भूख

मुक्त ज्ञानकोश विकिपीडिया से
यहाँ जाएँ: भ्रमण, खोज

भूख उस समय अनुभव होती है, जब खाना खाने की इच्छा होती है। परितृप्ति भूख का अभाव है। भूख की अनुभूति हाइपोथैल्मस से शुरु होती है जब यह हार्मोन छोड़ता है। यह हार्मोन यकृत के अभिग्राहक पर प्रतिक्रिया करती है। हालांकि एक सामान्य वयक्ति बिना भोजन के कई सप्ताहों तक जिंदा रह सकता है।[1] भूख की अनुभूति भोजन के कुछ घंटों बाद शुरू हो जाती है और व्यक्ति असहज महसूस करने लगता है। भूख शब्द का इस्तेमाल व्यक्ति के सामाजिक स्तर को बताने के लिए किया जाता है।

कुपोषण, अकाल, भूखमरी[संपादित करें]

  • कुपोषण शब्द का प्रयोग अपर्याप्त आहार या पोषण को व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है।
  • अकाल भोजन की व्यापक कमी की स्थिति है। किसी खास क्षेत्र में व्यापक कुपोषण, भूखमरी की स्थिति.
  • भूखमरी भूख से शरीर के जर्जर और खोखला होने की स्थिति है। यह मृत्यु से पहले की दशा है।

भूख का दंश[संपादित करें]

जब अमाशय में मरोड़ देने लगता है। भूख का मरोड़ अक्सर भोजन के बारह से चौबीस घंटे के पहले शुरू नहीं होता है। भूख का एक मरोड करीब 30 सेकेंड तक रहता है। और यह लगाता 30–45 मिनटों तक होता रहा है। इसके बाद भूख 30-150 मिनटों तक कम हो जाता है

जैविकीय प्रक्रिया[संपादित करें]

The fluctuation of leptin and ghrelin hormone levels results in the motivation of an organism to consume food. When an organism eats, adipocytes trigger the release of leptin into the body. Increasing levels of leptin results in a reduction of one's motivation to eat.[2] After hours of non-consumption, leptin levels drop significantly. These low levels of leptin cause the release of secondary hormone, ghrelin, which in turn reinitiates the feeling of hunger.

Some studies have suggested that an increased production of ghrelin may enhance appetite evoked by the sight of food, while an increase in stress may also influence the hormone's production.[3] These findings may help to explain why hunger can prevail even in stressful situations.

व्यावहारिक प्रतिक्रिया[संपादित करें]

Hunger appears to increase activity and movement in many animals - for example, an experiment on spiders showed increased activity and predation in starved spiders, resulting in larger weight gain.[4] This pattern is seen in many animals, including humans while sleeping.[5] It even occurs in rats with their cerebral cortex or stomachs completely removed.[6] Increased activity on hamster wheels occurred when rats were deprived not only of food, but also water or B vitamins such as thiamine.[7] This response may increase the animal's chance of finding food, though it has also been speculated the reaction relieves pressure on the home population.[5]

भूख की सांख्यिकी[संपादित करें]

On June 19, 2009, it was reported that world hunger hit one billion people,[8] about a sixth of the world's total population.

There were 923 million hungry people in the world in 2007, an increase of 80 million since 1990.[9] The world already produces enough food to feed everyone - 6 billion people - and could feed the double - 12 billion people.[10]

Year 1970 1980 1990 2005 2007
Share of hungry people in the developing world[11][12] 37 % 28 % 20 % 16 % 17 %

भूख से मौत[संपादित करें]

  • हर सेकेंड भूख से एक व्यक्ति की मौत हो जाती है। यानी हर घंटे 3600 लोगों की मौत भूख से होती है। यानी 86400 लोगों की मौत भूख से होती है। यानी हर साल 3,15,3600 लोगों की मौत भूख से होती है। यानी 58 प्रतिशत मौते भूख की वजह से होती है।[13][14][15]
  • On the average, a child under five dies every 5 seconds as a result of starvation - 700 every hour - 16,000 each day - 6,000,000 each year - 60% of all child deaths (2002-2008 estimates).[16][17][18][19][20]

संयुक्त राष्ट्र में भूख[संपादित करें]

The Meals On Wheels Association of America Foundation (MOWAAF) has found that hunger is a serious threat facing millions of seniors in the United States, and that understanding the problem is a critical first step to developing remedies. In 2007, MOWAAF, underwritten by the Harrah's Foundation, commissioned a research study entitled The Causes, Consequences and Future of Senior Hunger in America.[21] The report was released at a hearing of the U.S. Senate Special Committee on Aging in March 2008 in Washington, D.C.

The study found that in the United States, over 5 million seniors, (11.4% of all seniors), experience some form of food insecurity (i.e., were marginally food insecure). Of these, about 2.5 million are at-risk of hunger, and about 750,000 suffer from hunger due to financial constraints. Some groups of seniors are more likely to be at-risk of hunger. Relative to their representation in the overall senior population, those with limited incomes, under age 70, African American, Hispanic, never-married, renters, and seniors living in the Southern United States are all more likely to be at-risk of hunger. While certain groups of seniors are at greater-risk of hunger, hunger cuts across the income spectrum. For example, over 50% of all seniors who are at-risk of hunger have incomes above the poverty threshold. Likewise, it is present in all demographic groups. For example, over two-thirds of seniors at-risk of hunger are Caucasian. There are marked differences in the risk of hunger across family structure, especially for those seniors living alone, or those living with a grandchild. Those living alone are twice as likely to experience hunger compared to married seniors. One in five senior households with a grandchild (but no adult child) present is at-risk of hunger, compared to about one in twenty households without a grandchild present. Seniors living in non-metropolitan areas are as likely to experience food insecurity as those living in metropolitan areas, suggesting that food insecurity cuts across the urban-rural continuum.[22]

भूख जैसा[संपादित करें]

A food craving is an intense desire to consume a specific food, as opposed to general hunger. Similarly, thirst is the craving for fluids. Withdrawal craving is a "hunger" for administering addictive drugs.

इन्हें भी देखिए[संपादित करें]

संगठन[संपादित करें]

संदर्भ[संपादित करें]

  1. "How long can someone survive without water?". http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/story/0,3605,1656867,00.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-05-14. 
  2. OMIM - LEPTIN; LEP
  3. Malik, S; McGlone F, Bedrossian D, Dagher A (2007). Cell Metabolism 7: 400–9. PMID 18460331. 
  4. Provencher, L. & Riechert, S. E. (1991) Short-Term Effects of Hunger Conditioning on Spider Behavior, Predation, and Gain of Weight Oikos 62:160-166
  5. Wald, G.; Jackson, B. (1944) Activity and Nutritional Deprivation Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 30:255-263
  6. "George Wald: The Origin of Death". http://www.elijahwald.com/origin.html. अभिगमन तिथि: 2007-05-14. 
  7. Guerrant, N.B., Dutcher, R.A. (1940) Journal of Nutrition 20:589.
  8. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8109698.stm
  9. Food and Agriculture Organization Economic and Social Development Department. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2008 : High food prices and food security - threats and opportunities”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2008, p. 2. “FAO’s most recent estimates put the number of hungry people at 923 million in 2007, an increase of more than 80 million since the 1990–92 base period.”.
  10. Jean Ziegler. “Promotion And Protection Of All Human Rights, Civil, Political, Economic, Social And Cultural Rights, Including The Right To Development: Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Jean Ziegler”. Human Rights Council of the United Nations, January10, 2008.“According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the world already produces enough food to feed every child, woman and man and could feed 12 billion people, or double the current world population.”
  11. Food and Agriculture Organization Agricultural and Development Economics Division. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2006 : Eradicating world hunger – taking stock ten years after the World Food Summit”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2006, p. 8. “Because of population growth, the very small decrease in the number of hungry people has nevertheless resulted in a reduction in the proportion of undernourished people in the developing countries by 3 percentage points – from 20 percent in 1990–92 to 17 percent in 2001–03. (…) the prevalence of undernourishment declined by 9 percent (from 37 percent to 28 percent) between 1969–71 and 1979–81 and by a further 8 percentage points (to 20 percent) between 1979–81 and 1990–92.”.
  12. Food and Agriculture Organization Economic and Social Development Department. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2008 : High food prices and food security - threats and opportunities”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2008, p. 6. “Good progress in reducing the share of hungry people in the developing world had been achieved – down from almost 20 percent in 1990–92 to less than 18 percent in 1995–97 and just above 16 percent in 2003–05. The estimates show that rising food prices have thrown that progress into reverse, with the proportion of undernourished people worldwide moving back towards 17 percent.”.
  13. Jean Ziegler. “The Right to Food: Report by the Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, Mr. Jean Ziegler, Submitted in Accordance with Commission on Human Rights Resolution 2000/10”. United Nations, February 7, 2001, p. 5. “On average, 62 million people die each year, of whom probably 36 million (58 per cent) directly or indirectly as a result of nutritional deficiencies, infections, epidemics or diseases which attack the body when its resistance and immunity have been weakened by undernourishment and hunger.”.
  14. Commission on Human Rights. “The right to food : Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/25”. Office Of The High Commissioner For Human Rights, United Nations, April 22, 2002, p. 2. “every year 36 million people die, directly or indirectly, as a result of hunger and nutritional deficiencies, most of them women and children, particularly in developing countries, in a world that already produces enough food to feed the whole global population”.
  15. United Nations Information Service. “Independent Expert On Effects Of Structural Adjustment, Special Rapporteur On Right To Food Present Reports: Commission Continues General Debate On Economic, Social And Cultural Rights”. United Nations, March 29, 2004, p. 6. “Around 36 million people died from hunger directly or indirectly every year.”.
  16. Food and Agriculture Organization Staff. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2002: Food Insecurity : when People Live with Hunger and Fear Starvation”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2002, p. 6. “6 million children under the age of five, die each year as a result of hunger.”
  17. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Economic and Social Dept. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2004: Monitoring Progress Towards the World Food Summit and Millennium Development Goals”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2004, p. 8. “Undernourishment and deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals cost more than 5 million children their lives every year”.
  18. Jacques Diouf. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2004: Monitoring Progress Towards the World Food Summit and Millennium Development Goals”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2004, p. 4. “one child dies every five seconds as a result of hunger and malnutrition”.
  19. Food and Agriculture Organization, Economic and Social Dept. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2005: Eradicating World Hunger - Key to Achieving the Millennium Development Goals”. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2005, p. 18. “Hunger and malnutrition are the underlying cause of more than half of all child deaths, killing nearly 6 million children each year – a figure that is roughly equivalent to the entire preschool population of Japan. Relatively few of these children die of starvation. The vast majority are killed by neonatal disorders and a handful of treatable infectious diseases, including diarrhoea, pneumonia, malaria and measles. Most would not die if their bodies and immune systems had not been weakened by hunger and malnutrition moderately to severely underweight, the risk of death is five to eight times higher.”.
  20. Human Rights Council. “Resolution 7/14. The right to food”. United Nations, March 27, 2008, p. 3. “6 million children still die every year from hunger-related illness before their fifth birthday”.
  21. Ziliak, Gundersen and Haist. (2007) The Causes, Consequences and Future of Senior Hunger in America, University of Kentucky Center for Poverty and Research, Lexington, KY. (88pages. 2MB.)
  22. Excerpt from "The Causes, Consequences and Future of Senior Hunger in America", Executive Summary, pp.i-ii

External links[संपादित करें]