विकिपिडिया:IPA for Swedish and Norwegian

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Swedish and Norwegian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Swedish phonology and Norwegian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of these languages. Examples in the table are Swedish unless otherwise noted.

Consonants
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
Swed.
Flag of Sweden.svg
Norw.
Flag of Norway.svg
b abort ('abortion') about
ɕ ç Kina ('China') she (Swedish), hue (Norwegian)
d dag do
ɖ[1] nord ('north') order
f fot ('foot') fold
ɡ god ('good') ago
h hatt ('hat') hoot
ɧ[2] ʃ Swedish: sjok ('chunk'), Norwegian: sjø ('sea')
loch etc. (Swedish)
shoe (Norwegian)
j jojo ('yo-yo') you
k kafé ('café') coo
l lake (Norwegian: 'brine', Norwegian and Swedish: 'burbot') love
ɭ[1] Karl (male first name) twirl
m man ('mane') mood
n natt ('night') noon
ɳ[1] barn ('child') turner
ŋ ting ('thing') long
p pappa ('father') pool
r[3] år ('year') A flapped or trilled R.
s sabel ('sabre') soon
ʂ[1] torsdag ('Thursday') marshal (in some dialects)
t torsdag ('Thursday') too
ʈ[1] parti ('political party') cartel
v ʋ vaktel ('quail') vote in Swedish;
between v and w in Norwegian
Vowels
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
Swed.
Flag of Sweden.svg
Norw.
Flag of Norway.svg
ɑː mat [ˈmɑːt] "food" bra
a ɑ fast [ˈfast]/[ˈfɑst] "steady, unmoving" father
æː[4] ära [æːra]/"ære" [æːre] "honor" Australian ham
æ[4] fersk [ˈfæʂːk] "fresh" trap
hel [ˈheːl] "whole" Scottish save
ɛː häl [ˈhɛːl] "heel" there
ɛ häll/helle [ˈhɛl] "flat rock" hell
sil [ˈsiːl] "sieve" leaf
ɪ sill/sild [ˈsɪl]/[ˈsɪl(d)] "herring" hill
mål [ˈmoːl] "goal" Scottish/Canadian stove
ɔ moll [ˈmɔl] "minor" (music) moll, with round lips
øː dö/dø ['døː] "die" No English equivalent; German long ö
œ nött [ˈnœt] "worn" in Swedish
nøtt "nut" in Norwegian
No English equivalent; German short ö
œː[4] öra [œːra] "ear" British learn or fur
ɵ ʉ full [ˈfɵl] "full" bird, with tight lips[5]
[5] bot [ˈbuːt] "penance" boot
ʉː[5] ful [ˈfʉːl] "ugly, cunning, sly" fuel, Australian food, with tight lips[6]
ʊ[5] bott [ˈbʊt] "lived" in Swedish put, with tight lips
[5] syl [ˈsyːl] "awl" No English equivalent; French u
ʏ[5] syll [ˈsʏl] "sleeper" (railroad) in Swedish;
fylle "fill" in Norwegian
No English equivalent; German short ü
unstressed
ə begå [bəˈgoː] "commit" about
Stress and tone
IPA Examples
Swedish
ˈa [ˈandɛn]
"the duck"
Tone 1 / acute accent:
• Single stress with single falling tone in Stockholm: [ˈândɛn]
• Low tone [ˈà] in Oslo and falling tone [ˈâ] in western Norway
ˈa.ˈa [ˈanˈdɛn]
"the spirit"
Tone 2 / grave accent:
• Double stress with double falling tone in Stockholm: [ˈânˈdɛ̂n]
• Falling tone [ˈâ] in Oslo and rising-falling tone in western Norway

Notes[संपादित करें]

  1. In many of the dialects that have an apical rhotic consonant, a recursive Sandhi process of retroflexion occurs wherein clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce retroflex consonant realizations: [ɖ], [ɭ], [ɳ], [ʂ], [ʈ]. In dialects with a guttural R, such as Southern Swedish and many Southern and Western Norwegian dialects these are [ʀd], [ʀl], [ʀn], [ʀs], [ʀt].
  2. Swedish /ɧ/ is a regionally variable sound, sometimes [xʷ], [ɸˠ], or [ʂ]
  3. /r/ is regionally variable, being alveolar in some dialects and uvular in others.
  4. Before /r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed in Swedish. /ɛː/ and /ɛ/ lower to [æ]; /øː/, and /œ/ are lowered to [œ̞], though the diacritic is not included in the chart above for simplicity.
  5. Vowels spelled u, o are compressed vowels. Those spelled ö/ø, y, å, on the other hand, are protruded vowels.
  6. [ʉː] is a central vowel in Oslo, but a front vowel in Stockholm.

Bibliography[संपादित करें]