↑ अआThe fricative [z]~[ʑ] is in free variation with the affricate [dz]~[dʑ]. Usually, this is represented phonemically as /z/.
↑The Japanese r varies between a postalveolar flap [ɽ] and an alveolar lateral flap [ɺ].
↑The Japanese w is not equivalent to a typical IPA [w] since it is pronounced with lip compression rather than rounding. The labial spreading diacritic is an extended IPA character.
↑The Japanese /e/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of pay (for most English dialects) and the vowel of met; the Japanese vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
↑ अआThere is no simple symbol in the IPA for Japanese u, which is neither rounded [u] nor unrounded [ɯ], but compressed[ɯ͡β̞]. The labial spreading diacritic is an extended IPA character.
↑The position of this downstep, which does not occur in all words, varies between dialects, and frequently is not indicated. The downstep is a drop in pitch; the word rises in pitch before the ꜜ. When ꜜ occurs after the final syllable of a word, any attached grammatical particles will have low tone.