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List of heads of state[संपादित करें]

(Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office)

Royal heads of state[संपादित करें]

Name Birth–Death Reign start Reign end Dynasty
Hotak Empire (1709–1738)
Mirwais Hotak 1673–1715 1709 1715 Hotak
Emir
Abdul Aziz Hotak Died 1717 1715 1717 Hotak
Emir; Brother of Mirwais Hotak
Mahmud Hotak 1697–1725 1717 22 April 1725 Hotak
Emir; Son of Mirwais Hotak
Ashraf Hotak Died 1730 22 April 1725 1730 Hotak
Emir; Nephew of Mirwais Hotak
Hussain Hotak Died 1738 1730 24 March 1738 Hotak
Emir; Son of Mirwais Hotak
Durrani Empire (1747–1823)
Ahmad Shah Durrani 1722–1772 October 1747 16 October 1772 Durrani
Emir
Timur Shah Durrani 1748–1793 16 October 1772 18 May 1793 Durrani
Emir; Son of Ahmad Shah Durrani
Zaman Shah Durrani 1770–1844 18 May 1793 25 July 1801 Durrani
Emir; Son of Timur Shah Durrani; Deposed
Mahmud Shah Durrani 1769–1829 25 July 1801 13 July 1803 Durrani
Emir; Son of Timur Shah Durrani; First Reign; Deposed
Shuja Shah Durrani 1785–1842 13 July 1803 3 May 1809 Durrani
Emir; Son of Timur Shah Durrani; First Reign; Deposed
Mahmud Shah Durrani 1769–1829 3 May 1809 1818 Durrani
Emir; Son of Timur Shah Durrani; Second Reign; Deposed
Ali Shah Durrani 1818 1819 Durrani
Emir; Son of Timur Shah Durrani; Deposed
Ayub Shah Durrani Died 1837 1819 1823 Durrani
Emir; Son of Timur Shah Durrani; Deposed
Emirate of Afghanistan (1823–1926)
Dost Mohammad Khan 1793–1863 1823 2 August 1839 Barakzai
Emir; Son of Sardar Payendah Khan; First Reign; Exiled
Shuja Shah Durrani 1785–1842 7 August 1839 5 April 1842 Durrani
Emir; Son of Timur Shah Durrani; Second Reign; Assassinated
Wazir Akbar Khan 1816–1845 5 April 1842 1845 Barakzai
Emir; Son of Dost Mohammad Khan
Dost Mohammad Khan 1793–1863 1845 9 June 1863 Barakzai
Emir; Son of Sardar Payendah Khan; Second Reign
Sher Ali Khan 1825–1879 9 June 1863 1865 Barakzai
Emir; Son of Dost Mohammad Khan; First Reign; Deposed
Mohammad Afzal Khan 1811–1867 1865 7 October 1867 Barakzai
Emir; Son of Dost Mohammad Khan
Mohammad Azam Khan Died 1868 7 October 1867 21 February 1868 Barakzai
Emir; Son of Dost Mohammad Khan
Sher Ali Khan 1825–1879 7 October 1868 21 February 1879 Barakzai
Emir; Son of Dost Mohammad Khan; Second Reign
Ayub Khan 1857–1914 12 October 1879 31 May 1880 Barakzai
Emir; Son of Sher Ali Khan; Deposed
Abdur Rahman Khan 1840/1844–1901 31 May 1880 1 October 1901 Barakzai
Emir; Son of Mohammad Afzal Khan
Habibullah Khan 1872–1919 1 October 1901 20 February 1919 Barakzai
Emir; Son of Abdur Rahman Khan; Assassinated
Nasrullah Khan 1874–1920 20 February 1919 28 February 1919 Barakzai
Emir; Son of Abdur Rahman Khan; Deposed
Amanullah Khan 1892–1960 28 February 1919 9 June 1926 Barakzai
Emir; Son of Habibullah Khan
Kingdom of Afghanistan (1926–1973)
Amanullah Khan 1892–1960 9 June 1926 14 January 1929 Barakzai
King; Son of Habibullah Khan; Deposed
Inayatullah Khan 1888–1946 14 January 1929 17 January 1929 Barakzai
King; Son of Habibullah Khan; Abdicated
Habibullāh Kalakāni 1891–1929 17 January 1929 16 October 1929 Non-Dynastic
King; Deposed
Ali Ahmad Khan 1883–1929 17 January 1929 9 February 1929 Non-Dynastic
King; Rose in opposition to Kalakani during the events of the Afghan civil war of 1928-29; captured.
Mohammed Nadir Shah 1883–1933 16 October 1929 8 November 1933 Barakzai
King; Grandnephew of Dost Mohammed Khan; Assassinated
Mohammed Zahir Shah 1914–2007 8 November 1933 17 July 1973 Barakzai
King; Son of Mohammed Nadir Shah; Deposed

Non-Royal heads of stateEdit[संपादित करें]

Name Birth–Death Took office Left office Political Affiliation
Republic of Afghanistan (1973–1978)
Mohammed Daoud Khan 1909–1978 17 July 1973 28 April 1978 Independent

(until 1976)

National Revolutionary Party
President; Member of the Barakzai dynasty (first cousin of Mohammed Zahir Shah);Assassinated
Democratic Republic of Afghanistan (1978–1987)
Colonel

Abdul Qadir

1944–2014 28 April 1978 30 April 1978 People's Democratic Party

(Khalq faction)

Chairman of the Presidium of the Military Revolutionary Council
Nur Muhammad Taraki 1917–1979 30 April 1978 14 September 1979 People's Democratic Party

(Khalq faction)

Chairman of the Presidium of the Revolutionary Council; Assassinated
Hafizullah Amin 1929–1979 14 September 1979 27 December 1979 People's Democratic Party

(Khalq faction)

Chairman of the Presidium of the Revolutionary Council; Assassinated
Babrak Karmal 1929–1996 27 December 1979 24 November 1986 People's Democratic Party

(Parcham faction)

Chairman of the Presidium of the Revolutionary Council; Dismissed
Haji Mohammad Chamkani 1947–2012 24 November 1986 30 September 1987 Independent
Chairman of the Presidium of the Revolutionary Council
Mohammad Najibullah 1947–1996 30 September 1987 30 November 1987 People's Democratic Party

(Parcham faction)

Chairman of the Presidium of the Revolutionary Council
Republic of Afghanistan (1987–1992)
Mohammad Najibullah 1947–1996 30 November 1987 16 April 1992 People's Democratic Party

(Parcham faction) (until 1990)

Homeland Party
President; Resigned
Abdul Rahim Hatif 1926–2013 16 April 1992 28 April 1992 Homeland Party
Acting President; Deposed
Islamic State of Afghanistan (1992–2002)
Sibghatullah Mojaddedi 1925–2019 28 April 1992 28 June 1992 National Liberation Front
Acting President; Resigned
Burhanuddin Rabbani 1940–2011 28 June 1992 22 December 2001 Jamiat-e Islami
President; Between 1996 and 2001, the Islamic State remained the internationally recognized government, despite only controlling about 10% of Afghan territory
Hamid Karzai 1957– 22 December 2001 13 July 2002 Independent
Acting President
Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (1996–2001)
Mullah

Mohammed Omar

c. 1960–2013 27 September 1996 13 November 2001 Taliban
Emir and Commander of the Faithful; The Islamic Emirate never attained widespread international recognition, despite controlling about 90% of Afghan territory; Deposed
Mullah

Mohammad Rabbani

1956–2001 27 September 1996 13 April 2001 Taliban
Head of the Supreme Council; Deputy leader of the Taliban; Died in office
Maulavi

Abdul Kabir

1958/1963– 16 April 2001 13 November 2001 Taliban
Acting Head of the Supreme Council; Deposed
Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan (2002–2004)
Hamid Karzai 1957– 13 July 2002 7 December 2004 Independent
Transitional President
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (2004–present)
Hamid Karzai 1957– 7 December 2004 29 September 2014 Independent
President; First democratically elected head of state
Ashraf Ghani 1949– 29 September 2014 Incumbent Independent
President; First peaceful transfer of power

Standards of heads of state[संपादित करें]