औषधि एवं स्वास्थ्य प्रौद्योगिकी का इतिहास

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
Jump to navigation Jump to search

प्राचीन

मध्यकाल[संपादित करें]

  • 750 - माधव ने निदान नामक आयुर्वेदिक ग्रन्थ की रचना की जिसमें उन्होने रोगों का उनके कारण, लक्षण एवं जटिलताओं सहित सूची दी है।
  • c. 800-873 - Al-Kindi (Alkindus) introduces quantification into medicine with his De Gradibus
  • c. 830-870 - Hunayn ibn Ishaq translates Galen's works into Arabic
  • 1313-1374 - Ibn Khatima wrote a treatise called On the Plague, in which he establishes the existence of contagion through "experience, investigation, the evidence of the senses and trustworthy reports." He also discovers that "transmission is affected through garments, vessels and earrings."[19]

१५०० - १८००[संपादित करें]

१८०० - अब तक[संपादित करें]

इन्हें भी देखें[संपादित करें]

टिप्पणी[संपादित करें]

1. उपर दी गयी कुछ तिथियाँ अनिश्चित हैं A Tribute to Hinduism के अनुसार सुश्रुत का समय ५वीं शती ईसा पूर्व है।

सन्दर्भ[संपादित करें]

  1. Amber Haque (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", Journal of Religion and Health 43 (4): 357-377 [361]
  2. David W. Tschanz, PhD (2003), "Arab Roots of European Medicine", Heart Views 4 (2).
  3. Zafarul-Islam Khan, At The Threshhold Of A New Millennium – II, The Milli Gazette.
  4. Bashar Saad, Hassan Azaizeh, Omar Said (October 2005). "Tradition and Perspectives of Arab Herbal Medicine: A Review", Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2 (4), p. 475-479 [476]. Oxford University Press.
  5. Khaled al-Hadidi (1978), "The Role of Muslim Scholars in Oto-rhino-Laryngology", The Egyptian Journal of O.R.L. 4 (1), p. 1-15. (cf. Ear, Nose and Throat Medical Practice in Muslim Heritage, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilization.)
  6. Paul Vallely, How Islamic Inventors Changed the World, The Independent, 11 मार्च 2006.
  7. Katharine Park (March 1990). "Avicenna in Renaissance Italy: The Canon and Medical Teaching in Italian Universities after 1500 by Nancy G. Siraisi", The Journal of Modern History 62 (1), p. 169-170.
  8. Sarton, George (1927–31), Introduction to the History of Science, अभिगमन तिथि 2008-01-25
  9. A. I. Makki. "Needles & Pins", AlShindagah 68, January-February 2006.
  10. Islamic medicine, Hutchinson Encyclopedia.
  11. Prof. Dr. Mostafa Shehata, "The Ear, Nose and Throat in Islamic Medicine", Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, 2003 (1): 2-5 [4].
  12. Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992). Miracle of Islamic Science, Appendix B. Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0-911119-43-4.
  13. Husain F. Nagamia (2003), "Ibn al-Nafīs: A Biographical Sketch of the Discoverer of Pulmonary and Coronary Circulation", Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine 1, p. 22–28.
  14. Chairman's Reflections (2004), "Traditional Medicine Among Gulf Arabs, Part II: Blood-letting", Heart Views 5 (2), p. 74-85 [80].
  15. George Sarton (cf. Dr. Paul Ghalioungui (1982), "The West denies Ibn Al Nafis's contribution to the discovery of the circulation", Symposium on Ibn al-Nafis, Second International Conference on Islamic Medicine: Islamic Medical Organization, Kuwait)
    (cf. The West denies Ibn Al Nafis's contribution to the discovery of the circulation, Encyclopedia of Islamic World)
  16. Ingrid Hehmeyer and Aliya Khan (2007), "Islam's forgotten contributions to medical science", Canadian Medical Association Journal 176 (10), p. 1467-1468 [1467].
  17. Dr. Sulaiman Oataya (1982), "Ibn ul Nafis has dissected the human body", Symposium on Ibn al-Nafis, Second International Conference on Islamic Medicine: Islamic Medical Organization, Kuwait (cf. Ibn ul-Nafis has Dissected the Human Body, Encyclopedia of Islamic World).
  18. Dr Ibrahim Shaikh (2001), Who Discovered Pulmonary Circulation, Ibn Al-Nafis or Harvey?, FSTC.
  19. Ibrahim B. Syed PhD, "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times", Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine, 2002 (2): 2-9.
  20. "Rubbers haven't always been made of rubber". Billy Boy: The excitingly different condom. अभिगमन तिथि 2006-09-09.
  21. "Evolution and Revolution: The Past, Present, and Future of Contraception". Contraception Online (Baylor College of Medicine). 10 (6). 2000. नामालूम प्राचल |month= की उपेक्षा की गयी (मदद)
  22. Pennington H (2003). "Smallpox and bioterrorism". Bull. World Health Organ. 81 (10): 762–7. PMID 14758439.
  23. Albion Street Centre. "Resource Packages: Hepatitis A". South Eastern Sydney Illawarra Health, NSW Health Department. अभिगमन तिथि 2009-05-11.

बाहरी कड़ियाँ[संपादित करें]