रासायनिक इंजीनियरी का इतिहास

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
यहाँ जाएँ: भ्रमण, खोज

रासायनिक इंजीनियरी की विधा अभी एक स वर्ष से कुछ अधिक पुरानी हो गयी है। इस विधा का विकास उन्नीसवीं शताब्दी के अन्तिम वर्षों में यांत्रिक इंजीनियरी से हुआ। औद्योगिक क्रान्ति के पूर्व काल में औद्योगिक रसायनों का निर्माण "बैच प्रक्रिया" (batch processing) के द्वारा होता था। बैच प्रक्रिया भोजन बनाने (कुकिंग) जैसी प्रक्रिया है - कुछ व्यक्ति एक पात्र में कुछ सामग्री मिलाते हैं, मिश्रण को गरम करते या दाबित करते हैं, इसका परीक्षण करते हैं और इसका शुद्धीकरण करते हैं तालि बिक्री-योग्य उत्पाद बन जाये।

आज भी कुछ मूल्यवान रसायनों का निर्माण बैच प्रक्रिया द्वारा किया जाता है किन्तु अब अधिकांश औद्योगिक रसायनों का निर्माण सतत प्रक्रिया (continuous process) द्वारा ही किया जाता है क्योंकि बैच प्रक्रिया धीमी एवं कम दक्ष प्रक्रिया है।

उन्नीसवीं शताब्दी से पूर्व[संपादित करें]

1670 राबर्ट बॉयल (Robert Boyle) ने धातु पर अम्ल की अभिक्रिया से हाइड्रोजन बनाया।

1738 डेनियल बर्नौली (Daniel Bernoulli) 'हाइड्रोडाइनेमिका' (Hydrodynamica) नामक शोधपत्र प्रकाशित किया जिसमें गैसों के अणुगति सिद्धान्त (kinetic theory of gases) का आधार मौजूद था।

1 7 5 2 Joseph Black discovers “ fixed air” – carbon dioxide

1789 Antoine Lavoisier publishes Traité elémentaire de chimie

1791 Samuel Hopkins receives first U.S.patent for improvement “in the making of Pot ash and Pearl ash by a new apparatus and process”

उन्नीसवीं शताब्दी[संपादित करें]

1802 Eleuthere Irenee du Pont builds a gunpowder factory along the Brandywine River (Delaware)

1807 Humphry Davy obtains elemental potassium and sodium by electrolysis (and calcium, strontium,barium,and magnesium the following year)

1811 Amadeo Avogadro demonstrates that equal volumes of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules

1824 Sadi Carnot publishes "Réflexions sur la puissance du feu et sur les machines propres à développer cette puissance" on the thermodynamics of the steam engine

1846 Ascanio Sobrero invents nitroglycerine

1852 American Society of Civil Engineers and Architects founded (now ASCE,with 123,000 members)

1856 Bessemer process invented to cast steel

1863 Alkali Works Act passed by British government – measure to control environmental emissions

1866 Celluloid invented by Alexander Parkes

1870 Standard Oil Co.formed by John D.Rockefeller

1872 Solvay process introduced for soda ash

1876 American Chemistry Society founded (now with 163,000 members)

1880 George E. D avis unsuccessfully suggests forming a Society of Chemical Engineers; A m e r i c a n Society of Mechanical Engineers f o u n d e d

1881 Society of Chemical Industry founded

1882 Course in Chemical Te c h n o l o gy offered at University College, L o n d o n

1884 American Institute of Electrical Engineers founded (later combined with Institute of Radio Engineers to form IEEE); Solvay Process Co.opens in Syracuse,NY

1887 George E.Davis offers lectures on “chemical operations”(unit operations) at Manchester Technical School

1888 Lewis M.Norton initiates Course X,Chemical Engineering, at MIT

1891 MIT awards seven B.S.degrees in chemical engineering (first goes to William Page Bryant)

1892 University of Pennsylvania establishes program in chemical engineering

1894 Tulane University establishes chemical engineering department

1898 University of Michigan, University of Wisconsin, Tufts University establish chemical engineering programs

1899 Bayer aspirin available to public

1900 John Herreshoff develops the first contact method for sulfuric acid in U.S.

1902 American Electrochemical Society founded; Monsanto begins manufacturing saccharin; 3M founded

बीसवीं शताब्दी[संपादित करें]

1904 The Chemical Engineer begins publication

1905 University of Wisconsin awards first Ph.D.in chemical engineering to Oliver Patterson Watts

1907 Linde Air Products founded (lat e r P r a x a i r)

1908 American Institute of Chemical Engineers founded

1910 General Bakelite Corp. established by Leo Hendrik B a e k e l a n d

1911 U . S . Supreme Court breaks up Standard Oil trust into 34 c o m p a n i e s, i n cluding Jersey Standard and Socony (predecessors of Exxon and M o b i l)

1912 AIChE institutes code of ethics; William M. Burton patents bat c h process for thermal cracking of hydrocarbons

1913 BASF introduces Haber-Bosch process for ammonia

1915 Arthur D.Little coins term “unit operations”

1916 Société de Chimie Industrielle founded

1918 Chemical Engineering Group of the Society of Chemical Industry is formed

1920 George Eastman buys wood- distillation plant; forms Tennessee Eastman Corp.

1921 Union Carbide begins commercial cracking of nat u r a l g a s

1922 Institution of Chemical Engineers founded; Thomas Midgely adds tetraethyl lead to gasoline to reduce engine “knock”

1923 Principles of Chemical Engineering published by William H. Walker, Warren K. Lewis,and William H. McAdams

1925 Warren L. McCabe and Ernest W. Thiele combine grap h i c a l methods with experimental d ata to determine number of theoretical plates needed to establish given concentrat i o n difference in a distillat i o n column; Fi s c h e r- Tr o p s c h synthesis for indirect coal liquefaction developed; 3M introduces Scotch Masking Tape

1928 Donald F. Othmer constructs “the first simple,precise system for determining vapor- liquid equilibria”

1931 Walter L.Badger and Warren L. McCabe publish Elements of Chemical Engineering

1934 John H. Perry publishes first edition of Chemical Engineering Handbook

1937 Houdry catalytic cracker is installed at a Sun Oil plant

1939 DuPont begins production of polyamide nylon; Imperial Chemical Industries begins production of low-density polyethylene

1940 Nylon stockings go on sale – with almost 800,000 pairs sold on the first day

1941 Archer J.P. Martin and Richard L.M.Synge develop liquid- liquid partition chromatography; Dow extracts magnesium from seawater on commercial scale

1942 Manhattan Project is formed; Society of Plastics Sales Engineers founded (later Society of Plastics Engineers)

1943 D u Pont produces p o l y (t e t r a fluoroethylene) (Te flo n)

1944 Dow Corning begins industrial- scale manufacture of silicone used for sealant

1947 Fischer-Tropsch process used to generate hydrocarbons; Chemical Engineering Progress begins publication,as well as Vol.1 of Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology; ship loaded with ammonium nitrate explodes,destroying Monsanto plant in Texas City and killing more than 500 people

1948 Transistor invented

1950 Society of Women Engineers founded

1951 DuPont manufactures poly(ethylene terephthalate) – first polyester

1955 American Academy of Environmental Engineers formed

1957 General Electric introduces polycarbonate plastics

1959 Monsanto opens plant to produce ultra-pure silicon

1960 R . Byron Bird, Warren E. S t e w a r t, and Edwin N. Lightfoot publish Transport Phenomena; silicon microchip invented

1962 Silent Spring published by Rachel C a r s o n, highlighting the dangers of unsafe environmental practices; Eugene Houdry patents cat a l y t i c c o n v e r t e r

1965 DuPont introduces Kevlar

1966 Monsanto introduces AstroTurf, based on carpet-fiber technology

1970 Clean Air Act enacted; AIChE forms Environmental Div.; first Earth Day

1971 Society of Black Engineers formed (later National Society of Black Engineers)

1972 Clean Water Act passed

1973 Arab oil embargo

1974 Unleaded gasoline introduced; Society of Mexican A m e r i c a n Engineers and Scientists and Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers formed

1975 Optical fibers developed

1976 Resources Conservation & Recovery Act passed; Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems formed at AIChE; National Academy of Sciences reports on deleterious effect of chlorofluorocarbons on ozone layer

1978 Design Institute for Physical Property Data (DIPPR) formed at AIChE; chloroflu o r o c a r b o n s banned

1979 Human insulin synthesized

1980 Comprehensive Environmental Response,Compensation & Liability Act (CERCLA) passed; 3M introduces Post-It Notes

1981 D u Pont buys Conoco Inc., n e a r l y doubling its assets and r e v e n u e s

1982 Monsanto scientists genetically modify plant cell for the first time

1984 A gas leak from a tank of methyl isocyanate at a Union Carbide plant in Bhopal,India results in 3,800 deaths

1985 Center for Chemical Process Safety formed at AIChE

1986 Reactor core melts down in Chernobyl,Ukraine nuclear power plant

1988 American Chemistry Council launches Responsible Care initiative; National Academy of Engineering publishes Frontiers of Chemical Engineering (Amundson Report)

1989 Exxon Valdez runs aground in A l a s k a, releasing more than 11 million gallons of crude oil; Procter & Gamble introduces bottle made completely of r e cy cled PET

1990 Clean Air Act Amendments; Pollution Prevention Act passed

1994 Advocates for Women in Science,Engineering and Mathematics founded

1995 D ow Corning files for bankruptcy ; D ow takes over three companies in former East Germany

1997 Monsanto spins off chemicals business as Solutia to concentrate on life sciences

1998 Exxon and Mobil merge; DuPont introduces first once- daily treatment for HIV and AIDS

1999 Dow and Union Carbide merge

2001 Human Genome Project completed; DuPont announces intent to sell pharmaceuticals business to Bristol-Myers Squibb

बाहरी कड़ियाँ[संपादित करें]

of chemical engineering]]