विकिपीडिया:इतालवी के लिए IPA

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Italian language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Italian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Italian.

IPA Examples English approximation
b banca; cibo bike
d dove; idra done
dz zaino; zelare; mezzo dads
giungla; magia; fingere; pagina jab
f fatto; fosforo fast
ɡ gatto; agro; glifo; ghetto gas
k cavolo; acuto; anche; quei; kaiser scar
l lato; lievemente; pala lip
ʎ gli; glielo; maglia[2] roughly like million
m mano; amare; campo; anfibio[3] mother
n nano; punto; pensare nest
ŋ fango; unghia; panchina; dunque [3] sing
ɲ gnocco; ogni[2] roughly like canyon
p primo; ampio; copertura spin
r Roma; quattro; morte trilled r
s sano; scatola; presentire; pasto sorry
ʃ scena; sciame; pesci[2] ship
t tranne; mito; alto star
ts zozzo; canzone; marzo cats
Cennini; cinque; ciao; farmacia chip
v vado; povero; watt vent
z sbavare; presentare; asma zipper
j ieri; scoiattolo; più; Jesi; yacht you
w uovo; fuoco; qui; week-end wine
IPA Examples English approximation
a alto; sarà father
e vero; perché pay
ɛ elica; cioè bed
i imposta; colibrì; zie see
o ombra; come sole (for some dialects)
ɔ otto; posso; sarò law
u ultimo; caucciù; tuo too
IPA Examples English approximation
ˈ Cennini [tʃenˈniːni] bottle
ˌ lievemente [ˌljeveˈmente] intonation
. tuo [ˈtu.o] moai
ː primo [ˈpriːmo] long vowel[6]

Notes[संपादित करें]

  1. If the consonants are doubled between vowels, they are geminated. This can also happen between sonorants (genuinely, all consonants can be geminated except for [z]). In IPA, gemination can be represented either by doubling the consonant: fatto [ˈfatto], mezzo [ˈmɛddzo]; or with the length marker ‹ ː ›. Notice as well, syntactic gemination can occur in Italian (e.g. va via [vavˈvi.a]).
  2. /ʎ/, /ɲ/ and /ʃ/ are always geminated word-internally.
  3. The nasals always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Thus, the n in /nɡ/, /nk/ is a velar [ŋ], the realization before /v/ or /f/ is a labiodental [ɱ] (though this is transcribed here as [m]), and only [m] is ever found before /p/ or /b/.
  4. Italian contrasts seven stressed monophthongs. In unstressed syllables, mid vowels occur in complementary distribution; with open-mid vowels [ɛ ɔ] appearing before sonorants (e.g. copertura [kopɛrˈtura]), and close-mid vowels [e o] found elsewhere (e.g. posso [ˈpɔsso]). Open and close vowels [a i u] stay unchanged in unstressed syllables, though utterance-final unstress [i] may become an approximant [j] before vowels in a process known as synalepha (syllable merging), e.g. pari età [ˌparjeˈta].
  5. In addition to the pure vowels, there are diphthongs ending in [i] and [u]:
    • [ai] as in baita ('mountain hut')
    • [ei] as in potei ('could 1.sg.')
    • [ɛi] as in sei ('six')
    • [oi] as in voi ('you pl.')
    • [ɔi] as in poi ('later')
    • [ui] as in lui ('he')
    • [au] as in auto ('car')
    • [eu] as in pleurite ('pleuritis')
    • [ɛu] as in neutro ('neuter')
  6. Stressed vowels are long when in a non-final open syllable: fato [ˈfaːto] ~ fatto [ˈfatto].