विशिष्ट अस्तित्वों की सूची जिन्हें अन्तरराष्ट्रीय समझौते द्वारा मान्यता प्राप्त हैं
|इस लेख या भाग में मूल शोध या अप्रमाणित दावे हो सकते हैं। कृपया संदर्भ जोड़ कर लेख को सुधारने में मदद करें।|
अधिक जानकारी के लिए संवाद पृष्ठ देखें। (September 2007)
|यह सम्पूर्ण पृष्ठ या इसके कुछ अनुभाग हिन्दी के अतिरिक्त अन्य भाषा(ओं) में भी लिखे गए हैं। आप इनका करके विकिपीडिया की सहायता कर सकते हैं।|
अनेकों राजनैतिक अस्तित्वों की एक विशिष्ट अवस्थिति है, जो कि अन्तरराष्ट्रीय समझौतों, संधियों या सहमतियों द्वारा मान्यता प्राप्त हैं। जैसे अंडोरा, ऑलैंड - फिनलैंड में, मोनाको, स्वालबार्ड - नोर्वे में, कोसोवो - सर्बिया में, वैटिकन शहर, फिलिस्तीनी क्षेत्र एवं हाँगकाँग जो की चीन में विशिष्ट प्रशासनिक क्षेत्र हेइ, व कई अन्य भी हैं।
सूची में अस्तित्व[संपादित करें]
Andorra could until 1993 be considered de facto to have been under dual French and Spanish rule due to the lack of clear division of powers while it was ruled by a Spanish bishop and the French president, according to a treaty. In 1278, the conflict between the French Count and the Catalan bishop was resolved by the signing of a pareage (pariatges), which provided that Andorra's sovereignty be shared between the Count of Foix and the Bishop of La Seu d'Urgell (Catalonia, Spain). The pareage, a feudal institution recognizing the principle of equality of rights shared by two rulers, gave the small state its territory and political form. Today Andorra is a co-principality with the President of France and the Bishop of Urgell, Spain as co-princes, in a duumvirate. अंडोरा को 1993 तक वास्तविक तथ्य माना जा सकता है क्योंकि शक्तियों के स्पष्ट विभाजन की कमी के कारण यह दोहरी फ्रांसीसी और स्पैनिश शासन था।
एक स्पेनिश बिशप और फ्रांसीसी राष्ट्रपति द्वारा, एक संधि के अनुसार। 1278 में, फ्रेंच काउंट और कैटलन बिशप के बीच संघर्ष को एक परगने (पैरिएट्स) पर हस्ताक्षर करने से हल किया गया था, जो प्रदान करता था कि एंडोरा की संप्रभुता को फॉक्स की गिनती और ला सेप डी-यूरेल के बिशप के बीच साझा किया जाए। कैटेलोनिया, स्पेन)। परेड, एक सामंती संस्था दो शासकों द्वारा साझा किए गए अधिकारों की समानता के सिद्धांत को मान्यता देते हुए, छोटे राज्य को अपना क्षेत्र और राजनीतिक दिया प्रपत्र। आज अंडोरा एक सह-रियासत है फ्रांस के राष्ट्रपति और उर्गेल के बिशप, स्पेन के सह-राजकुमारों के रूप में, एक डूमविरेट में।
- Hong Kong: special administrative region; after the Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong was signed on December 19, 1984, the People's Republic of China resumed the exercise of sovereignty of Hong Kong on July 1, 1997. It is now largely autonomous operating under the Basic Law of Hong Kong.
- Macau: special administrative region; after the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau was signed in 1987, the People's Republic of China resumed the exercise of sovereignty of Macau on December 20, 1999. It is now largely autonomous operating under the Basic Law of Macau.
- फैरो: Subsequently, the Løgting was abolished (1816), and the Faroe Islands were to be governed as a regular Danish amt, with the Amtmand as its head of government. In 1851 the Løgting was resurrected, but served mainly as an advisory power until 1948. Since 25 April 1940 the Faroe flag was approved for use on Faroese vessels by the British occupation government. The Faroese have, over the years, taken control of most matters except defence (though they have a native coast guard), foreign affairs and the legal system. These three areas are the responsibility of Denmark. The Faroes declined to join Denmark in entering the European Community (now European Union) in 1973.
- ग्रीनलैंड: Denmark-Norway reasserted its latent claim to the colony in 1721. The island's ties with Norway were severed by the Treaty of Kiel of 1814, through which Norway was ceded to the king of Sweden. In 1978, Denmark granted home rule to Greenland, making it an equal member of the Rigsfællesskab. Unlike Denmark, Greenland is not part of the European Union, having left the European Community, one of the pillars of the EU, in 1985.
- ऑलैंड: neutral and demilitarised autonomous region of Finland. It was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
Until the 1911 constitution, the princes of Monaco were absolute rulers. In July 1918, a treaty was signed providing for limited French protection over Monaco. The treaty, part of the Treaty of Versailles, established that Monegasque international policy would be aligned with French political, military, and economic interests. France has in many ways still control over the state. The executive branch consists of a Minister of State (the head of government), who presides over a four-member Council of Government (the Cabinet). The minister of state is a French citizen appointed by the prince from among candidates proposed by the French government. In 2002, a new treaty between France and Monaco clarified that if there are no heirs to carry on the dynasty, the principality will remain an independent nation rather than revert to France. Monaco's military defence, however, is still the responsibility of France.
- Svalbard: part of the Kingdom of Norway; administered by the Polar Department of the Ministry of Justice, through a governor (sysselmann) residing in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen; Norwegian sovereignty was recognized by the Svalbard Treaty (February 9, 1920).
पूर्व फिलिस्तीन[संपादित करें]
- फिलिस्तीनी क्षेत्र: portions of the former British Mandate of Palestine captured and administered by Jordan and Egypt in the late 1940's, and later by Israel following the 1967 Six-Day War. They include Gaza Strip and West Bank, both of which are now divded into 3 areas (Area A, Area B, and Area C) and 16 governorates under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian National Authority in accordance with the Oslo Accords. The permanent legal and political status of these places are subject to further negotiation between the government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization.
- Kosovo: a de jure autonomous province of Serbia, the formal name of which is "Kosovo and Metohija". It has been under United Nations administration since 1999 under the terms of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 that ended the Kosovo conflict. That resolution reaffirmed the sovereignty of Serbia over Kosovo but required the UN administration to promote the establishment of 'substantial autonomy and self-government' for Kosovo pending a 'final settlement' for negotiation between the parties.
The Vatican City state came into existence by virtue of the Lateran Treaty in 1929, which spoke of it as a new creation (Preamble and Article III), and not as a vestige of the much larger Papal States (756 to 1870) that had previously encompassed central Italy. Of which, most were absorbed into the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, and the city of Rome with a small area close to it, ten years later in 1870. The state has no firm population as its citizens are only granted citizenship for the duration of service in the state. Those without dual citizenship will then get Italian citizenship.
See also[संपादित करें]
- सार्वभौमिक देश
- उपराष्ट्रीय अस्तित्व
- परतंत्र क्षेत्र
- List of non-independent areas such as disputed or occupied territories
- अमान्यता प्राप्त देश
- Dependent territories in the European Union
- कोसोवो, de jure part of सर्बिया, currently under UN administration.
- फिलिस्तीनी क्षेत्र
- Sovereign Military Order of Malta