↑ अआइईउऊएऐTo an English ear, [t̪ t̪ʰ ʈ ʈʰ] all sound like /t/, and [d̪ d̪ʱ ɖ ɖʱ] all sound like /d/. However, to a Punjabi speaker's ear these are very different sounds. [t̪ d̪] are like Spanish or French [t d], with the tongue touching the teeth, and [t̪ʰ d̪] are how a Punjabi speaker hears English /θ ð/ (the th sounds). Punjabi [ʈ ɖ] are pronounced with the tongue further back, touching behind the teeth, and [ʈʰ ɖ] are how a Punjabi speaker hears English t d; [ʈ] is how they hear English t after s.
↑[v], [w] and intermediate [ʋ] are allophonic in Punjabi. Some words, such as vart ('ਵਰਤ', fast), are pronounced with [v] and others, such as pakwan ('ਪਕਵਾਨ', food dish), are pronounced with [w].
↑ अआइई/iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralized to [i, u] at the end of a word.