"रूनी लिपि" के अवतरणों में अंतर

Jump to navigation Jump to search
275 बैट्स् जोड़े गए ,  1 वर्ष पहले
Rescuing 2 sources and tagging 0 as dead.) #IABot (v2.0.1
छो (बॉट: पुनर्प्रेषण ठीक कर रहा है)
(Rescuing 2 sources and tagging 0 as dead.) #IABot (v2.0.1)
 
}}
[[चित्र:Kam-med-runer-fra-Vimose DO-4148 2000.jpg|thumb|240px|डेनमार्क के राष्ट्रीय संग्रहालय में रखी विमोस कंघी (<small>Vimose Comb</small>) 160 ई के आसपास बनी थी और उसपर सबसे पुरानी ज्ञात रूनी लिखाई हैं]]
'''रूनी वर्णमालाएँ''' (<small>[[अंग्रेज़ी भाषा|अंग्रेज़ी]]: Runic alphabets, रूनिक ऐल्फ़ाबॅट्स</small>) प्राचीनकालीन [[यूरोप]] में कुछ [[जर्मैनी भाषा परिवार|जर्मैनी भाषाओं]] के लिए इस्तेमाल होने वाली [[वर्णमाला]]ओं को कहा जाता था जो 'रून' (<small>rune</small>) नामक [[अक्षर]] प्रयोग करती थीं।<ref name="ref98gemaf">[http://books.google.com/books?id=bSxHgej4tKMC Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140203224234/http://books.google.com/books?id=bSxHgej4tKMC |date=3 फ़रवरी 2014 }}, Benjamin W. Fortson, IV, pp 348, John Wiley & Sons, 2011, ISBN 978-1-4443-5968-8, ''... The first writing system used by Germanic peoples to record their own languages is called the runic alphabet, after the runes, the name for the early Germanic letters ...''</ref><ref name="ref71videy">[http://books.google.com/books?id=1QDKqY-NWvUC Norwegian Runes And Runic Inscriptions], Terje Spurkland, Boydell Press, 2005, ISBN 978-1-84383-186-0, ''... Runes were a functional writing system that endured for 1300 years in Norway - from about AD200 up to the fifteenth century. About 6000 runic inscriptions have been found, half of which are in Sweden. There are about 1600 Norwegian inscriptions. Runes were unique and completely exclusive to northern Europe; they were primarily used in Scandinavia, but were also used in the British Isles, northern Germany and wherever northern Europeans needed to mark their hunting grounds ...''</ref> समय के साथ जैसे-जैसे यूरोप में ईसाईकरण हुआ और [[लातिन भाषा|लातिनी भाषा]] धार्मिक भाषा बन गई तो इन भाषाओं ने [[रोमन लिपि]] को अपना लिया और रूनी लिपियों का प्रयोग घटता गया।<ref name="ref25zofoy">[http://books.google.com/books?id=v7JRxioiWmMC Rune Cards], Ralph Blum, pp. 24, Connections Book Publishing, 2004, ISBN 978-1-85906-138-1, ''... As worship of the pagan gods fell into disfavour and was displaced by Christianity, the runic alphabet was supplanted by the ubiquitous Latin script. However, the Runes continued to survive. Calendars known as primstave, or runstaf ...''</ref> [[स्कैण्डिनेवियाई देश|स्कैंडिनेविया]] में इस्तेमाल होने वाली रूनी लिपियों को '''फ़ुथ़ार्क''' (<small>futhark या fuþark</small>) कहा जाता था क्योंकि इनके पहले छह अक्षरों की ध्वनियाँ 'फ़' (<small>F</small>), 'उ' (<small>U</small>), 'थ़' (<small>Þ</small>), 'अ' (<small>A</small>), 'र' (<small>R</small>) और 'क' (<small>K</small>) थीं।<ref name="ref07cihec">[http://books.google.com/books?id=DqNPJl439dwC Hitler's Master of the Dark Arts: Himmler's Black Knights and the Occult Origins of the SS], Bill Yenne, pp. 24, Zenith Imprint, 2010, ISBN 978-0-7603-3778-3, ''... There are a number of well-known northern European runic alphabets, some dating back to around the first century. Those in Scandinavia are known as futhark, or, in Anglo-Saxon, futhorc ...''</ref> इसमें [[थ़|'थ़' कि ध्वनि]] पर ध्यान दें क्योंकि यह बिना बिंदु वाले 'थ' से ज़रा अलग है। [[ऐंग्लो-सैक्सन भाषा|पुरानी अंग्रेज़ी]] में कुछ ध्वनियाँ बदल जाने से इन वर्णमालाओं को '''फ़ुथ़ोर्क''' (<small>futhorc या fuþorc</small>) कहा जाता था।<ref name="ref78pafaj">[http://books.google.com/books?id=95auK-lRiDgC The Spiritual Runes: A Guide to the Ancestral Wisdom], Harmonia Saille, O Books, 2009, ISBN 978-1-84694-201-3, ''... The Elder Futhark is the oldest rune row and is thought to have come into use in about 100 CE. It is this Futhark that we will be discussing throughout this book. The name “Futhark” is taken from the initial six runes ...''</ref>
 
सबसे प्राचीन रूनी लिखाईयाँ सन् 150 ईसवी के आसपास शिलाओं और अन्य वस्तुओं पर मिलती हैं।<ref name="ref89laxux">[http://books.google.com/books?id=-edm1fMPbXwC Texts and Contexts of the Oldest Runic Inscriptions] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170611150417/https://books.google.com/books?id=-edm1fMPbXwC |date=11 जून 2017 }}, Tineke Looijenga, pp. 78, BRILL, 2003, ISBN 978-90-04-12396-0, ''... the oldest known runic object (160 AD), the harja comb, found in the Vimose bog, may have been made in regions south of the Baltic Sea ...''</ref> जैसे-जैसे [[ईसाई धर्म]] फैला उत्तरी यूरोप की यह प्राचीन लिपियाँ मरती गई।<ref name="ref17zameq">[http://books.google.com/books?id=pKCFOW3-sHMC Little Giant Encyclopedia: Runes], Sirona Knight, pp. 206, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 2008, ISBN 978-1-4027-6006-8, ''... By the third century, the runic alphabet was the only one used in Scandinavia. However, it fell out of use in middle Europe with the expansion of Christianity thanks to the legally enforced preference for Latin. It is interesting that as late as 1611, though people were persecuted and put to death by Christians for using runes, there were still attempts to get runes adopted as the official alphabet of Sweden ...''</ref> 700 ईसवी तक यह मध्य यूरोप में ख़त्म हो चुकी थीं और 1100 ईसवी तक यह उत्तरी यूरोप में समाप्त हो गई। फिर भी जहाँ-तहाँ इनका प्रयोग जारी रहा, जैसे कि तस्वीरों में सजावट के लिए या [[कालदर्शक|कैलेंडरों]] पर।<ref name="ref25zofoy"/>
 
== विवरण ==
1,12,424

सम्पादन

दिक्चालन सूची