"रूनी लिपि" के अवतरणों में अंतर

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[[चित्र:Antler comb from Kam-med-runer-fra-Vimose, Funen, Denmark (DRDO-4148 207)2000.jpg|thumb|240px|डेनमार्क के राष्ट्रीय संग्रहालय में रखी विमोस कंघी (<small>Vimose Comb</small>) 160 ई के आसपास बनी थी और उसपर सबसे पुरानी ज्ञात रूनी लिखाई हैं]]
'''रूनी वर्णमालाएँ''' (<small>[[अंग्रेज़ी]]: Runic alphabets, रूनिक ऐल्फ़ाबॅट्स</small>) प्राचीनकालीन [[यूरोप]] में कुछ [[जर्मैनी भाषाओं]] के लिए इस्तेमाल होने वाली [[वर्णमालाओं]] को कहा जाता था जो 'रून' (<small>rune</small>) नामक [[अक्षर]] प्रयोग करती थीं।<ref name="ref98gemaf">[http://books.google.com/books?id=bSxHgej4tKMC Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction], Benjamin W. Fortson, IV, pp 348, John Wiley & Sons, 2011, ISBN 978-1-4443-5968-8, ''... The first writing system used by Germanic peoples to record their own languages is called the runic alphabet, after the runes, the name for the early Germanic letters ...''</ref><ref name="ref71videy">[http://books.google.com/books?id=1QDKqY-NWvUC Norwegian Runes And Runic Inscriptions], Terje Spurkland, Boydell Press, 2005, ISBN 978-1-84383-186-0, ''... Runes were a functional writing system that endured for 1300 years in Norway - from about AD200 up to the fifteenth century. About 6000 runic inscriptions have been found, half of which are in Sweden. There are about 1600 Norwegian inscriptions. Runes were unique and completely exclusive to northern Europe; they were primarily used in Scandinavia, but were also used in the British Isles, northern Germany and wherever northern Europeans needed to mark their hunting grounds ...''</ref> समय के साथ जैसे-जैसे यूरोप में ईसाईकरण हुआ और [[लातिनी भाषा]] धार्मिक भाषा बन गई तो इन भाषाओं ने [[रोमन लिपि]] को अपना लिया और रूनी लिपियों का प्रयोग घटता गया।<ref name="ref25zofoy">[http://books.google.com/books?id=v7JRxioiWmMC Rune Cards], Ralph Blum, pp. 24, Connections Book Publishing, 2004, ISBN 978-1-85906-138-1, ''... As worship of the pagan gods fell into disfavour and was displaced by Christianity, the runic alphabet was supplanted by the ubiquitous Latin script. However, the Runes continued to survive. Calendars known as primstave, or runstaf ...''</ref> [[स्कैंडिनेविया]] में इस्तेमाल होने वाली रूनी लिपियों को '''फ़ुथ़ार्क''' (<small>futhark या fuþark</small>) कहा जाता था क्योंकि इनके पहले छह अक्षरों की ध्वनियाँ 'फ़' (<small>F</small>), 'उ' (<small>U</small>), 'थ़' (<small>Þ</small>), 'अ' (<small>A</small>), 'र' (<small>R</small>) और 'क' (<small>K</small>) थीं।<ref name="ref07cihec">[http://books.google.com/books?id=DqNPJl439dwC Hitler's Master of the Dark Arts: Himmler's Black Knights and the Occult Origins of the SS], Bill Yenne, pp. 24, Zenith Imprint, 2010, ISBN 978-0-7603-3778-3, ''... There are a number of well-known northern European runic alphabets, some dating back to around the first century. Those in Scandinavia are known as futhark, or, in Anglo-Saxon, futhorc ...''</ref> इसमें [[थ़|'थ़' कि ध्वनि]] पर ध्यान दें क्योंकि यह बिना बिंदु वाले 'थ' से ज़रा अलग है। [[पुरानी अंग्रेज़ी]] में कुछ ध्वनियाँ बदल जाने से इन वर्णमालाओं को '''फ़ुथ़ोर्क''' (<small>futhorc या fuþorc</small>) कहा जाता था।<ref name="ref78pafaj">[http://books.google.com/books?id=95auK-lRiDgC The Spiritual Runes: A Guide to the Ancestral Wisdom], Harmonia Saille, O Books, 2009, ISBN 978-1-84694-201-3, ''... The Elder Futhark is the oldest rune row and is thought to have come into use in about 100 CE. It is this Futhark that we will be discussing throughout this book. The name “Futhark” is taken from the initial six runes ...''</ref>


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