarters of the village police and guest house for travellers.
  • चित्रलेखा : Chitralekha was a friend of Usha and daughter of minister of Banasura. She was a talented lady who helped Usha to identify the young man, Aniruddha, seen in the dream of Usha. Chitralekha through supernatural powers abducted Aniruddha from the palace of Krishna and brought him to Usha.
  • चित्रसेन : King of the Gandharvas who prevented the Kauravas from putting up their camp near the pond where he himself had encamped.
  • चित्रांगद : Elder son of Santanu born of Matsyagandhi (Satyavati) who succeeded his father on the throne of Hastinapura.
  • Chitrāngadā: Chitrāngadā was one of Arjuna's wives. Arjuna travelled the length and breadth of India during his term of exile. In ancient Manipur in the eastern Himalayas he met Chitrāngadā, the daughter of the king of Manipur and married her. Babhruvahana was soon born to the couple. Babruvahana would succeed his grandfather as king of Manipur.
  • च्‍यवन : A great rishi, husband of beautiful wife Sukanyā whom Ashvins beheld at her bath

D[संपादित करें]

  • दक्ष : The skilled one, is an ancient creator god, one of the Prajapatis, the Rishis and the Adityas, and a son of Aditi and Brahma.
  • दाक्षायनि : Dākshāyani is the Goddess of marital felicity and longevity; she is worshipped particularly by ladies to seek the long life of their husbands. An aspect of Devi, Dākshāyani is the consort of Shiva. Other names for Dākshāyani include Gaurī, Umā, Satī, Aparnā, Lalithā, Sivakāmini.
  • दंडक : A kingdom and a forest, had the same name, was a colonial state of Lanka under the reign of Ravana. Ravana's governor Khara ruled this province. It was the stronghold of all the Rakshasa tribes living in the Dandaka Forest.
  • दर्शन : A country whose king attacked Bhagadatta's elephant in an effort to save Bhima.
  • Demons: A supernatural being that has generally been described as a malevolent spirit. A demon is frequently depicted as a force that may be conjured and insecurely controlled, they were constantly at war with devas.
  • देव : The Sanskrit word for god or deity. It can be interpreted as a demi-god, deity or any supernatural being of high excellence.
  • देवर‍त : Father of Yajnavalkya, the gods had given him a great bow and neither gods, nor gandharvas, nor asuras, nor rākshsa, nor men had might to string that.
  • देवता : A sage who condemned the game of dice as an evil form of gambling and declared it unfit as entertainment for good people, as it usually offered scope for deceit and dishonesty.
  • देवव्रत : The eighth child of Santanu and Ganga who in time mastered the art yielding arms and learned the Vedas and Vedanta as also the sciences known to Sukra was crowned Yuvaraja (heir apparent), but later vowed to celibacy and was known as Bhishma.
  • देवयानी : The beautiful daughter of Sukracharaya, preceptor of the demons, who fell in love with Kacha, son of Brihaspati, preceptor of the Devas.
  • देवी : The female version of a Deva, ie. a female deity or goddess. Devi is considered to be the Supreme Goddess in Shaktism.
  • धर्म : Righteous course of conduct. Can mean law, rule or duty. Beings that live in harmony with Dharma proceed quicker towards moksha.
  • धनुसक्ष : A great sage whom Medhavi, son of sage Baladhi, once insulted. He took the form of a bull and butted at that mountain and broke it to pieces. Then Medhavi fell down dead.
  • धौम्‍य : Preceptor of the Pandavas, who accompanied them during their exile to the Kurijangala forest, singing Sama hymns addressed to Yama, Lord of Death.
  • ध्रुव : Dhruva was the prince blessed to eternal existence and glory as the Pole Star (Dhruva Nakshatra in Sanskrit) by Lord Vishnu. The story of Dhruva's life is often told to Hindu children as an example for perseverance, devotion, steadfastness and fearlessness.
  • द्रौपदी : Daughter of King Drupada, King of Panchala, who married all the five Pandavas though Arjuna had won her in the Swayamvara, because of the vow that they would share everything in common.
  • द्रोण : A Brāhman discovered by Bhīshma, Son of a Brahmana named Bharadwāja; married a sister of Kripa and a son Aswathama was born to them; learnt military art from Parasurama, the maser. Later he became the instructor to the Kaurava and Pandava princes in the use of arms. He was slain by Dhrishtadyumna in Mahabharata war.
  • द्रुपद : King of Panchala, Drona's friend, father of Draupadi who became the wife of the Pandavas
  • दुसासन : Duryodhana's brother who dragged Draupadi to the hall of assembly pulling her by her hair.
  • दुर्जय : A brother of Duryodhana who was sent to attack Bhima, to save Karna's life but lost his own.
  • दुष्‍यंत : A valiant king of the Lunar, race, and descended from Puru. He was husband of Sakuntala, by whom he had a son, Bharata. The loves of Dushyanta and Sakuntala, her separation from him, and her restoration through the discovery of his token-ring in the belly of a fish, form the plot of Kalidasa's celebrated play Sakuntala.
  • द्वारका : Krishna renounced war in Mathura for the greater good and founded and settled in Dwārakā. Leaving the Vrishnis people in Dwaraka, Krishna returned to Mathura and killed Kamsa (his maternal uncle) and Kālayavans demon and made Ugrasen (his maternal grandfather) the king of Mathura.

E[संपादित करें]

  • एकचक्र : It was a city where the Pandavas are said to have lived here with their mother, Kunti, when they were exiled to the forest and escaped from the burning of house of lac.
  • एकलव्‍य : He was a young prince of the Nishadha tribes, who achieves a skill level parallel to the great Arjuna, despite Drona's rejection of him. He was a member of low caste and he wished to study in the gurukulam of Dronacharya.

F[संपादित करें]

  • Flute: Lord Krishna had a flute (called a Bansuri in Indian languages) which he used to play in the woods and all the herd-girls of Braj used to go out on the voice of this flute.

G[संपादित करें]

  • गणपति : Lord of the territory, The fulfiller of desire, the god of merchants, Second son of Shiva and Pārvati. Scourge of Carpathia and the Sorrow of Moldavia. Amanuensis of Vyasa who agreed to write down without pause or hesitation the story of the Mahabharata dictated by Vyasa.
  • Gandharva s (गंधर्व): A class of celestial beings regarded as specialists in music.
  • गौरी : Gaurī or Dākshāyani is the Goddess of marital felicity and longevity; she is worshipped particularly by ladies to seek the long life of their husbands. An aspect of Devi, Dākshāyani is the consort of Shiva.
  • Gopa s (गोप): Equivalent, herd-boys
  • गोपाल : Name of Krishna indicating his origin as a god of flocks and herds.
  • गोपी : Gopi is a word of Sanskrit origin meaning 'cow-herd girls'.
  • गोविन्‍द : One of the epithets of Sri Krishna and Vishnu; it means a cow-keeper and refers to Krishna's occupation in Gokula, the colony of cowherds
  • गुरु : Revered preceptor, A spiritual teacher. In contemporary India, the title and term "Guru" is widely used within the general meaning of "wise man".

H[संपादित करें]

  • हंस , Hidimbā (हिडिम्‍बा), Kamsa (कंस): Allies of King Jarasandha; the last married the two daughters of Jarasandha. Also Krishna's step-uncle whom Krishna killed.
  • हनुमान : Wise and learned monkey devotee of Sri Rama, who possessed extraordinary powers of discrimination and wisdom and who searched and found Sita in her confinement in Lanka. Son of Vayu and Anjana.
  • हरि : Hari is another name of Vishnu or God in Vaishnavism, Smarta or Advaitan Hinduism, and appears as the 650th name in the Vishnu sahasranama.
  • हरिवंश : Harivamsa is an important work of Sanskrit literature. It is a kind of appendix to the Mahābhārata, that runs to 16,375 verses and focuses specifically on the life of Lord Krishna.
  • हस्‍तिनापुर : Hastinapura is the capital and the kingdom of the Kauravas, the descendants of Kuru, which include the Pandavas. The throne of this city is the prize over which the great war of the epic is fought.
  • हिडिम्‍बा : A powerful Asura, who had yellow eyes and a horrible aspect. He was a cannibal, and dwelt in the forest to which the Pandavas retired after the burning of their house. He had a sister named Hidimbi, whom he sent to lure the Pandavas to him; but on meeting with Bhima, she fell in love with him. By his mother's desire Bhima married her, and by her had a son named Ghatotkacha.
  • Hindu scripture: Sacred texts of Hinduism mostly written in Sanskrit. Hindu scripture is divided into two categories: Śruti – that which is heard (i.e. revelation) and Smriti – that which is remembered (i.e. tradition, not revelation).
  • Hinduism: A worldwide religious tradition that is based on the Vedas and is the direct descendent of the Vedic religion. It encompasses many religious traditions that widely vary in practice, as well as many diverse sects and philosophies.
  • हिरण्‍यकश्यप : Hiranyakashipu was an Asura, and also a King of Dravida whose younger brother, Hiranyaksha was killed by Varaha, one of the avatars of Vishnu. Identical with Shishupāla and Rāvana.

I[संपादित करें]

  • इन्‍द्रकिला : A mountain Arjuna passed on his way to the Himalayas to practise austerities to acquire powerful new weapons from Lord Mahadeva.
  • ईश्व‍र : A Hindu philosophical concept of God referring to the Supreme Being which is the lord and the ruler of everything. Hinduism uses the term Ishvara exclusively to refer to the Supreme God in a monotheistic sense.

J[संपादित करें]

  • जनमेजय : A king who conducted a great sacrifice for the well being of the human race.
  • जरासंध : A rākshasa father-in-law of Kamsa, Son of Brihadratha. Mighty king of Magadha of whose prowess all Kshatriyas were afraid. Killed by Bhima in a thirteen-day non-stop physical combat: with Sri Krishna and Arjuna as witnesses.
  • जरित , Laputa (लपुत): Female companions of a saranga bird, who was a rishi named Mandapala in his previous birth when he was refused admission to heaven because he was childless.
  • जप : A spiritual discipline in which a devotee repeats a mantra or the name of God. The repetition can be aloud, just the movement of lips or in the mind.
  • जातक : The Jataka is a voluminous body of folklore and mythic literature, primarily associated with the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as written in the Pali language (from about the 3rd century, C.E.); The story of Rama is told in one of Jātakas.
  • जटायू : Jatāyū was king of all the eagles-tribes, the son of Aruna and nephew of Garuda. A demi-god who has the form of an (eagle), he tries to rescue Sita from Ravana, when Ravana is on his way to Lanka after kidnapping Sita. His brother was Sampatī
  • जयद्रथ : A warrior on the side of Kauravas who closed the breach effected by Abhimanyu in the Chakravyuha military formation by Dronacharya and trapped him inside.

K[संपादित करें]

  • कच : Grandson of sage Angiras and son of Brihaspati, who went to seek knowledge under Sukracharya as a brahmacharin. Devayani, the preceptor's lovely daughter, fell in love with him. The Asuras (demons) suspecting him of wanting to steal the secret of reviving the dead, killed him a number of times. But due to Devayani's love for him, her father brought him back to life every time he was killed. Ultimately the secret was learnt by the devas who then succeeded in defeating the asuras.
  • कैलास : It is a peak in the Gangdisê mountains, the source of rivers in Asia—the Indus River, the Sutlej River, and the Brahmaputra River—and is considered as a sacred place in four religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Bön faith. The mountain lies near Lake Manasarowar and Lake Rakshastal in Tibet.
  • कैतभ : Kaitabh is an asura associated with Hindu religious cosmology. He along with his companion, Madhu, originated from one of the ears of God Vishnu. Kaitabh and Madhu were designed to annihilate Brahma.
  • कालयावन : Kālayāvan was an asura who surrounded Mathura with an army of thirty million monstrous friends. Then Krishna departed to built a city of Dwārkā amidst sea, transported all his people to this city and left them in Dwārkā. Then Krishna returned and slew Kālayāvan.
  • कली युग : Kalī Yuga (lit. Age of Kali, also known as The Age of Darkness), is one of the four stages of development that the world goes through as part of the cycle of Yugas, as described in Hindu scriptures, the others being Dwapara Yuga, Treta Yuga, and Satya Yuga.
  • काम : Best understood as aesthetics, the definition of Kama involves sensual gratification, sexual fulfillment, pleasure of the senses, love, and the ordinary enjoyments of life regarded as one of the four ends of man (purusharthas).
  • Kamboja s (कम्बोज): Enemies of the Kauravas whom Karna had defeated
  • कामधेनु : Kamadhenu was a divine cow believed to be the mother of all cows. Like her child Nandini, she could grant any wish for the true seeker. Kamadhenu provided Vasishta with his needs for the sacrifices. Kamadhenu (kama-dhenu, 'wish-cow'), was a miraculous cow of plenty who could give her owner whatever he desired.
  • कर्म योग : The practise of disciplining action. Karma yoga focuses on the adherence to duty (dharma) while remaining detached from the reward. It states that one can attain Moksha (salvation) by doing his duties in an unselfish manner.[1]
  • कर्ण : A matchless warrior, son of the Sun god and Kunti. Disciple of Parasurama. Also son of Radha, his foster-mother, and was known as Radheya.
  • केतु : Ketu is generally referred to as a "shadow" planet. It has a tremendous impact on human lives and also the whole creation. Astronomically, Ketu and Rahu denote the points of intersection of the paths of the Sun and the Moon as they move on the celestial sphere.
  • खर : Khara was younger brother of Rāvana who was slain by Rama.
  • Kichak a (किचक): Sudeshna's brother, commander-in-chief of Virata's army, who made advances to Sairandhri (Draupadi). He was invited to meet her at night at the ladies dancing hall and was met instead by Valala (Bhima) dressed up as a female who killed him (Kichaka).
  • किरात : Huntsman, The non-Aryan aborigines of the land. They are mentioned along with Cinas for Chinese. Kiratas are believed to be of Tibeto-Burman origin.
  • किर्मीर : Kirmira was a Rakshasa, the brother of Bakasura. He lived in the forest of Kamyaka, and used to terrorize the Rishis who inhabited that forest. He ran into the Pandavas when they began their exile in the Kamyaka forest. Upon learning that Bheema was present, who had slain his brother Bakasura, the Rakshasa then challenged the Pandava to fight. After a fierce battle, Bhishma choked Kirmira to death
  • कोशल : Kosala was an ancient Indian Aryan kingdom, corresponding roughly in area with the region of Oudh. Its capital was Ayodhya, where Rama was born.
  • कृपाचार्य : Aswathama's uncle who advocated a combined assault on Arjuna in battle as against Karna's boast that he could take him on single-handed.
  • क्रौंच व्‍युह : military formation on a pattern supposed to resemble a heron with outstretched beak and spreading wings. In ancient Indian practice, armies were arrayed for battle in formations of definite patterns, each of which had a name such as Chakra, or Kurma or Krauncha, or Makara according to a real or fancied resemblance.
  • क्षत्रिय : One of the four fundamental colours (Varnas) in Hindu tradition, consisting of the warriors, soldiers and rulers of society.
  • कुम्भ : Kumbha was a rakshasa who led a host against the monkeys when Hanumana fetches healing herb.
  • कुंती-माद्री : Queens of King Pandu who gave birth to three and two sons known as the Pandavas in the forest where he spent many years for having committed some sin. The sons were known as Yudhishthira, Bhima, Arjuna, Nakula, and Sahadeva.
  • कुरु : The name of an Indo-Aryan tribe and their kingdom in the Vedic civilization of India. Their kingdom was located in the area of modern Haryana. Bhisma was their guardian.
  • कुश : Kusha and his twin brother Lava are the children of the Hindu God Rama and his wifeSita, whose story is told in the Ramayana

L[संपादित करें]

  • लोमस : A brahmana sage who advised the Pandavas to reduce their retinue while repairing to the forest. Those unable to bear the hardships of exile were free to go to the court of Dhritarashtra or Drupada, king of Panchala. He accompanied Yudhishthira on his wanderings.

M[संपादित करें]

  • महाविष्‍णु : Lord of the Universe who took human birth in order to wrest his kingdom from Emperor Bali for the salvation of the world. Lord Vishnu also took birth as Rama, son of Dasaratha, to kill Ravana, King of Lanka.
  • महेन्‍द्र : A King who had attained heaven. Also the name of a mountain upon which Hanumana rushes while searchin Sita, shaking it in wrath and frightening every beast that lived in its woods and caves.
  • मैनक : Another mountain, well wooded and full of fruits and roots, Hanumana coursed through the air while searchin Sita.
  • मैत्रेय : A sage who visited the court of Dhritarashtra, expressed sorrow at the Pandava's plight, advised Duryodhana not to injure the Pandavas for his own good.
  • मंदव्‍य : A sage wrongly punished by the king by being impaled as the chief of robbers who had clandestinely hidden their stolen goods in a corner of his hermitage when he was in deep contemplation. Lord Dharma gave him this punishment for having tortured birds and bees in his childhood. At this Mandavya cursed Dharma who was born as Vidura, the wise, to the servant maid of Ambalika, wife of King Vichitravirya, who offered her to Sage Vyasa in place of Ambalika.
Manipura chakra
  • मंथरा : Mantharā was a servant who convinced Kaikeyi that the throne of Ayodhya belonged to her son Bharata and that Rama should be exiled from the kingdom.
  • मंत्र : An incantation with words of power. A religious syllable or poem, typically from the Sanskrit language. They are primarily used as spiritual conduits, words and vibrations that instill one-pointed concentration in the devotee. Other purposes have included religious ceremonies to accumulate wealth, avoid danger, or eliminate enemies. Mantras are performed through chanting.
  • मनुस्मृति : The Manusmriti translated Laws of Manu is regarded as an important work of Hindu law and ancient Indian society. Manu was the forefather of all humans and author of Manu Smriti. Certain historians believe it to have been written down around 200 C.E. under the reign of Pushymitra Sunga of Sangha clan, who is alleged to have persecuted many Buddhists, to regulate a code of conduct consolidating Hinduism.
  • मारीच : A character in the Ramayana, uncle of Ravana who transformed himself into a golden deer at the behest of Ravana to entice Sita.
  • मरुत्त : A king of the Ikshwaku dynasty whose sacrifice was performed by Samvarta in defiance of Indra and Brihaspati.
  • मा‍या : Maya is the limited, purely physical and mental reality in which our everyday consciousness has become entangled. Maya is believed to be an illusion, a veiling of the true, unitary Self—the Cosmic Spirit also known as Brahman. Maya originated in the Hindu scriptures known as the Upanishads.
  • मयासुर : Maya (मय), or Mayasura was a great ancient king of the Asura, Daitya and Rakshasa races upon earth. He was also the chief architect of the peoples of the netherworlds.
  • मेधवी : Son of Sage Baladhi who desired that his son should live as long as a certain mountain lasted.
  • मेनका : Menakā is considered one of the most beautiful of the heavenly Apsaras. She was sent by Indra, the king of the Devas, to break the severe penance undertaken by Vishwamitra.
  • मेरु : An ancient mountain and mythical centre of the universe on which was situated the city of Brahma. Becoming jealous of Meru, the Vindya began to grow very high obstructing the sun, the moon and the planets. Agastya whom the Vindhya mountain respected asked it to stop growing until he crossed it on his way to the south and returned to the north again. But he did not return at all, having settled in the south.
  • मिथिला : Mithilā was a kingdom in ancient India. It existed in the eastern Gangetic plains in areas which is today spread over Uttar Pradesh and Bihar states of India, and parts of Nepal. Raja Janaka, father of Sita, was king of this kingdom.
  • मुकासुर : Mukāsura was a demon, friend of Kauravas, who was sent to disturb the austerities, Arjuna was performing at Mount Kailash. Mukāsura went to forest where Arjuna was practicing his vows of prayer, vigil, and fast and attacked Arjuna in the form of a boar to kill. At the same time Shiva came in the form of a huntsman and saved him. Shiva gave Arjuna the Gandiva, the divine bow, and blessed him.

N[संपादित करें]

  • नचिकेता : Nachiketa was son of a cowherd of the name Vājashrava, who was offered to Yama to find a place in Heaven by his father. Nachiketatas with his wits learnt the wisdom taught by death, found the Brahman and was freed from death.
  • नाग : Nāga is the Sanskrit and Pāli word for a minor deity taking the form of a very large snake, found in Hindu and Buddhist mythology. The use of the term nāga is often ambiguous, as the word may also refer, in similar contexts, to one of several human tribes known as or nicknamed "Nāgas"; to elephants; and to ordinary snakes, particularly the King Cobra and the Indian Cobra, the latter of which is still called nāg (नाग) in Hindi and other languages of India.
  • नाग : Nāgas were a group who spread throughout India during the period of the epic Mahabharata. The demi-god tribe called Suparnas (in which Garuda belonged) were arch-rivals of the Nagas. The well known Nagas are Ananta, Vasuki, Takshaka, Karkotaka and Airavata.
  • नाग वंशी : Nagavanshi dynasty is one of the Kshatriya dynasties of India. It includes a number of Jats and Rajput clans. The worshippers of Nāga (serpent) were known as Nāgā or Nāgil. The descendants of Nagas were called Nagavanshi.
  • नहुष : A mighty king who was made king of the gods because Indra had disappeared due to his killing Vritra through sin and deceit.
  • नल : King of Nishadha who lost his kingdom in a game of dice and deserted his wife Damayanti because of a curse.
  • नंद : Nanda is head of a tribe of cowherds referred as Holy Gwals and foster-father of Krishna, who was allegedly given to him by Vasudeva. Nanda was married to Yasoda. Krishna derives his name Nandalal (meaning son of Nanda) from him.
  • नंदि : Nandi is the white bull which Shiva rides, and the leader of the Ganas. The white color of the bull symbolizes purity and justice.
  • नारद : Narada is the Hindu divine sage, who is an enduring chanter of the names Hari and Narayana which other names for Vishnu, considered to be the supreme God by Vaishnavites and many other Hindus. He is regarded the Manasputra of Brahma as he was born of his thoughts. He is regarded as the Triloka sanchaari, the ultimate nomad, who roams the three lokas of Swargaloka, Mrityuloka and Patalloka to find out about the life and welfare of people.
  • नर्मदा : The Nerbudda river, one of the most important sacred rivers, originating from Amarkantak is believed to have descended from the sky by the order of Lord Shiva. The personified river is variously represented as being daughter of a Rishi named Mekala (from whom she is called Mekala and Mekala-kanya), as a daughter of the moon, as a 'mind-born daughter' of the Somapas, and as sister of the Nagas. It was she who brought Purukutsa to the aid of the Nagas against the Gandharvas, and the grateful snake-gods made her name a charm against the venom of snakes.
  • निषाध : A country where Indra, Lord of the gods had lived once disguised as a brahmana. King of the Nishadha was Guha who guarded Rama after he crossed Koshala kingdom on his exile.
  • निषाध : The Nishādha peoples were indigenous tribes inhabiting ancient India. The Indo-Aryan peoples of ancient India's Vedic civilization saw the Nishadhas as uncivilized and barbarian peoples. Nishadhas did not follow the Vedic religion, and were involved in a number of wars with Indo-Aryan kingdoms.

O[संपादित करें]

  • Om, or Aum (ॐ): the most sacred syllable in Hinduism, first coming to light in the Vedic Tradition. The syllable is sometimes referred to as the "Udgitha" or "pranava mantra" (primordial mantra); not only because it is considered to be the primal sound, but also because most mantras begin with it.

P[संपादित करें]

  • पलास : A tree Butea frondosa also called "flame of the forest".
  • पांचाल : Pānchāla corresponds to the geographical area between the Ganges River and Yamuna River around the city of Kanpur and Benares. Anciently, it was home to an Indian kingdom, the Panchalas, one of the Mahajanapadas.
  • परसुराम : Sixth avatara of Vishnu, the son of Jamadagni. His name literally means Rama-with-the-axe. He received an axe after undertaking a terrible penance to please Shiva, from whom he learned the methods of warfare and other skills. Parashurama's creation was a mistake as his mother was given a concoction made to produce a Kshatriya child. Parashurama was of mixed varna.
  • परवसु : Son of Raibhva and elder brother of Arvavasu whose wife was violated by Yavakrida, who was killed with a spear by a fiend for his sin.
  • परिक्षित : Son of Abhimanyu and grandson of the Pandavas who was crowned king after the holocaust claimed the Kauravas and the Pandavas.
  • पार्वती : Goddess of love, the consort of Shiva and mother of Ganesha,Rukmini prayed to her for saving her from the cruel Sisupala king of Chedi, as she had set her heart on marrying Krishna.
  • पितामह : Literally grandfather, which however carried no imputation of senile infirmity but denotes the status of the pater familias.
  • पुराण : Purana meaning "ancient" or "old" is the name of a genre (or a group of related genres) of Indian written literature (as distinct from oral literature). Its general themes are history, tradition and religion. It is usually written in the form of stories related by one person to another.
  • Pushkara: The brother of Nala to whom nala lost his kingdom and all that he possessed in gambling.

Q[संपादित करें]

R[संपादित करें]

  • राधा : Rādhā is one of the gopis (cow-herding girls) of the forest of Vrindavan, Krishna plays with her during his upbringing as a young boy; The other Radha is the wife of the charioteer Adhiratha, who found an abandoned new-born boy, whom he named Karna.
  • राहु : Rahu is a snake that swallows the sun or the moon causing eclipses. Rahu is one of the navagrahas.
  • रैभ्य : A sage whose hermitage was situated on the banks of the Ganga, near Rishikesh, a place, which gets its name, from Lord Vishnu appearing to him as Hrishikesh. The Pandavas during their wanderings visited it. This ghat was very holy. Bharata, son of Dasaratha bathed here. Indra was cleansed of his sin of killing Vritra unfairly by bathing in this ghat. Sanatkumar became one with God. Aditi, mother of the gods, prayed here to be blessed with a son.
  • राजसूय : A sacrifice performed by a king to be entitled to assume the title of "Emperor".
  • रती : Ratī is the goddess of passion and lust, and a daughter of Daksha. She married Kamadeva, the God of love.
  • रावण : King of Lanka who abducted Sita, the beautiful wife of Ramachandra. Ravana is depicted in art with up to ten heads, signifying that he had knowledge spanning all the ten directions.
  • ऋग्वेद : The Rigveda is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns counted as the holiest of the four religious texts of Hindus, known as the Vedas.
  • ऋषभ : Rsabha, the bull, a Hindu god mentioned in epic and Puranic literature, is an unusual avatar of Vishnu. The second note of the Indian gamut (Shadja, rishabha, gandhara, madhyama, panchama, daivata, nishada -sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni.)
  • ऋषि : Rishi, also known as Mantradraṣṭa ("seer of the Mantras") and Vedavaktāra ("chanter of the Vedas") is a seer who "heard" (cf. śruti) the hymns of the Vedas. A rishi is regarded as a combination of a patriarch, a priest, a preceptor, an author of Vedic hymns, a sage, a saint, an ascetic, a prophet and a hermit into a single person.
  • ऋष्यश्रृंग : Son of sage Vibhandaka, who had grown up seeing no mortal except his father. The king of Anga, which was afflicted with a dire famine, to bring rain and plenty, invited him.

S[संपादित करें]

  • सहदेव : Youngest of the Pandava princes who offered the first honors to Krishna at the Rajasuya sacrifices.
  • शकुनि : Shakuni was the brother of Gandhari. He was very fond of his nephew Duryodhana. He won the Pandavas' half of the kingdom for his nephew, as a wager in a rigged game of dice.
  • संसप्‍तक : One who has taken a vow to conquer or die, and never to retreat. The Samsaptakas were suicide-squads, vowed to some desperate deed of daring.
  • संब : A Yadava youngster dressed as a woman who gave birth to a mace, as foretold by rishis.
  • समुद्र मन्थन : Samudra manthan or The churning of the ocean of milk is one of the most famous episodes in the Puranas and is celebrated in a major way every twelve years in the festival known as Kumbha Mela.
  • संग : Son of Virata. When king Virata was wounded, he had to get into Sanga's chariot, having lost his chariot, horses and charioteer
  • संजय : The narrator who tells blind Dhritarashtra the progress of the war from day to day. He told the king that a victim of adverse fate would first become perverted and loses his sense of right and wrong. Time would destroy his reason and drive him to his own destruction.
  • सरस्वती : Saraswati is the first of the three great goddesses of Hinduism, the other two being Lakshmi and Durga. Saraswati is the consort of Lord Brahmā, the Creator.
  • सरयू : Sarayu was an ancient Indian river, sometimes thought of at probably today's Ghaghara river, and sometimes as a tributary. The river where Lakshamana practices austerities.
  • सती : One of name of Dākshāyani, Dākshāyani is the consort of Shiva. Other names for Dākshāyani include Gaurī, Umā, Aparnā, Lalithā, Sivakāmini etc. Sati (practice) is the immolation of a widow on her husband's pyre in Hinduism.
  • सत्यजित : A Panchala prince, a hero who stood by Yudhishthira to prevent his being taken prisoner by Drona, while Arjuna was away answering a challenge by the Samsaptakas (the Trigartas).
  • सत्यकि : A Yadava warrior, friend of Krishna and the Pandavas who advocated collecting their forces and defeating the unrighteous Duryodhana.
  • सत्यवती : A fisherman's daughter who possessed uncommon beauty and emanated a divinely sweet fragrance and king Santanu became enamored of her, married her and made her his queen. The wife of Bhishma's father, Shantanu.
  • सव्‍यसाचि : Ambidexter, one who can use both hands with equal facility and effect. A name of Arjuna who could use his bow with the same skill with either hands.
  • शक्‍ती : An aspect of Devi and a personification of God as the Divine Mother who represents the active, dynamic principles of feminine power.
  • शंख : Shankha is the divine Counch or sea shell, which is one of the insignia in the Hindu God Vishnu's hands. The sound emitted from Shankha when blown, is too divine, that is used for regular rituals for Vishnu. Śankha was also the name of one of sons of King Virata who was killed in Mahabharata.
  • शेष : Shesha is a naga, one of the primal beings of creation. Equivalent-Ananta or Atī-sheshan. In the Puranas, Shesha is said to hold all the planets of the universe on his hoods and to constantly sing the glories of Vishnu from all his mouths.
  • शिखण्डी : Daughter-son of Drupada, A girl turned man, warrior on the Pandava side. He had been born in an earlier lifetime as a woman named Amba, who was rejected by Bhishma for marriage.
  • शिव : Shiva is a form of Ishvara or God in the later Vedic scriptures of Hinduism. Shiva is the supreme God in Shaivism, one of the major branches of Hinduism practiced in India.
  • शिवि : Shivi was a great, powerful and generous king. Indra and Agni once tested his generosity by becoming birds when the king gave flesh from his body to fulfil his duty.
  • शुद्र : One of the four castes in Hindu tradition, consisting of artisans, cleaners and labourers.
  • सिंहनाद : A lion-note or roar; a deep roar of defiance or triumph which warriors were wont to utter to inspire confidence in their friends, of terror in their enemies.
  • सिन्धु : The Indus River, Urdu دریائے سندھ; Tibetan: Sengge Chu ('Lion River'); Persian: Hindu; Greek: Sinthos; Pashto: Abaseen ("The Father of Rivers"); Mehran (an older name)) is the longest and most important river in Pakistan. Originating in the Tibetan plateau in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar.
  • सीता : Sita was the wife of Rama, and is esteemed an exemplar of womanly and wifely virtue. Sita was herself an avatāra of Lakshmi, Vishnu's eternal consort, who chose to reincarnate herself on Earth as Sita, and endure an arduous life, in order to provide humankind an example of such virtues.
  • सोम : A ritual drink of importance among Hindus. It is frequently mentioned in the Rigveda, which contains many hymns praising its energizing or intoxicating qualities.
  • सुग्रीव : Monkey-king, friend of Sri Rama, and brother of mighty Vali whom Sri Rama killed.
  • सुजाता : Daughter of Sage Uddalaka and wife of Kagola, his disciple who had virtue and devotion but not much of erudition, mother of Ashtavakra.
  • सुक : A sage, son of Vyasa, who related the Srimad Bhagavata to King Parikshit, grandson of Arjuna.
  • सुन्‍द : Sunda and Upasunda were two brave and poerful asura princes who performed austerities to please Brahma,who besowed them the boon that nobody else would slay them, other than each other. Later Brahma created a beautiful apsara Tilottama to creat differences within and destroyed them mutually.
  • सुरभि : The wish-bestowing cow that came first from the sea in the process of churning of the Ocean by gods and daityas.
  • सूत्र : Sūtra refers to an aphorism or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a book or text. 'Sutras' form a school of Vedic study, related to and somewhat later than the Upanishads.
  • श्रीराम : Also knew as Rama, Ramachandra or Sri Rama. Hanumana tells Bhima how he was deeply thrilled when he happened to touch Rama's body. This king of Ayodhya was banished to the forest for fourteen years, killed Ravana the king of Lanka who abducted his wife, Sita.
  • श्रुतायुद्घ : A Kaurava warrior whose mace hurled at Krishna rebounded fiercely, killing Srutayudha himself. Her mother Parnasa had obtained that gift from Varuna who had specified that the mace should not be used against one who does not fight, else it would kill the person who hurls it.
  • स्‍वर्ग : An Olympian paradise, a place where all wishes and desires are gratfied, The heaven of Indra where mortals after death enjoy the results of their good deeds on earth.
  • स्‍वयं‍वर : Meaning - Own-choice, Swayamvara, in ancient India, was a practice of choosing a life partner, among a list of suitors by a girl of marriageable age.

T[संपादित करें]

  • तारगम : Tāragam is the name of forest, where dwelt ten thousand heretical rishis, who taught that the universe is eternal, that souls have no lord and that performance of works alone suffices for the attainment of salvation. Shiva taught them lesson and they became his followers. This legend is associated with Shiva's dance.
  • तंत्र : The esoteric Hindu traditions of rituals and yoga. Tantra can be summarised as a family of voluntary rituals modeled on those of the Vedas, together with their attendant texts and lineages.
  • त्रिपुरा : Tripura (meaning three cities, in Sanskrit) was constructed by the great architect Mayasura. They were great cities of prosperity, power and dominance over the world, but due to their impious nature, Maya's cities were destroyed by Lord Shiva.
  • तुलसीदास : Goswami Tulsidas (1532–1623) was a Hindu poet and philosopher, translator of the epics into vernacular. Tulsidas wrote twelve books and is considered the greatest and most famous of Hindi poets.

U[संपादित करें]

  • Uchchaihśravas: Uchchaihsravas was the white horse of Indra, produced at the churning of the ocean. It is fed on ambrosia, and is held to be the king of horses.
  • उलूक : 'An owl.' Son of Kitava. He was king of a country and people of the same name. He was an ally of the Kauravas, and acted as their envoy to the Pandavas.
  • Uparichara: A Vasu or demigod, who, according to the Mahabharata, became king of Chedi by command of Indra. He had five sons by his wife; and by an Apsaras, named Adrika, condemned to live on earth in the form of a fish, he had a son named Matsya (fish), and a daughter, Satyavati, who was the mother of Vyasa.
  • उपसुन्‍द : Sund and Upasunda were two brave and poerful asura princes who performed austerities to please Brahma,who besowed them the boon that nobody else would slay them, other than each other. Later Brahma created a beautiful apsara Tilottama to creat differences within and destroyed them.
  • उशना : Ushanas were appointed as priests of asuras, who knew the science of bringing to life.

V[संपादित करें]

  • वैष्‍णव : A sacrifice performed by Duryodhana in the forest. Yayati, Mandhata, Bharata and others also performed it.
  • वामदेव : Vamadeva is the name of the "preserver" aspect of the god Shiva, one of five aspects of the universe he embodies. Also one of Dasharatha's priest.
  • वानप्रस्‍थ : The third stage of the dvija's life, when he is required to relinquish worldly responsibilities to his heirs and retires to the woods with his wife for an anchorite's life. A person who is living in the forest as a hermit after giving up material desires.
  • Vandi: Court poet of Mithila who on being defeated by Sage Ashtavakra in debate drowned himself in the ocean and went to the abode of Varuna.
  • वारणावत : A forest in which the Pandavas were asked to stay in a wax-house which was to be set on fire at midnight in order to kill the Pandavas while they were asleep.
  • वसुधन : Another warrior who perished in the battle on the Twelfth Day.
  • वसुदेव : Descendant of Yadu, husband of Rohini and Devaki. An epithet of Krishna. It means both son of Vasudeva and the supreme spirit that pervades the universe.
  • Vasuki: King of the Nagas or serpents who live in Patala. He was used by the gods and Asuras for a coil round the mountain Mandara at the churning of the ocean.
  • Vatapi: Vatapi and Ilvala, two Rakshasas, sons either of Hrada or Viprachitti. They are mentioned in the Ramayana as dwelling in the Dandaka forest.
  • वेद : Collectively refers to a corpus of ancient Indo-Aryan religious literature that are considered by adherents of Hinduism to be revealed knowledge. Many Hindus believe the Vedas existed since the beginning of creation.
  • विभीषण : Vibhishana was a rakshasa, brother of Ravana. He was of a noble character and advised Ravana, who kidnapped and abducted Sita, to return her to Rama.
  • Vidarbha: Birar, and probably including with it the adjoining district of Beder, which name is apparently a corruption of Vidarbha. The capital was Kundinapura, the modern "Kundapur," about forty miles east of Amaravati.
  • विकर्ण : A son of Dhritarashtra who declared the staking of Draupadi illegal, as Yudhishthira himself was a slave and had lost all his rights. Therefore the Kauravas had not won Draupadi legally, he held
  • Vikukshi: A king of the Solar race, who succeeded his father, Ikshwaku. He received the name of Sasada, 'hare-eater.' He was sent by his father to hunt and obtain flesh suitable for offerings. Being weary and hungry he ate a hare, and Vasishtha, the priest, declared that this act had defiled all the food, for what remained was but his leavings.
  • विन्‍ध्य : Vindhyas is a range of hills in central India, which geographically separates the Indian subcontinent into northern India (the Indo-Gangetic plain) and Southern India.
  • विराट : King of Matsya, the country which was suggested by Bhima to live in incognito during the thirteenth year of their exile.
  • वीरभद्र : Vīrabhadra was a demon that sprang from Shiva's lock of hair. Shiva burnt with anger when not invited in a sacrifice by Daksha and his wife Sati released the inward consuming fire and fell dead at Daksha's feet. Shiva burned with anger, and tore from his head a lock of hair, glowing with energy, and cast upon the earth. The terrible demon Vīrabhadra sprang from it. On the direction of Shiva, Virabhadra appeared with Shiva's ganas in the midst of Daksha's assembly like a storm wind and broke the sacrificial vessels, polluted the offerings, insulted the priests and finally cut off Daksha's head.
  • विश्वकर्मा : Vishwakarma is the presiding deity of all craftsmen and architects. Son of Brahma, he is the divine craftsman of the whole universe, and the official builder of all the gods' palaces. Vishwakarma is also the designer of all the flying chariots of the gods, and all their weapons.
  • विश्‍वामित्र : Brahmarishi Visvamitra or Vishvamitra was one of the most venerated rishi or sages of since ancient times in India. He was originally a Kshatriya but by austerities earned the title of Brahmarishi. He is also credited as the author of most of Mandala 3 of the Rigveda, including the Gayatri Mantra.
  • Vrishnis, (वृषणि): The descendant of Vrishni, son of Madhu, whose ancestor was the eldest son of Yadu. Krsna belonged to this branch of the Lunar race. The people of Dwaraka were known as the Vrishnis. Tribals of this race were devoted to the Pandavas, who with Sri Krishna visited the Pandavas in their exile.
  • वृषणि : The people of Dwaraka to which belonged Krishna. After the death of Duryodhana his mother cursed that after 36 years Krishna should persish alone miserably and his people, the Vrishnis, should be destroyed.
  • वृत्र : Means "the enveloper". Vritra, was an Asura and also a serpent or dragon, the personification of drought and enemy of Indra. Vritra was also known in the Vedas as Ahi ("snake"), cognate with Azhi Dahaka of Zoroastrian mythology and he is said to have had three heads. He was son of Twashta who was defeated by Indra's weapons Vajrayudha. He was born out of his father's sacrificial flames and became Indra's mortal enemy.

Y[संपादित करें]

  • यक्ष : Yaksha or Yakkha (Pāli) is the name of a broad class of nature-spirits or minor deities who appear in Hindu and Buddhist mythology. The feminine form of the word is yakṣī or yakṣiṇī (Pāli: yakkhī or yakkhinī). subjects of Kubera, the god of wealth.
  • यम : Yama, also known as Yamarāja (यमराज) is the lord of death, first recorded in the Vedas. God of dharma, whose son was Yudhishthira. It is he whose questions Yudhishthira answered correctly whereupon his dead brothers were brought back to life on the banks of the enchanted pool.
  • यम (योग): A yama (Sanskrit), literally translates as a "restraint", a rule or code of conduct for living virtuously.
  • ययाति : Emperor of the Bharata race who rescued Devayani from the well into which she had been thrown by Sarmishtha. He later married both Devayani and Sarmishtha. One of the ancestors of the Pandavas who became prematurely old due to Sukracharya's curse.
  • योगी : One who practices yoga, These designations are mostly reserved for advanced practitioners. The word "yoga" itself --from the Sanskrit root yuj ("to yoke") --is generally translated as "union" or "integration" and may be understood as union with the Divine, or integration of body, mind, and spirit.
  • युग : In Hindu philosophy (and in the teachings of Surat Shabd Yoga) the cycle of creation is divided into four yugas (ages or eras).
  • युगधर्म : One aspect of Dharma, as understood by Hindus. Yuga dharma is an aspect of dharma that is valid for a Yuga,. The other aspect of dharma is Sanatan Dharma, dharma which is valid for eternity.

टिप्पणी[संपादित करें]

  1. Paul V. M. Flesher. "Hinduism Glossary for Introduction to Religion". मूल से 15 जून 2006 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 2006-06-25.

कुछ वाह्य सूत्र[संपादित करें]

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