ब्राज़ील में विश्व धरोहर स्थलों की सूची

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युनेस्को (युनेस्को) विश्व धरोहर स्थल, उन सांस्कृतिक अथवा प्राकृतिक महत्व के स्थलों को कहा जाता है जो १९७२ में स्थापित यूनेस्को विश्व विरासत सम्मेलन में वर्णित व्यवस्था के अनुसार होते हैं।[1] ब्राज़ील ने इस परम्परा को सितम्बर १, १९७७ में स्वीकार किया तथा इसके बाद यहाँ के विभिन्न स्थलों को भी इस सूची के योग्य स्वीकार किया गया।[2]

ब्राज़ील के स्थलों को पहली बार १९८० में पेरिस में हुयी विश्व धरोहर समिति के चौथे सत्र में शामिल किया गया। उस सत्र में एक स्थल को जोड़ा गया: द "औरो प्रेटो का ऐतिहासिक नगर"।[3] जुलाई २०१४ तक ब्राज़ील कुल १९ स्थानों को इस सूची में जोड़ा जा चुका है। इनमें से एक स्थल को अन्य देशों के साथ साझा किया गया है: "गुयारनिस के जेसुइट मिशन" को अर्जेंटीना के साथ। ब्राज़ील में सात विरासत स्थल प्राकृतिक प्रकार के तथा अन्य सभी सांस्कृतिक प्रकार का है।[2]

विश्व विरासत स्थल[संपादित करें]

सभी विरासत स्थलों के बारें में सूचना सारणी निम्न प्रकार है:

नाम: विश्व विरासत समिति द्वारा सूचीबद्ध
स्थिति: स्थल का नगर एवं प्रदेश
क्षेत्रफल: मध्यवर्ती क्षेत्र और स्थल का आकार
यूनेस्को आँकड़े: स्थल की सन्दर्भ संख्या; स्थल को विश्व धरोहर स्थल में शामिल करने का वर्ष; मापदण्ड जिसके अन्दर इसे सूची में शामिल किया गया: मापदण्ड i से vi सांस्कृतिक हैं जबकि vii से x प्राकृतिक हैं; (स्तम्भों को सूची में वर्षवार जोड़े जाने के क्रम में रखा गया है।)
विवरण: स्थल का संक्षिप्त विवरण

██ * सीमा-पार स्थल

स्थल चित्र स्थिति क्षेत्रफल
हैक्टेयर (एकड़)
यूनेस्को आँकड़े विवरण
अटलांटिक दक्षिण-पूर्व आरक्षित वन चट्टानी शीर्ष वाला पहाड़ी जंगल पाराना, साओ पाउलो और रियो द जानेरो राज्य,
Flag of Brazil.svg ब्राज़ील
24°10′S 48°0′W / 24.167°S 48.000°W / -24.167; -48.000 (अटलांटिक दक्षिण-पूर्व आरक्षित वन)
468,193 (1,156,930); मध्यवर्ती क्षेत्र 1,223,557 (3,023,480) 893; 1999; vii, ix, x इस स्थल पर अन्तिम बचे हुये अटलांटिक वन के तथा विविधता वाली बची हुई अन्तिम प्रजातियाँ पायी जाती हैं। यह वैज्ञानिकों और सरंक्षकों के लिए प्रमुख रूचि का विषय है।[4]
ब्रासीलिया Human sculptures and a hyperbolic shaped modern building with white ribs and glass. Federal District,
Flag of Brazil.svg ब्राज़ील
15°47′S 47°54′W / 15.783°S 47.900°W / -15.783; -47.900 (Brasília)
&-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1.000000 445; 1987; i, iv Planned and developed by Lúcio Costa and Oscar Niemeyer in 1956, Brasília was created ex nihilo in order to move the capital from Rio de Janeiro to a more central position. Together with Chandigarh in India it is the only place where Corbusier's design principles of urbanism have been applied on large scale.[5]
Brazilian Atlantic Islands: Fernando de Noronha and Atol das Rocas Reserves Rocky coast interspersed by sand beaches. Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Norte,
Flag of Brazil.svg ब्राज़ील
3°51′29″S 32°25′30″W / 3.85806°S 32.42500°W / -3.85806; -32.42500 (Brazilian Atlantic Islands: Fernando de Noronha and Atol das Rocas Reserves)
42,270 (104,500); buffer zone 140,713 (347,710) 1000; 2001; vii, ix, x As one of the few insular habitats in the South Atlantic, the site is essential as feeding ground and reproduction space for marine organisms including endangered and threatened species, most notably the hawksbill sea turtle.[6]
Central Amazon Conservation Complex Satellite image of a wide river and smaller meandering tributaries running through a light green landscape. State of Amazonas,
Flag of Brazil.svg ब्राज़ील
2°20′0″S 62°0′30″W / 2.33333°S 62.00833°W / -2.33333; -62.00833 (Central Amazon Conservation Complex)
5,323,018 (13,153,460) 998; 2000;
[nb 1] ix, x
As the largest protected area in the Amazon basin, the site is notable for its high biodiversity, range of habitats such as várzea and igapó forests and number of endangered species. It has been recognized by various conservation agencies as a high priority region.[nb 2][7]
[8]
Cerrado Protected Areas: Chapada dos Veadeiros and Emas National Parks Rocky mountain landscape and valley. Central Brazil Plateau, State of Goiás,
Flag of Brazil.svg ब्राज़ील
14°0′20″S 47°41′5″W / 14.00556°S 47.68472°W / -14.00556; -47.68472 (Cerrado Protected Areas: Chapada dos Veadeiros and Emas National Parks)
367,356 (907,760) 1035; 2001; ix, x The two parks are characteristic of the cerrado, one of the world's oldest tropical ecosystems and an important refuge for species in times of climate change.[9]
Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Reserves Small waterfall sided by two large rocks. Atlantic Coast, Bahia and Espírito Santo states,
Flag of Brazil.svg ब्राज़ील
16°30′S 39°15′W / 16.500°S 39.250°W / -16.500; -39.250 (Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Reserves)
111,930 (276,600) 892; 1999; ix, x The site comprises some of the last remaining Atlantic Forests and shows a very high diversity with many rare and endemic species. As such it is of high interest both for scientists and for conservation.[10]
Historic Centre of Salvador de Bahia Large three-storied buildings with facades painted in bright colors: light blue and yellow. Bahia state,
Flag of Brazil.svg ब्राज़ील
12°58′0″S 38°30′0″W / 12.96667°S 38.50000°W / -12.96667; -38.50000 (Historic Centre of Salvador de Bahia)
&-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1.000000 309; 1985; iv, vi The colonial old town of the first Brazilian capital and town of the first slave market in the New World, has preserved a large number of brightly colored Renaissance houses decorated with stucco work from the 16th to 18th centuries.[11]
Historic Centre of São Luís A cobblestone street of old single-storied brightly colored houses. Maranhão state,
Flag of Brazil.svg ब्राज़ील
2°30′51″S 44°18′9″W / 2.51417°S 44.30250°W / -2.51417; -44.30250 (Historic Centre of Salvador de Bahia)
&-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1.000000 821; 1997; iii, iv, v São Luís has preserved the complete rectangular town plan and a large number of historical buildings making it a prime example of a Portuguese colonial town.[12]
Historic Centre of the Town of Diamantina Old church, cobble stone streets and two-storied houses with white facades. Minas Gerais,
Flag of Brazil.svg ब्राज़ील
18°40′0″S 43°36′0″W / 18.66667°S 43.60000°W / -18.66667; -43.60000 (Historic Centre of the Town of Diamantina)
29 (72) 890; 1999; ii, iv A well-preserved example of Baroque architecture, this 18th-century colonial town was founded in an inhospitable environment of rocky mountains and became a center of diamond mining in the 18th and 19th centuries.[13]
Historic Centre of the Town of Goiás Facade of a two-storied stone church, largely painted white/beige with red/brownish window frames. Goiás,
Flag of Brazil.svg ब्राज़ील
15°56′0″S 50°8′0″W / 15.93333°S 50.13333°W / -15.93333; -50.13333 (Historic Centre of the Town of Goiás)
40 (99); buffer zone 44 (110) 993; 2001; ii, iv Founded in 1727 by the bandeirante explorer Bartolomeu Bueno da Silva, Goiás has preserved much of its colonial heritage and is an example of a European settlement in the interior of South America.[14]
Historic Centre of the Town of Olinda White stone church with red tile roof near the sea. Pernambuco,
Flag of Brazil.svg ब्राज़ील
8°0′48″S 34°50′42″W / 8.01333°S 34.84500°W / -8.01333; -34.84500 (Historic Centre of the Town of Olinda)
120 (300); buffer zone 920 (2,300) 189; 1982; ii, iv Founded in 1537 the town prospered as a centre of sugar-cane production. Following looting by the Dutch in the 17th century, the historic centre dates largely to the 18th century with a harmonious combination of buildings, gardens, churches, convents and chapels.[15]
Historic Town of Ouro Preto Two-storied white buildings with red roof tiles lining a square. At the end of the square there is a prominent building with a clock tower. Minas Gerais,
Flag of Brazil.svg ब्राज़ील
20°23′20″S 43°30′20″W / 20.38889°S 43.50556°W / -20.38889; -43.50556 (Historic Town of Ouro Preto)
&-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1.000000 124; 1980; i, iii The prosperity of the town as the center of the Brazilian gold rush in the 18th century is reflected in a large number of preserved churches, bridges and fountains many of them designed by the Baroque sculptor Aleijadinho.[16]
Iguaçu National Park A large horseshoe shaped waterfall. Paraná,
Flag of Brazil.svg ब्राज़ील
25°41′S 54°26′W / 25.683°S 54.433°W / -25.683; -54.433 (Iguaçu National Park)
170,086 (420,290) 355; 1986; vii, x Together with Iguazú National Park on the Argentinian side, the park protects Iguazu Falls, one of the world's largest waterfalls, and is home to many rare and endangered species such as giant anteater or the giant otter. The site had been listed as endangered 1999–2001 due to an illegally opened road through the park, dams on the Iguazu River and helicopter flights.[17]
Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis: San Ignacio Miní, Santa Ana, Nuestra Señora de Loreto and Santa María Mayor (Argentina), Ruins of São Miguel das Missões (Brazil) Ruins of a stone church facade and tower. Misiones Province, Flag of Argentina.svg अर्जेण्टीना* and Rio Grande do Sul, Flag of Brazil.svg ब्राज़ील*
28°32′36″S 54°15′57″W / 28.54333°S 54.26583°W / -28.54333; -54.26583 (Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis: San Ignacio Mini, Santa Ana, Nuestra Señora de Loreto and Santa Maria Mayor (Argentina), Ruins of Sao Miguel das Missoes (Brazil))
&-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1.000000 275; 1983;[nb 3] iv Each of the five ruined Spanish Jesuit missions founded amidst a tropical forest in the land of the Guaraní people in the 17th and 18th centuries is characterized by a specific design.[18]
[19]
Pantanal Conservation Area Plain with forests, grassland, rivers and many lakes. Mato Grosso do Sul and Mato Grosso,
Flag of Brazil.svg ब्राज़ील
17°43′S 57°23′W / 17.717°S 57.383°W / -17.717; -57.383 (Pantanal Conservation Area)
187,818 (464,110) 999; 2000; vii, ix, x [20]
Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes Between the Mountain and the Sea Human sculptures and a hyperbolic shaped modern building with white ribs and glass. Rio de Janeiro,
Flag of Brazil.svg ब्राज़ील
22°56′52″S 43°17′29″W / 22.94778°S 43.29139°W / -22.94778; -43.29139 (Rio de Janeiro)
7,249 (17,910); buffer zone 8,621 (21,300) 1100; 2012; vi The listed site consists of an exceptional urban setting rather than built heritage. It encompasses the key natural elements that have shaped and inspired the development of the city: from the highest points of the Tijuca National Park’s mountains down to the sea. They also include the Botanical Gardens, established in 1808, Corcovado Mountain with its celebrated statue of Christ and the hills around Guanabara Bay, including the extensive designed landscapes along Copacabana Bay which have contributed to the outdoor living culture of this spectacular city. Rio de Janeiro is also recognized for the artistic inspiration it has provided to musicians, landscapers and urbanists.[21]
Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Congonhas Stairs leading to a white stone church with two towers. Sculptures are placed on walls in front of the church. Congonhas, Minas Gerais,
Flag of Brazil.svg ब्राज़ील
20°29′59″S 43°51′28″W / 20.49972°S 43.85778°W / -20.49972; -43.85778 (Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Congonhas)
&-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1.000000 334; 1985; i, iv [22]
São Francisco Square in the Town of São Cristóvão Square of São Francisco São Cristóvão, Sergipe,
Flag of Brazil.svg ब्राज़ील
11°0′58″S 37°12′36″W / 11.01611°S 37.21000°W / -11.01611; -37.21000 (São Francisco Square in the Town of São Cristóvão)
3.00 (7.4); buffer zone 2,500 (6,200) 1272; 2010; ii, iv [23]
Serra da Capivara National Park Rock painting in red of a four legged animal, a smaller four legged animal and a human figure. Piauí,
Flag of Brazil.svg ब्राज़ील
8°25′0″S 42°20′0″W / 8.41667°S 42.33333°W / -8.41667; -42.33333 (Serra da Capivara National Park)
&-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1.000000 606; 1991; iii [24]

अंतरिम सूची[संपादित करें]

विश्व धरोहर सूची द्वारा चिह्नित सूची के अतिरिक्त सदस्य देश एक अन्य अंतरिम स्थलों की सूची भी तैयार कर सकते हैं जिसको धरोहर सूची के लिए नामांकित किया जा सकता है। विश्व धरोहर स्थलों की सूची के लिए नामांकन तभी स्वीकार किये जाते हैं यदि इन्हें अंतरिम सूची में रखा गया हो।[25] वर्ष २०१५ तक, ब्राज़ील में २४ स्थल अंतरिम सूची में शामिल हैं। अंतरिम सूची में शामिल स्थलों की दिनांकित सूची निम्न प्रकार है:[2]

  1. Réserve biologique d'Atol das Rocas (Rio Grande do Norte) (06/09/1996)
  2. Amazonia Theaters (Teatro Amazonas and Theatro da Paz) (30/01/2015)
  3. Anavilhanas Ecological Station (16/09/1998)
  4. Brazilian Fortresses Ensemble (30/01/2015)
  5. Canyon du Rio Peruaçu, Minas Gerais (11/03/1998)
  6. Cavernas do Peruaçu Federal Environmental Protection Area (APA) / Veredas Do Peruaçu State Park (16/09/1998)
  7. Cedro Dam in the Quixadá Monoliths (30/01/2015)
  8. Cultural Landscape of Paranapiacaba: Village and railway systems in the Serra do Mar Mountain Range, São Paulo (27/02/2014)
  9. Eglise et Monastère de São Bento, Rio de Janeiro (06/09/1996)
  10. Ensemble architectonique de tourisme et loisir au bord du lac de Pampulha (06/09/1996)
  11. Geoglyphs of Acre (30/01/2015)
  12. Gold Route in Parati and its landscape (08/01/2004)
  13. Palais de la Culture, ancien siège du Ministère de l'Education et de la Santé, Rio de Janeiro (06/09/1996)
  14. Parc national de la Serra da Bocaina (São Paulo - Rio de Janeiro) (06/09/1996)
  15. Itacoatiaras of Ingá River (30/01/2015)
  16. Parc national du Pico da Neblina (Amazonas) (06/09/1996)
  17. Serra da Canastra National Park (16/09/1998)
  18. Serra da Capivara National Park and Permanent Preservation Areas (16/09/1998)
  19. Serra do Divisor National Park (16/09/1998)
  20. Sítio Roberto Burle Marx (30/01/2015)
  21. Station écologique de Taim (Rio Grande do Sul) (06/09/1996)
  22. Station écologique du Raso da Catarina (Bahia) (06/09/1996)
  23. Valongo Wharf Archaeological Site (31/01/2014)
  24. Ver-o-Peso (27/02/2014)

टिप्पणी[संपादित करें]

  1. Extended in 2003 to include the Amana Sustainable Development Reserve, the Demonstration area of the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve and the Anavilhanas Ecological Station; and name change from Jaú National Park, Brazil to the present name.
  2. It is a Centre of Plant Diversity, an Endemic Bird Area of the World and a Global 200 ecoregion.
  3. Extended in 1984 to include the four Argentinian missions making it a trans-border site; and name change from The Ruins of São Miguel das Missões to the present name.

सन्दर्भ[संपादित करें]

  1. "The World Heritage Convention". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि September 17, 2010.
  2. "Brazil – Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि July 29, 2014. सन्दर्भ त्रुटि: <ref> अमान्य टैग है; "brazil" नाम कई बार विभिन्न सामग्रियों में परिभाषित हो चुका है
  3. "Report of the Rapporteur". युनेस्को. September 29, 1980. अभिगमन तिथि July 12, 2014.
  4. "Atlantic Forest South-East Reserves". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 28 May 2010.
  5. "Brasília". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 28 May 2010.
  6. "Brazilian Atlantic Islands: Fernando de Noronha and Atol das Rocas Reserves". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 28 May 2010.
  7. "Central Amazon Conservation Complex". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 28 May 2010.
  8. "Decision - 27COM 8C.10 - Central Amazon Conservation Complex (Brazil)". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 26 September 2011.
  9. "Cerrado Protected Areas: Chapada dos Veadeiros and Emas National Parks". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 28 May 2010.
  10. "Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Reserves". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 28 May 2010.
  11. "Historic Centre of Salvador de Bahia". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 28 May 2010.
  12. "Historic Centre of São Luís". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 28 May 2010.
  13. "Historic Centre of the Town of Diamantina". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 28 May 2010.
  14. "Historic Centre of the Town of Goiás". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 10 September 2011.
  15. "Historic Centre of the Town of Olinda". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 10 September 2011.
  16. "Historic Town of Ouro Preto". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 10 September 2011.
  17. "Iguaçu National Park". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 10 September 2011.
  18. "Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis: San Ignacio Mini, Santa Ana, Nuestra Señora de Loreto and Santa Maria Mayor (Argentina), Ruins of Sao Miguel das Missoes (Brazil)". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 8 September 2011.
  19. "Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 8 September 2011.
  20. "Pantanal Conservation Area". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 10 September 2011.
  21. "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि July 2, 2011.
  22. "Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Congonhas". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 10 September 2011.
  23. "São Francisco Square in the Town of São Cristóvão". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 10 September 2011.
  24. "Serra da Capivara National Park". युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 10 September 2011.
  25. "Tentative Lists" [अंतरिम सूची]. युनेस्को. अभिगमन तिथि 22 सितम्बर 2015.