सहायता:पुर्तगाली और गालीसियाई के लिए IPA

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
यहाँ जाएँ: भ्रमण, खोज

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Portuguese and Galician pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. There are two major standards of Portuguese (P)—one of Portugal (EP) and one of Brazil (BP)—plus one of Galician, in Galicia (G). Neither Portuguese variant is preferred over the other at Wikipedia except in cases where a local pronunciation is clearly more relevant, such as a place in Brazil or a Portuguese artist.

See Portuguese phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Portuguese.

IPA Consonants
गलिशिया (स्पेन) पुर्तगाल ब्राज़ील Examples English approximation
b b besta best
β β bado[1] between baby and bevy or best
v cavalo; livre (P); libre (G)[2] vest or between baby and bevy
ð d rapadura[1] this or dice
d dedo dice
digo[3] dice or engine
f fase; café face
ɡ ɡ gato; guerra get
ɣ magarefe; trigo[1] between go and ahold or get
k cores; laca; quente; kelvin scan
l l lua; calor[4] lot
ɫ w mal; principal[5][4] toll; tow or lot
Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʎ̟" not found in list velho (P); vello (G)[6] roughly like million
m mesa; comer[4] almighty
n nata; ano[4] sonic
ŋ unha; inglesa; can; álbum (G)[4] singer
Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ɲ̟" not found in list manhã (P); mañá (G) roughly like canyon[7]
p peito; topo spouse
r ʁ ʁ raro; carro; enrascado[8][9] guttural r (P) or trilled r (G)
ɾ lar; morte; por favor[8][9][10] ladder in American English
or guttural r
ɾ raro; caro; bravo; por acaso[9][10] ladder in American English
ʃ ʒ ʒ já; gente (P); xa; xente (G) rouge or shop
z z rasgado; portas brancas[11] rouge or zebra
s z casa; existir; portas abertas zebra or sack
θ zona; azul zebra or thought
ʃ s dez; foz sheep; sketch or bath
s cimeira; braço (P); brazo (G) sack or thought
s saco; máximo; isso (P); iso (G) sack
ʃ escola; mastro; portas fechadas sheep or sketch
ʃ ʃ xarope; baixo shop
chave; achar shop or chop
tchau chop
t tipo; ponte[3] stand or cheese
t tempo; átomo stand
IPA Marginal consonants
गलिशिया (स्पेन) पुर्तगाल ब्राज़ील Examples English approximation
ħ ghato; trigho (G)[12] roughly like hook
x kharxa[13] loch
IPA Vowels
गलिशिया (स्पेन) पुर्तगाल ब्राज़ील Examples English approximation
a a a taça; lá; às; Camões; alface father
ɐ baixada; cabide; as about or father
ɐ taça; manhã aura; finger (RP) or father
cama; banho; câmera[14] and also
anglicisms as rush, bug
purse (RP) or father
ɛ ɛ meta, sé set
e prémio/prêmio[14] incrível set or play
e e meto; sê; acepção[15] play
ɨ semáforo[16] emission or play
i pente; pequeno; se[16] emission; see or play
i meandro; e see or play
i cima[14] si; dia; país see
ɔ ɔ formosa; formosos; avó ball (GA) ~ lot (RP)
o bónus/bônus[14] hospital ball or sole (GA)
o o formoso; avô; oliveira sole (GA) ~ sword (RP)
u Portugal loop or sole (GA)
u boneco; voo; vi-o; frio[17]
u lume[14] rua; saúde loop
IPA Nasal vowels
गलिशिया (स्पेन) पुर्तगाल ब्राज़ील Examples English approximation
ɐ̃ canto; ângulo; âmbar; lã[18] uhn-huh (nasal /ɐ/)
cento; sempre; essência[19] nasal /e/
ĩ cinto; sim; ímpar nasal /i/
õ conto; cônscio; bom; cômputo nasal /o/
ũ fungo; algum; cúmplice nasal /u/
 
IPA Semivowels[20]
गलिशिया (स्पेन) पुर्तगाल ब्राज़ील Examples English approximation
j pais; saia; cães; corações you or boy
w quando; guarda; frequente; quão wine or cow
 
IPA Suprasegmentals
गलिशिया (स्पेन) पुर्तगाल ब्राज़ील Examples Explanation
ˈ livre [ˈlivɾɨ] ~ [ˈlivɾi] lexical stress
ˌ contramão [ˌkõtɾɐˈmɐ̃w] secondary stress
. dia [ˈdi.ɐ] ~ [ˈdʒi.ɐ] syllable break

See also[संपादित करें]

Notes[संपादित करें]

  1. In northern and central Portugal, /b/, /d/, and /ɡ/ are lenited to fricatives of the same place of articulation ([β], [ð], and [ɣ], respectively) in all places except after a pause, or a nasal vowel, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, ɡ], not dissimilar from English b, d, g (Mateus & d'Andrade 2000:11).
  2. In Galician and some rural northern accents of European Portuguese, /v/ has merged with the [b ~ β] set.
  3. In most varieties of Brazilian Portuguese, /d, t/ are affricated to [, ] before high front vowels /i, ĩ/.
  4. In Galician, nasal and lateral consonants only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation. In word-final position, only /ŋ/ and /l/ occur.
  5. In European Portuguese, syllable-final /l/ is usually velarized [ɫ] much like with 'toll' for many English speakers. For most Brazilians, it has been vocalized to [w] before consonants and at the end of words. In traditional Galician, syllable-final /l/ was also velarized; but nowadays it has been widely replaced by a clear l [l] in most dialects.
  6. In some Galician dialects /ʎ/ has merged with /j/. Minor yeísmo-like merger is also present in some dialects of Brazilian Portuguese, specially the caipira one.
  7. In most Brazilian dialects, /ɲ/ is realized as a nasal palatal approximant []. See साँचा:Harvcoltxt and साँचा:Harvcoltxt.[तथ्य वांछित]
  8. The rhotic consonant represented as /ʁ/ has considerable variation across different variants, being pronounced as [x], [h], [χ], [ʁ], etc., in Brazil; as [ʁ], [ʀ], [r], etc., in Portugal; and as [r] in Galicia. See also Guttural R in Portuguese.
  9. The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹r› and /ʁ/ ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r›, with /ʁ/ occurring word-initially, after ‹l›, ‹n›, and ‹s› and in compounds; /ɾ/ is found elsewhere.
  10. The realization of syllable-final ‹r› varies amongst dialects; it is generally pronounced as an alveolar tap [ɾ] in European Portuguese, Galician and some Brazilian dialects (e.g. Rio Grande do Sul state and São Paulo city), as either an alveolar approximant [ɹ] or retroflex approximant [ɻ] in various other Brazilian dialects (primarily known for its use in caipira dialect, but also paranaense among sulista dialects, mineiro, sertanejo, and to a minor degree, some spekers of paulistano, capixaba and even fluminense) and as a guttural R in all others (e.g. Rio de Janeiro city, the overwhelmingly majority from the Northeast). Additionally, in some Brazilian Portuguese dialects, word-final ‹r› may be weakened to complete elision in infinitives; e.g. ficar [fiˈka] (note word final ‹r› is pronounced —though as a tap [ɾ]— only if it is followed by a vowel sound in the same phrase or prosodic unit: ficar ao léu [fiˈkaɾ aw ˈlɛw]).
  11. Allophone of /s/ in Galician.
  12. In some Galician dialects /ɡ/ is pharyngealized [ħ] or glottalized [h] in a phonological process known as gheada.
  13. In Galician, /x/ may be used in loanwords, foreign names and hispanicized names; like kharxa, Araújo (instead of Araúxo, pron. with [ʃ]) and Fagilde or Fajilde (instead of Faxilde, pron. with [ʃ]).
  14. The 5 higher vowels /ɐ, e, i, o, u/, when stressed and followed by a nasal consonant, may assimilate the nasality.
  15. In the dialect of Lisbon, /e/ merges with /ɐ/ when it comes before palatal sounds (e.g. abelha, venho, jeito).
  16. In European Portuguese the IPA symbol /ɨ/ denotes a near-close near-back unrounded vowel: [ɯ̟] or [ʊ̜], rather than a close central unrounded vowel.
  17. Some of the post-stressed high vowels in hiatuses, as in frio ('cold') and rio ('river'), may vary between a reduced vowel [ˈfɾi.u] and a glide [ˈfɾiw], exceptions are verbal conjugations, forming pairs like eu rio [ˈew ˈʁi.u] (I laugh) and ele riu [ˈelɨ ˈʁiw] (he laughed).
  18. In Portuguese, word final /ɐ̃/ may diphthongize to [ɐ̃w] (note this realization occurs exclusively in verbal forms spelled with final -am: namoram, falam, ruiram).
  19. In Portuguese, word final /ẽ/ diphthongizes to [ẽj] (e.g. sem, também, nuvens). In many European Portuguese dialects (especially central and southern varieties) it has become [ɐ̃j]: sem [ˈsɐ̃j]
  20. The semivowels /w/ and /j/ can be combined with most vowels to form diphthongs and triphthongs. This includes nasal diphthongs such as [ɐ̃j] and [ɐ̃w], and nasal triphthongs such as [wɐ̃w] and [wõj].

External links[संपादित करें]

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