हरी खाद

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
यहाँ जाएँ: भ्रमण, खोज

कृषि में हरी खाद (green manure) उस सहायक फसल को कहते हैं जिसकी खेती मुख्यत: भूमि में पोषक तत्त्वों को बढ़ाने तथा उसमें जैविक पदाथों की पूर्ति करने के उद्देश्य से की जाती है। प्राय: इस तरह की फसल को इसके हरी स्थिति में ही हल चलाकर मिट्टी में मिला दिया जाता है। हरी खाद से भूमि की उपजाऊ शक्ति बढ़ती है और भूमि की रक्षा होती है।

लाभ[संपादित करें]

  • Leguminous green manures such as clover and vetch contain nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteria in root nodules that fix atmospheric nitrogen in a form that plants can use.
  • Green manures increase the percentage of organic matter (biomass) in the soil, thereby improving water retention, aeration, and other soil characteristics.
  • The root systems of some varieties of green manure grow deep in the soil and bring up nutrient resources unavailable to shallower-rooted crops.
  • Common cover crop functions of weed suppression and prevention of soil erosion and compaction are often also taken into account when selecting and using green manures.
  • Some green manure crops, when allowed to flower, provide forage for pollinating insects.

Historically, the practice of green manuring can be traced back to the fallow cycle of crop rotation, which was used to allow soils to recover.

हरी खाद वाली फसलें[संपादित करें]

  • Winter cover crops such as oats or rye have long been used as green manures.
  • Fava beans
  • Mustard
  • Clover
  • Fenugreek
  • Lupin
  • Sunn hemp, a tropical legume
  • Vetch or Winter tares, including fava beans.
  • Winter field beans
  • Alfalfa, which sends roots deep to bring nutrients to the surface.
  • Tyfon, a Brassica known for a strong tap root that breaks up heavy soils.
  • Buckwheat is a rapidly growing green manure in temperate regions.
  • Ferns of the genus Azolla have been used as a green manure in southeast Asia.
  • Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) Common in the southern US during the early part of the 20th century, before being replaced by soybeans. Popular today in most tropical countries, especially in Central America where it is the main green manure used in Slash/Mulch farming practices.

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