बराकर नदी

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बराकर नदी
देश भारत
राज्य झारखण्ड, पशिच्म बंगाल
 - बाएँ उसरी नदी
 - दाएँ बरसोती नदी
स्रोत पदमा, हजारीबाग
लंबाई 225 कि.मी. (140 मील)
Damodar Map.jpg

बराकर नदी (हिन्दी: बराकर नदी) (बांग्ला: বরাকর নদী) पुर्वी भारत में दामोदर नदी की मुख्य सहायक नदी है। हजारीबाग के पद्ममा से निकलते हुए, यह छोटा नागपुर पठार के उत्तरी भाग में बहती हुई, डिसरगड़, वर्दमान में दामोदर नदी से मिल जाती है। It has a catchment area of 6,159 कि॰मी2 (6.629×1010 वर्ग फुट). The main tributaries, Barsoti and Usri, flow in from the south and north respectively. Apart from the two main tributaries some fifteen medium/small streams join it.[1]

The Barakar skirts the northern portion of Parasnath Hills, (1350 m/4470 ft), the highest hill in the region, located in Giridih district of Jharkhand and a centre of Jain pilgrimage.

Fury of the river[संपादित करें]

The river flows in all fury during the rains in its upper reaches and has washed away two bridges constructed successively on the Grand Trunk Road. The great stone bridge across the river near Barhi, in Hazaribagh district, built around 1848, was washed away in 1913, after a fall of 10 इंच (250 मि॰मी॰) of rain in 24 hours. The narrow iron bridge, which was built to replace it, withstood the strains of troop movement during the Second World War, but gave way in 1946, with another great flood.[2] A new bridge built in the fifties has withstood the fury of the river.

There is another bridge on the Grand Trunk Road, across the Barakar, connecting Barakar, a small town bearing the same name in Bardhaman district of West Bengal with Chirkunda in Jharkhand. With heavy traffic in the heart of the coal belt, the bridge built in the mid–19th century is in need of repairs. A new bridge has been built, to the north, on the bypass running from Kalipahari, before entering Asansol to Nirsa in Dhanbad district.

The huge volume of monsoon water was carried down the valley and used to create havoc with floods in the lower Damodar basin. Annual rainfall over the basin varies between 765 और 1,607 मि॰मी॰ (30.1 और 63.3 इंच) with an average of 1200 mm of which 80% occurs during the monsoon season from June to September.[3] In order to harness the river (along with the Damodar), the Damodar Valley Corporation planned and implemented independent India’s first multipurpose river valley project.[4] The first dam of the project was constructed across the Barakar at Tilayia.

Dams and power stations[संपादित करें]

Tilayia[संपादित करें]

DVC’s first dam, Tilaiya Dam, was across the Barakar at Tilaiya, in Hazaribagh district of Bihar, now in Koderma district of Jharkhand. It was inaugurated on 21 फ़रवरी 1953. The dam is 366 मीटर (1,201 फीट) long and is 30.18 मीटर (99.0 फीट) high from the river bed level. Tilaiya hydel power station is located on the left bank of the river Barakar. The structure is entirely of reinforced concrete. It has two generating units of 2 MW each with a provision for a third future unit of the same capacity.[4]

Maithon[संपादित करें]

DVC’s second dam was across the Konar River, a tributary of the Damodar, in Hazaribagh district, and the third was across the Barakar at Maithon in Dhanbad district of Bihar, now Jharkhand. The river forms the boundary between West Bengal and Jharkhand in that area. The dam was inaugurated on 27 सितंबर 1957. The dam (both concrete and earthen) is 4,860 मीटर (15,940 फीट) long and the concrete dam is 43.89 मीटर (144.0 फीट) high above the river bed level. The unique feature of Maithon is that the hydel power station is located underground in the left bank of the river (on the West Bengal side) and is the first of its kind in India. The Power Station has a total generating capacity of 60 MW with three units of 20 MW each. About 13 km downstream from Maithon, the Barakar joins the Damodar at Dishergarh.[4]

Maithon Dam is 48 km from Dhanbad and around 25 km from Asansol. Other towns such as Rupnarainpur, Chittaranjan and Kulti-Barakar-Neamatpur-Dishergarh lie still nearer. It receives a steady and daily stream of tourists.

In order to augment the meagre hydroelectric power generation DVC has gone in for both gas turbine and thermal power generation. While most of its facilities for such generation lie in the Damodar region, Maithon in the Barakar regions is a major focal point. Maithon Gas Turbine Station was commissioned at Maithon in 1989. The station has an installed capacity of 82.5 MW with three units each of 27.5 MW capacity.[4]

The 2 X 500 MW Maithon Right Bank thermal power station is under implementation. It is a joint venture of Tata Power and DVC. A 2 X 500 MW greenfield thermal power station has been proposed for Koderma.[4][5]

Proposed dam at Balpahari[संपादित करें]

DVC is working on the proposal for a third dam across the Barakar at Balpahari in Jharkhand. Planned as part of its network of dams and barrages in the valley region, the Balpahari project was conceived with the objective of reducing siltation problems at Maithon, increasing the reach of canal irrigation and adding to hydro-electric generation capacity by 20 MW from the existing 144 MW.[6]

Soil conservation[संपादित करें]

After the construction of the four dams at Tilayia, Konar, Maithon and Panchet by DVC, it was observed that the rate of silt inflow into the reservoirs were much higher than what was anticipated earlier. It threatened the longevity of the reservoirs. The catchment area of these reservoirs spread over the undulating terrain of the Chota Nagpur plateau is seriously affected by soil erosion. Large volume of silt in the form of coarse and fine sediment is removed from the area by erosion under the impact of the water flow caused by torrential rain, which runs down the numerous stream channels during the monsoon. Thus the problem of reservoir siltation assumed great importance in the case of DVC. In order to prolong the life of the reservoirs, there was need for soil conservation and silt control. DVC set up a Soil Conservation Department at Hazaribagh to tackle the twin problems of reservoir siltation and soil deterioration in 1949.[7]

Fisheries[संपादित करें]

The reservoirs at Tilaiya and Maithon, provided scope for development of fisheries. Efforts were made to introduce carps once the water accumulated behind the dams but the results have not been commensurate with the efforts, largely due to the formidable presence of predatory catfish W. attu and other predators such as Notopterus chitala and Barilius bola at Tilaiya, and catfishes Wallago attu and Aorichthys aor, at Maithon. These predators take a heavy toll of the stocked carps Trash and uneconomic fishes form dense population at Tilaiya reservoir, competing with major carps for food. Composition of catch at both the places is: catla, mrigala, rohita and calbasu.[8]

References[संपादित करें]

  1. Chattopadhyay, Akkori, Bardhaman Jelar Itihas O Lok Sanskriti (History and Folk lore of Bardhaman District.), साँचा:Bn icon, Vol I, p 26, Radical Impression. ISBN 81-85459-36-3
  2. Houlton, Sir John, Bihar the Heart of India, 1949, p117, Orient Longmans Ltd.
  3. "Damodar Valley". Ministry of Environments and Forests. मूल से 27 सितंबर 2007 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 2007-02-14.
  4. "Damodar Valley Corporation". Damodar Valley Corporation. मूल से 10 फ़रवरी 2007 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 2007-02-14.
  5. Tata Power. Tata Power signs generation pact with DVC on Maithon project. प्रेस रिलीज़. Archived from the original on 30 दिसंबर 2006. http://www.tata.com/tata_power/releases/20050329.htm. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-02-14. 
  6. Bose, Pratim Ranjan (26 मई 2005). "Damodar Valley to undertake dam project in Jharkhand". Business. द हिन्दू बिज़नस लाइन. मूल से 10 अक्तूबर 2007 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 2007-02-14.
  7. "Soil Conservation". Damodar Valley Corporation. मूल से 29 सितंबर 2007 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 2007-02-14.
  8. "Fisheries". मूल से 29 जनवरी 2007 को पुरालेखित. अभिगमन तिथि 2007-02-14.

See also[संपादित करें]

साँचा:Hydrology of Jharkhand साँचा:Rivers in and around Bengal

निर्देशांक: 23°42′N 86°48′E / 23.700°N 86.800°E / 23.700; 86.800

साँचा:Damodar Valley

बराकर नदी पश्चिम भारत में बहने वाली दामोदर नदी की प्रमुख सहायक नदी है। इस पर मैथन बांध का निर्माण किया गया है।