सामग्री पर जाएँ

औद्योगिक प्रक्रमों की सूची

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
Paolo Monti, 1958

जिन प्रक्रियाओं में किसी चीज के निर्माण के लिये रासायनिक या यांत्रिक चरणों (steps) की आवश्यकता होती हैं उन्हें औद्योगिक प्रक्रम (Industrial processes) कहते हैं। बड़े-बड़े उद्योगों में औद्योगिक प्रक्रम मुख्य भूमिका निभाते हैं।

Most processes make the production of an otherwise rare material vastly cheaper in price, thus changing it into a commodity; i.e. the process makes it economically feasible for society to use the material on a large scales, in machinery, or a substantial amount of raw materials, in comparison to batch or craft processes. Production of a specific material may involve more than one type of process. Most industrial processes result in both a desired product(s) and by-products, many of which are toxic, hazardous, or hard to deal with. Very, very few processes are self-contained.

सामान्य प्रक्रम

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These may be applied on their own, or as part of a larger process.

रासायनिक प्रक्रम

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उष्मीय प्रक्रम

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  • Flash smelting - a refinement on smelting, for sulfur-containing ores (produces copper, nickel and lead)

विद्युत अपघटन

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The availability of electricity and its effect on materials gave rise to several processes for plating or separating metals.

भौतिक प्रक्रम (Physical processes)

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There are several physical processes for reshaping a material by cutting, folding, joining or polishing, developed on a large scale from workshop techniques.

मोल्डिंग (Moulding)

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The physical shaping of materials by forming their liquid form using a mould.

विलगन (Separation)

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Many materials exist in an impure form, purification, or separation provides a usable product.

लोहा एवं इस्पात

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Early production of iron was from meteorites, or as a by-product of copper refining. Heating iron ore and carbon in a crucible at 1000 K produces wrought iron. This process gained popularity during the Iron Age. Temperatures of 1300 K were produced around the 8th century by blowing air through the heated mixture in a bloomery or blast furnace (12th century); producing a strong but brittle cast iron. Furnaces were growing bigger, producing greater quantities; a factor contributing to the Industrial Revolution. In 1740 the temperature and carbon content could be controlled sufficiently to consistently produce steel; very strong and very workable. The 19th century saw the development of electric arc furnaces that produced steel in very large quantities, and are more easily controlled.

पेट्रोलियम एवं कार्बनिक उत्पाद

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The nature of an organic molecule means it can be transformed at the molecular level to create a range of products.

उत्पाद के अनुसार
प्रक्रमों के अनुसार

इन्हें भी देखिये

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