विश्व के आश्चर्य

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विश्व के आश्चर्य ऐसे अद्भुत प्राकृतिक और मानव निर्मित संरचनाओं का संकलन है जो मनुष्य को आश्चर्यचकित करती हैं। प्राचीन काल से वर्त्तमान काल तक विश्व भर के आश्चर्यों की ऐसी कई विभिन्न सूचियाँ तैयार की गयी हैं।

समय-समय पर सबसे माहान मानव निर्मित संरचनओं और विश्व में प्राकृतिक धरोहर की सूची को सदियों से संकलित किया गया है। प्राचीन विश्व के सात आश्चर्य, प्राचीन पुरातनता के सबसे उल्लेखनीय मानव निर्मित कृतियों की पहली ज्ञात सूची है। ये केवल भूमध्य सागर के आसपास स्थित निर्माण शामिल है। सात की संख्या को इसलिए चुना गया था क्योंकि यूनानियों ने इसे माना और बहुतो द्वारा इसे प्रतिनिधित्व किया गाया। इसी तरह के कई सूचियाँ मध्ययुगीन विश्व तथा आधुनिक विश्व के लिए बनायीं गयीं है।

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विश्व के सात आश्चर्य[संपादित करें]

The गिज़ा का महान पिरामिड, the only wonder of the ancient world still in existence
The London sewerage system's original Abbey Mills pumping station

The historian Herodotus (484 BC–ca. 425 BC), and the scholar Callimachus of Cyrene (ca 305–240 BC) at the Museum of Alexandria, made early lists of Seven wonders but their writings have not survived, except as references. The seven wonders included:

The earliest lists had the Ishtar Gate as the seventh wonder of the world instead of the Lighthouse of Alexandria.

The Greek category was not Wonders but "thaumata"(Greek: Θαύματα), which translates closer to "things to be seen". The list that we know today was compiled in the Middle Ages—by which time many of the sites were no longer in existence. Today, the only ancient world wonder that still exists is the Great Pyramid of Giza.

मध्यकालीन विश्व के आश्चर्य[संपादित करें]

Many lists of wonders of the world are said to have existed during the Middle Ages, although it is unlikely that these lists originated at that time because the word medieval was not even invented until the Enlightenment-era, and the concept of a Middle Age did not become popular until the 16th century. Brewer's refers to them as "later list[s]"[1] suggesting the lists were created after the Middle Ages.

Many of the structures on these lists were built much earlier than the Medieval Ages, but were well known.[2] These lists go by names such as Wonders of the Middle Ages (implying no specific limitation to seven), Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages, Medieval Mind and Architectural Wonders of the Middle Ages.

Typically representative of the seven greatest wonders of the Medieval world are:[1][2][3][4]

Other sites included on such lists:

आधुनिक विश्व के आश्चर्य[संपादित करें]

Many lists have been made of the greatest structures built during modern times or of the greatest wonders existing today. Some of the most notable lists are presented below.

अमेरिकन सोसयटी ऑफ सिविल इंजीनियर्स[संपादित करें]

The American Society of Civil Engineers compiled a list of wonders of the modern world:[9]

Wonder Date Started Date Finished Location
चैनल सुरंग December 1, 1987 मई 6, 1994 Strait of Dover, between the इंगलैंड and फ्रांस
सी एन टावर फरवरी 6, 1973 जून 26, 1976, tallest freestanding structure in the world 1976-2007. Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Empire State Building January 22, 1930 May 1, 1931, Tallest structure in the world 1931-1967. First building with 100+ stories. New York, NY, U.S.
Golden Gate Bridge January 5, 1933 May 27, 1937 Golden Gate Strait, north of San Francisco, California, U.S.
Itaipu Dam January 1970 May 5, 1984 Paraná River, between Brazil and Paraguay
Delta Works/ Zuiderzee Works 1950 May 10, 1997 Netherlands
Panama Canal January 1, 1880 January 7, 1914 Isthmus of Panama

विश्व के सात नए आश्चर्य[संपादित करें]

In 2001 an initiative was started by the Swiss corporation New7Wonders Foundation to choose the New Seven Wonders of the World from a selection of 200 existing monuments for profit.[10] Twenty-one finalists were announced January 1, 2006.[11] Egypt was not happy with the fact that the only original wonder would have to compete with the likes of the Statue of Liberty, the Sydney Opera House, and other landmarks; and called the project absurd. To solve this, Giza was named an honorary Candidate.[12] The results were announced on July 7 2007 in Benfica's stadium in a big ceremony in Lisbon, Portugal,[13] and are listed here:

Wonder Date of construction Location
चीन की महान दिवार 5th century BCE – 16th century CE चीन
पैट्रा Unknown जोर्डन
रिडीमर क्रिस्ट Opened 12 अक्टूबर 1931 ब्राजील
माछु पिछ्छु c.1450 पेरू
चिचन इट्ज़ा c.600 मेक्सिको
रोमन कोलोज़ियम Completed 80 CE इटली
ताज महल Completed c.1648 भारत
महान पिरामिड (Honorary Candidate) Completed c.2560 BCE इजिप्ट

इन्हें भी देखें[संपादित करें]

सन्दर्भ[संपादित करें]

  1. I H Evans (reviser), Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (Centenary edition Fourth impression (corrected); London: Cassell, 1975), page 1163
  2. Hereward Carrington (1880-1958), "The Seven Wonders of the World: ancient, medieval and modern", reprinted in the Carington Collection (2003) ISBN 0-7661-4378-3, page 14.
  3. Edward Latham. A Dictionary of Names, Nicknames and Surnames, of Persons, Places and Things (1904), page 280.
  4. Francis Trevelyan Miller, Woodrow Wilson, William Howard Taft, Theodore Roosevelt. America, the Land We Love (1915), page 201.
  5. Palpa, as You Like it, page 67)
  6. The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Crusades (2001, page 153))
  7. The Rough Guide To England (1994, page 596))
  8. The Catholic Encyclopedia, v.16 (1913), page 74
  9. American Society of Civil Engineers Seven Wonders
  10. New Seven Wonders
  11. Finalist Page
  12. Egypt Angered at New Wonders Idea
  13. Reuters via ABC News Australia "Opera House snubbed as new Wonders unveiled" 7 July 2007

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