हाइड्रोजन तकनीकों की समय-रेखा

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
यहाँ जाएँ: भ्रमण, खोज

1600[संपादित करें]

  • 1625 - First description of hydrogen by Johann Baptista van Helmont. First to use the word "gas".
  • 1650 - Turquet de Mayerne obtained by the action of dilute sulphuric acid on iron a gas or "inflammable air".
  • 1662 - Boyle's law (gas law relating pressure and volume)
  • 1670 - Robert Boyle produced hydrogen by reacting metals with acid.
  • 1672 - "New Experiments touching the Relation between Flame and Air" by Robert Boyle.
  • 1679 - Denis Papin - safety valve

1700[संपादित करें]

  • 1700 - Nicolas Lemery showed that the gas produced in the sulfuric acid/iron reaction was explosive in air
  • 1755 - Joseph Black confirmed that different gases exist. / Latent heat
  • 1766 - Henry Cavendish published in "On Factitious Airs" a description of "dephlogisticated air" by reacting zinc metal with hydrochloric acid and isolated a gas 7 to 11 times lighter than air.
  • 1774 - Joseph Priestley isolated and categorized oxygen.
  • 1780 - Felice Fontana discovers the water gas shift reaction
  • 1783 - Antoine Lavoisier gave hydrogen its name (Gk: hydro = water, genes = born of)
  • 1783 - Jacques Charles made the first flight with his hydrogen balloon "La Charlière".
  • 1783 - Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre Laplace measured the heat of combustion of hydrogen using an ice calorimeter.
  • 1784 - Jean-Pierre Blanchard, attempted a dirigible hydrogen balloon, but it would not steer.
  • 1784 - The invention of the Lavoisier Meusnier iron-steam process[1], generating hydrogen by passing water vapor over a bed of red-hot iron at 600 °Cdoi:10.1080/00033798300200381.
  • 1785 - Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier built the hybrid Rozière balloon.
  • 1787 - Charles's law (Gas law, relating volume and temperature)
  • 1789 - Jan Rudolph Deiman and Adriaan Paets van Troostwijk using a electrostatic machine and a Leyden jar for the first electrolysis of water.

1800[संपादित करें]

  • 1800 - William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle decomposed water into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis with a voltaic pile.
  • 1800 - Johann Wilhelm Ritter duplicated the experiment with a rearranged set of electrodes to collect the two gases separately.
  • 1806 - François Isaac de Rivaz built the first internal combustion engine powered by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen.
  • 1809 - Thomas Foster observed with a theodolite the drift of small free pilot balloons filled with "inflammable gas"[2][3]
  • 1809 - Gay-Lussac's law (Gas law, relating temperature and pressure)
  • 1811 - Amedeo Avogadro - Avogadro's law a gas law
  • 1819 - Edward Daniel Clarke invented the hydrogen gas blowpipe.
  • 1820 - W. Cecil wrote a letter "On the application of hydrogen gas to produce a moving power in machinery"[4][5]
  • 1823 - Goldsworthy Gurney demonstrated Limelight.
  • 1823 - Döbereiner's Lamp a lighter invented by Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner.
  • 1823 - Goldsworthy Gurney devised an oxy-hydrogen blowpipe.
  • 1824 - Michael Faraday invented the rubber balloon.
  • 1826 - Thomas Drummond built the Drummond Light.
  • 1826 - Samuel Brown tested his internal combustion engine by using it to propel a vehicle up Shooter's Hill
  • 1834 - Michael Faraday published Faraday's laws of electrolysis.
  • 1834 - Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron - Ideal gas law
  • 1836 - John Frederic Daniell invented a primary cell in which hydrogen was eliminated in the generation of the electricity.
  • 1839 - Christian Friedrich Schönbein published the principle of the fuel cell in the "Philosophical Magazine".
  • 1839 - William Robert Grove developed the Grove cell.
  • 1842 - William Robert Grove developed the first fuel cell (which he called the gas voltaic battery)
  • 1849 - Eugene Bourdon - Bourdon_gauge (manometer)
  • 1863 - Etienne Lenoir made a test drive from Paris to Joinville-le-Pont with the 1-cylinder, 2-stroke Hippomobile.
  • 1866 - August Wilhelm von Hofmann invents the Hofmann voltameter for the electrolysis of water.
  • 1873 - Thaddeus S. C. Lowe - Water gas, the process used the water gas shift reaction.
  • 1874 - Jules Verne - The Mysterious Island, "water will one day be employed as fuel, that hydrogen and oxygen of which it is constituted will be used"[6]
  • 1884 - Charles Renard and Arthur Constantin Krebs launch the airship La France.
  • 1885 - Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski published hydrogen's critical temperature as 33 K; critical pressure, 13.3 atmospheres; and boiling point, 23 K.
  • 1889 - Ludwig Mond and Carl Langer coined the name fuel cell and tried to build one running on air and Mond gas.
  • 1893 - Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald experimentally determined the interconnected roles of the various components of the fuel cell.
  • 1895 - Hydrolysis
  • 1896 - Jackson D.D. and Ellms J.W., hydrogen production by microalgae (anabaena)
  • 1896 - Leon Teisserenc de Bort carries out experiments with high flying instrumental weather balloons[7].
  • 1897 - Paul Sabatier facilitated the use of hydrogenation with the discovery of the Sabatier reaction.
  • 1898 - James Dewar liquefied hydrogen by using regenerative cooling and his invention, the vacuum flask at the Royal Institute of London.
  • 1899 - James Dewar collected solid hydrogen for the first time.

1900[संपादित करें]

  • 1900 - Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin launched the first hydrogen-filled Zeppelin LZ1 airship.
  • 1901 - Wilhelm Normann introduced the hydrogenation of fats.
  • 1903 - Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovskii published "The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices"[8]
  • 1907 - Lane hydrogen producer
  • 1909 - Count Ferdinand Adolf August von Zeppelin made the first long distance flight with the Zeppelin LZ5.
  • 1909 - Linde-Frank-Caro process
  • 1910 - The first Zeppelin passenger flight with the Zeppelin LZ7.
  • 1910 - Fritz Haber patented the Haber process.
  • 1912 - The first scheduled international Zeppelin passenger flights with the Zeppelin LZ13.
  • 1919 - The first Atlantic crossing by airship with the Beardmore HMA R34.
  • 1920 - Hydrocracking, a plant for the commercial hydrogenation of brown coal is commissioned at Leuna in Germany[9].
  • 1923 - Steam reforming, the first synthetic methanol is produced by BASF in Leuna
  • 1923 - J. B. S. Haldane envisioned in Daedalus; or, Science and the Future "great power stations where during windy weather the surplus power will be used for the electrolytic decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen."
  • 1926 - Partial oxidation, Vandeveer and Parr at the University of Illinois used oxygen in the place of air for the production of syngas.
  • 1926 - Cyril Norman Hinshelwood described the phenomenon of chain reaction.
  • 1926 - Umberto Nobile made the first flight over the north pole with the hydrogen airship Norge
  • 1929 - Paul Harteck and Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer achieve the first synthesis of pure parahydrogen.
  • 1930 - Rudolf Erren - Erren engine - GB patent GB364180 - Improvements in and relating to internal combustion engines using a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen as fuel[10]
  • 1935 - Eugene Wigner and H.B. Huntington predicted metallic hydrogen.
  • 1937 - The Zeppelin LZ 129 Hindenburg was destroyed by fire.
  • 1937 - The Heinkel HeS 1 experimental gaseous hydrogen fueled centrifugal jet engine is tested at Hirth in March- the first working jet engine
  • 1937 - The first hydrogen-cooled turbogenerator went into service at Dayton, Ohio.
  • 1938 - The first 240 km hydrogen pipeline Rhine-Ruhr [11].
  • 1938 - Igor Sikorsky from Sikorsky Aircraft proposed liquid hydrogen as a fuel.
  • 1939 - Rudolf Erren - Erren engine - US patent 2,183,674 - Internal combustion engine using hydrogen as fuel
  • 1939 - Hans Gaffron discovered that algae can switch between producing oxygen and hydrogen.
  • 1943 - Liquid hydrogen is tested as rocket fuel at Ohio State University.
  • 1943 - Arne Zetterström describes hydrox
  • 1949 - Hydrodesulfurization (Catalytic reforming is commercialized under the name Platforming process)
  • 1952 - Hydrogen maser
  • 1952 - Non-Refrigerated transport Dewar
  • 1955 - W. Thomas Grubb modified the fuel cell design by using a sulphonated polystyrene ion-exchange membrane as the electrolyte.
  • 1957 - Pratt & Whitney's model 304 jet engine using liquid hydrogen as fuel tested for the first time as part of the Lockheed CL-400 Suntan project.[12]
  • 1957 - The specifications for the U-2 a double axis liquid hydrogen semi-trailer were issued[13].
  • 1958 - Leonard Niedrach devised a way of depositing platinum onto the membrane, this became known as the Grubb-Niedrach fuel cell
  • 1958 - Allis-Chalmers demonstrated the D 12, the first 15 kW fuel cell tractor[14].
  • 1959 - Francis Thomas Bacon built the Bacon Cell, the first practical 5 kW hydrogen-air fuel cell to power a welding machine.
  • 1960 - Allis-Chalmers builds the first fuel cell forklift[15]
  • 1961 - RL-10 liquid hydrogen fuelled rocket engine first flight
  • 1964 - Allis-Chalmers built a 750-watt fuel cell to power a one-man underwater research vessel[16].
  • 1965 - The first commercial use of a fuel cell in Project Gemini.
  • 1965 - Allis-Chalmers builds the first fuel cell golf carts.
  • 1966 - Slush hydrogen
  • 1966 - J-2 (rocket engine) liquid hydrogen rocket engine flies
  • 1967 - Akira Fujishima discovers the Honda-Fujishima effect which is used for photocatalysis in the photoelectrochemical cell.
  • 1967 - Hydride compressor
  • 1970 - Nickel hydrogen battery [17]
  • 1970 - John Bockris or Lawrence W. Jones coined the term hydrogen economy [18][19]
  • 1973 - The 30 km hydrogen pipeline in Isbergues
  • 1973 - Linear compressor
  • 1975 - John Bockris - Energy The Solar-Hydrogen Alternative - ISBN 0-470-08429-4
  • 1979 - HM7B rocket engine
  • 1981 - Space Shuttle main engine first flight
  • 1990 - The first solar-powered hydrogen production plant Solar-Wasserstoff-Bayern became operational.
  • 1996 - Vulcain rocket engine
  • 1997 - Anastasios Melis discovered that the deprivation of sulfur will cause algae to switch from producing oxygen to producing hydrogen
  • 1998 - Type 212 submarine
  • 1999 - Hydrogen pinch

2000[संपादित करें]

  • 2000 - Peter Toennies demonstrates superfluidity of hydrogen at 0.15 K
  • 2001 - The first type IV hydrogen tanks for compressed hydrogen at 700 Bar (10000 PSI) were demonstrated.
  • 2002 - Type 214 submarine
  • 2004 - DeepC
  • 2005 - Ionic liquid piston compressor

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