सानतिआगो

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
यहाँ जाएँ: भ्रमण, खोज

सानतिआगो दक्षिण अमेरिका के चिली देश की राजधानी है। यह देश के केन्द्रीय घाटी में समुद्र तल से लगभग ५२० मी की उंचाई पर स्थित है। लगभग दो दशकों की निर्बाध आर्थिक प्रगति ने लातिनी अमरीका में सेंटियागो को सबसे आधुनिक शहरों में शुमार कर दिया है और आज यहां दर्जनों शॉपिंग मॉल एवं सैकडो़ उंची इमारते हैं।

इतिहास[संपादित करें]

सानतिआगो की स्थापना एक स्पैनिश नागरिक पेद्रो दे वाल्दिविया द्वारा२१ फरवरी, १५४१ मे की गयी थी। स्थापना समारोह ह्यूलेन हॉल में की गयी थी जिसे बाद में सेरो सांता लूसिया नाम दिया गया। श्री वाल्दिविया ने इस जगह का चुनाव इस जगह की अच्छी जलवायु एवं परिवहन के लिए आसानी से उपलब्ध मापोचो नदी की वजह से की थी। १ सितंबर १५४१ को अराको युद्ध में यह शहर पूरी तरह तहस नहस हो गयी थी।

१८ वीं सदी के सेंतियागो का नक्शा

प्रारम्भिक भवनों का नि‍र्माण स्थानीय लोगों, जिन्हे Picunche Indians भी कहा जाता था, की मदद से किया गया । शहर के दक्षिणी किनारे पर स्थित मापोचो नदी को बाद में सुखाया गया और जनता के आवागमन तथा अन्य सुविधाओं के लिये खोल दिया गया। सुखाये गए स्थान को आलामेदा कहा जाता था। वैसे इसे अब Avenida Alameda Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins कहा जाता है। १८१०-१८१८ में शहर के दक्षिणी-पश्चिमी छोर में चले चिली युद्ध War of Independence में यह शहर आंशिक रुप से क्षतिग्रस्त हो गया था। (1810–18), in the Battle of Maipú। १८१८ में इस सेंटियागो (Santiago)शहर को राजधानी बनाया गया।

Santiago in 1896.

During the early 19th century, Santiago remained a small town with few buildings excepting Palacio de La Moneda, the building used as the Chilean mint during the Spanish period, and a few churches and other civic buildings. The Iglesia de la Compañía de Jesús caught fire during an 1863 church service, and 2000 people died, one of the worst modern fires.[1]

In the 1880s extraction of nitrate fertilizer in Northern Chile brought prosperity to the country, and promoted the capital city's development. Important landmarks were built in 1910 during the Centennial celebrations of independence from Spain, such as the National Library, the Museum of Fine Arts and the Mapocho Train Station (Estación Mapocho, now an events center).

Santiago began its transformation into a modern city in the 1930s, with the building of the Barrio Cívico, surrounding Palacio de La Moneda. The city also grew in population, due to migration from the north and south of Chile. In 1985 an earthquake destroyed some historically significant buildings in the downtown area.

Nowadays, Santiago is among the largest and most important financial centers in Latin America.[तथ्य वांछित]

भूगोल[संपादित करें]

Satellite image of Santiago.

The city lies in the center of the Santiago Basin, a large bowl-shaped valley consisting of a broad and fertile plain surrounded by mountains. It is flanked by the main chain of the Andes on the east and the Chilean Coastal Range on the west. On the north, it is bound by the Cordón de Chacabuco, a transverse mountain range of the Andes, whereas at the southern border lies Angostura de Paine, where an elongated spur of the Andes almost reaches the Coastal Range. Santiago Basin is part of the Intermediate Depression and is remarkably flat, interrupted only by a few hills. Among those are Cerro Renca, Cerro Blanco and Cerro Santa Lucía.

The Andes mountains around Santiago are quite tall, culminating in Tupungato volcano at 6,570 मी (21,555 फ़ुट). Other volcanoes include Tupungatito, San José and Maipo. Cerro El Plomo is the highest mountain visible from Santiago's urban area.

जलवायु[संपादित करें]

The Andes Mountain from Santiago.

Santiago has a mild Mediterranean climate: relatively hot dry summers (November to March) with temperatures reaching up to 35 degrees Celsius (95 degrees Fahrenheit) on the hottest days; winters (June to August) are more humid and cold mornings, with typical maximum daily temperatures of 15 degrees Celsius (59 degrees Fahrenheit), and minimums of a few degrees above freezing. Occasional snowfall occurs on the suburbs that are highest, and may extend to the rest, but infrequently (the last snowfall reaching down to the city center was in August 2007). Mean rainfall is 358 mm per year.






Nuvola apps kweather.svg सानतिआगो के लिए मौसम के औसत Weather-rain-thunderstorm.svg
महीने जन फर मार्च अप्रैल मई जून जुलाई अग सितं अक्तू नवं दिसं वर्ष
उच्चमान°C (°F) 37
(99)
36
(97)
34
(93)
31
(88)
25
(77)
23
(73)
19
(66)
23
(73)
24
(75)
30
(86)
33
(91)
37
(99)
37
(99)
औसत उच्च°C (°F) 29
(84)
28
(82)
26
(79)
19
(66)
14
(57)
13
(55)
12
(54)
13
(55)
15
(59)
20
(68)
25
(77)
27
(81)
19
(66)
औसत निम्न °C (°F) 15
(59)
14
(57)
10
(50)
7
(45)
5
(41)
3
(37)
2
(36)
3
(37)
5
(41)
7
(45)
10
(50)
15
(59)
8
(46)
निम्नमान °C (°F) 6
(43)
5
(41)
4
(39)
-2
(28)
-3
(27)
-6
(21)
-7
(19)
-7
(19)
-5
(23)
-2
(28)
2
(36)
7
(45)
-7
(19)
वर्षा mm (इंच) 0.4
(0.02)
0.8
(0.03)
3.2
(0.13)
20.4
(0.8)
52.2
(2.06)
70.4
(2.77)
86.6
(3.41)
61.8
(2.43)
32.0
(1.26)
13.4
(0.53)
9.2
(0.36)
5.1
(0.2)
355.5
(14)
स्रोत: January 5, 2008

पारिस्थतिक मुद्दे[संपादित करें]

Thermal inversion (a meteorological phenomenon whereby a stable layer of warm air holds down colder air close to the ground) causes high levels of smog and air pollution to be trapped and concentrate within the Central Valley during winter months. In the 1990s air pollution fell by about one-third, but there has been little progress since 2000.

As of March 2007, only 61% of the wastewater in Santiago was treated[2], which increased up to 71% by the end of the same year, however, the Mapocho river, which crosses the city from the north-east to the south-west of the Central Valley, remains contaminated by household, agricultural and industrial sewage, and by upstream copper-mining waste (there are a number of copper mines in the Andes east of Santiago), being dumped unfiltered into the river.[3] Laws force industry and local governments to process all their wastewater, but are loosely enforced.[4] There are now a number of large wastewater processing and recycling plants under construction. There are ongoing plans to decontaminate the river[5] and make it navigable[6].

Noise levels on the main streets are high[7], mostly because of noisy diesel buses. Diesel trucks and buses are also major contributors to winter smog. A lengthy replacement process of the bus system began in 2005 and will last until 2010 (see Transportation section below).

Panorama view of northern Santiago, seen from Providencia
Magnify-clip.png
Panorama view of northern Santiago, seen from Providencia

जनसांख्यिकी[संपादित करें]

Population of Santiago from 1820 to 2020.
Santiago by Human Development Index on a commune-basis. Greener is higher. The blue line divides the formal areas of the city.

The population of Santiago's urban agglomeration grew from 0.982 million in 1940 to 2.82 million in 1970 and 4.75 million in 1992. According to the 2002 census, it contains a population of about 5.47 million, equivalent to nearly 37% of the total population of the country and 43% of the total urban population, making it one of the largest cities in Latin America. Santiago's Metropolitan Area, according to an official estimate from 2006, has a population of 6.293 million people.

The city is increasingly receiving immigration from other countries in Latin America due to comparatively strong economic growth. Many Peruvians live in Santiago, as well as Bolivians, Argentines, and Ecuadorians.

अर्थव्यवस्था[संपादित करें]

Santiago at night

Santiago is the industrial and financial center of Chile, and generates 45 percent of the country's GDP.[तथ्य वांछित] The city, along with Buenos Aires and São Paulo, is one of the main financial centres of South America. Some international institutions, such as ECLAC (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean), have their offices in Santiago.

In recent years, due to the strong growth and stability of the Chilean economy[तथ्य वांछित], many multinational companies have chosen Santiago as the place for their headquarters in the region, like HP, Reuters, JP Morgan, Intel, Coca-Cola, Unilever, Nestlé, Kodak, BHP Billiton, IBM, Motorola, Microsoft, Ford, Yahoo!, and many more.

निर्माण[संपादित करें]

The construction sector is booming in Santiago.[तथ्य वांछित] Several large apartment complexes are being built throughout the city and construction cranes are a common sight. Currently under construction is the Costanera Center, a mega project in Santiago's Financial District. This includes a 2,80,000 वर्ग मीटर (30,14,000 वर्ग फ़ुट) mall, a 300 मीटर (980 फ़ुट) tower, two office towers of 170 मीटर (558 फ़ुट) each, and a hotel 105 मीटर (344 फ़ुट) tall. When completed in 2010 it will be the tallest building in South America. Near Costanera Center another skyscraper is being built, Titanium La Portada, and this will be 190 मीटर (623 फ़ुट) tall. Although these are the two biggest projects, there are many other office buildings under construction in Santiago, as well as hundreds of high rise residential buildings.

यातायात[संपादित करें]

वायु[संपादित करें]

कोमोडोरो आर्चुरो मेरिनो बेनितेज अं‍‍र्तराष्ट्रीय हवाई अड़्डा (Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport)सेंटियागो में स्थित राष्ट्रीय तथा अं‍‍र्तराष्ट्रीय हवाई अड़्डा है।

रेल[संपादित करें]

Central Station.

Trains operated by Chile's national railway, Empresa de los Ferrocarriles del Estado, connect Santiago to Temuco, in the central-southern part of the country. All such trains arrive and depart from the Estación Central ("Central Station").

बसें[संपादित करें]

बस कम्पनियाँ सेंटियागो से देश के विभिन्न प्रांतों में यात्री आवागमन की सुविधा प्रदान करती है। कुछेक बस कम्पनियाँ मालवाहक और पार्सल पहुँचाने का काम भी करती है।

राजपथ[संपादित करें]

Expressway in Las Condes

Toll road, inter-urban free flow highways connect the city's extremes, including the Vespucio Highway (which surrounds the city describing a semi-circle), Autopista Central (which crosses the city in a North-South direction), and the Costanera Norte (which runs from the eastern edge, in Las Condes to the international airport and the higways to Valparaíso on the western side of the city).

मेट्रो[संपादित करें]

Santiago Metro map
चित्र:400358840 dc724d98f9 o.jpg
Cristobal Colón Station in Line 4

The Santiago Metro has five operating lines. Two subway lines (Line 4 and 4A) and an extension of Line 2 were inaugurated during late 2005 and 2006. The system is under expansion, and extensions are going to be built on Lines 1 and 5 throughout 2009.

परिवहन व्यवस्था[संपादित करें]

A new Transantiago system articulated bus.

Transantiago is the name for the city's public transport system. It works by combining local (feeder) bus lines, main bus lines and the Metro network. It includes an integrated fare system, which allows passengers to make bus-to-bus or bus-to-metro transfers for the price of one ticket, using a single contactless smartcard.

Introduced on February 10 2007, it attempted to rationalize bus routes by eliminating redundancy, patent in the previous chaotic system run by thousands of independent bus operators. The plan backfired, however, as the decreased bus fleet and the newer routes proved insufficient to properly serve a population inadequately prepared for the changes. The major complaints are the lack of buses and their inconsistent frequencies, missing or poor infrastructure (such as segregated corridors, pre-paid areas and bus stops), the network's coverage, and the number of transfers needed for longer trips. As a result, users have overcrowded the Metro, which they see as fast and predictable.

टैक्सी[संपादित करें]

Taxicabs can usually be found on the streets and are painted black with yellow roofs; unmarked taxis may be called up by telephone (Radiotaxis). Colectivos are shared taxicabs that carry passengers along a specific route, for a fixed fee.

राजनैतिक डिविजन[संपादित करें]

Greater Santiago extends throughout 37 municipalities and covered 64,140 ha in 2002. The majority of Santiago lies within the same named province, with some peripheral areas contained in the provinces of Talagante, Maipo and Cordillera. Specifically, Santiago joins the cities of San Bernardo (Maipo province) and Puente Alto (Cordillera province) to form the Greater Santiago conurbation.

The province of Santiago is divided into 32 municipalities (comunas in Spanish). Each municipality in Chile is headed by a mayor (alcalde) elected by voters every four years. The members of the municipal council (concejales) are elected in the same election on a separate ballot.

Map of Santiago communes
Communes in Santiago Province
Santiago
Cerrillos
Cerro Navia
Conchalí
El Bosque
Estación Central
Huechuraba
Independencia
La Cisterna
La Florida
La Granja
La Pintana
La Reina
Las Condes
Lo Barnechea
Lo Espejo
Lo Prado
Macul
Maipú
Ñuñoa
Pedro Aguirre Cerda
Peñalolén
Providencia
Pudahuel
Quilicura
Quinta Normal
Recoleta
Renca
San Joaquín
San Miguel
San Ramón
Vitacura
Communes in other provinces
Padre Hurtado
Pirque
Puente Alto
San Bernardo
San José de Maipo

सांस्कृतिक जीवन[संपादित करें]

Municipal Theatre of Santiago
Bellas Artes museum
Contemporary Art Museum of Santiago
Palacio de La Moneda in downtown Santiago
चित्र:PICT0780.JPG
First Fire Department of Santiago

संगीत[संपादित करें]

There are two symphonic orchestras:

  • Orquesta Filarmónica de Santiago, which performs in the Teatro Municipal
  • Orquesta Sinfónica de Chile, dependent of the Universidad de Chile, performs in its theater.

There are also various jazz establishments, the most notable being the Club de Jazz in Ñuñoa. The city has a very vibrant underground music scene. Some of its most popular venues are La Batuta in Ñuñoa and Blondie's disco in downtown Santiago.

संग्रहालय[संपादित करें]

Museums include:

मनोरंजन[संपादित करें]

The city's main parks are:

Modern ski resorts within an hour's drive east from the city include:

Some of the country's most important winegrowing areas lie in the nearby Maipo and Aconcagua Valleys. Several vineyards are located in this area:

Cultural places to visit include:

Main Sport Venues:

धर्म[संपादित करें]

Santiago's Metropolitan Cathedral.
Templo Votivo de Maipu.

Most of Chile's population is Catholic and Santiago is no exception. According to the National Census, carried out in 2002 by the National Statistics Bureau (INE), in the Santiago Metropolitan Region, 3,129,249 people 15 and older identified themselves as Catholics, equivalent to 68.7% of the total population, while 595,173 (13.1%) described themselves as Evangelical Protestants. Around 1.2% of the population declared themselves as being Jehovah's Witnesses, while 0.9% identified themselves as Latter-day Saints (Mormons), 0.25% as Jewish, 0.11% as Orthodox and 0.03% as Muslim. Approximately 10.4% of the population of the Metropolitan Region stated that they were atheist or agnostic, while 5.4% declared to follow other religions.[8]


संदर्भ[संपादित करें]

  1. Brief report of the fire (Spanish)
  2. [|Revista Ecoamérica]. "Cruzada ambiental por el Mapocho limpio" (Spanish में). http://www.ecoamerica.cl/sitio/index.php?area=320. अभिगमन तिथि: 2008-02-11. "permitirá pasar del 68 al 81% en el tratamiento de las aguas servidas" 
  3. El Mercurio. "Región Metropolitana saneará el 100% de aguas servidas al 2010" (Spanish में). Fundación Terram. http://www.terram.cl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1689. अभिगमन तिथि: 2008-02-11. 
  4. [|Comisión Regional Metropolitana del Medio Ambiente]. "Agua, Recurso Escaso y Vital" (Spanish में). http://www.conama.cl/rm/568/article-892.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2008-11-02. "se calcula que sólo el 77% de las industrias del país cumple con la norma de RILES existente" 
  5. "Mapocho urbano limpio: El río soñado". http://www.revistabit.cl/pdf/44-47.pdf. अभिगमन तिथि: 2008-11-02. "Proyecto Mapocho Urbano Limpio" 
  6. Fundación Futuro. "Proyecto Mapocho" (Spanish में). http://www.fundacionfuturo.cl/mapocho/galeria.htm. 
  7. [|Comisión Regional Metropolitana del Medio Ambiente]. "Ruidos molestos en Santiago" (Spanish में). http://www.conama.cl/rm/568/article-921.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2008-02-11. "cerca de un 70% de la población santiaguina está expuesta a serias interferencias de su sueño por ruido que excede 65 dB" 
  8. INE, Chile, 2002 Census

वाह्य सूत्र[संपादित करें]