कड़पा भारत के आंध्रप्रदेश राज्य के दक्षिण-मध्य में स्थित एक शहर है. यह कड़पा जिला का जिला मुख्यालय भी है. कड़पा शब्द की उत्पत्ति तेलुगु शब्द गडपा से हुई है जिसका अर्थ द्वार होता है. पहले ये कड़प्पा नाम से जाना जाता था बाद में कड़पा हो गया. मध्यकाल में कड़पा में अनेक महापुरूषों के लिए जाना जाता था. वेमना, पोथुलुरी वीर ब्रह्म, अन्नामाचार्य, पेम्मसानी थिम्मा नायुडु जैसे महापुरूष यहीं पैदा हुए. लेकिन दुर्भाग्यवश आजकल यह जातीय हिंसा के लिए जाना जाता है. कड़पा आंध्रप्रदेश के रायलासीमा क्षेत्र का मशहूर शहर है. यह आंध्रप्रदेश के दक्षिण मध्य में स्थित है. यह पेन्ना नदी से आठ किलोमीटर दूरी पर स्थित है. यह शहर तीन ओर से नल्लामाला और पालाकोंडा पहाड़ियों से घिरा है. इस शहर को द्वार भी कहा जाता है. दरअसल यह उत्तर से तिरूपति स्थित भगवान श्री वेंकटेश्वर की पवित्र पहाड़ी पगोडा आने वाले लोगों के लिए द्वार जैसा है. रामायण के सात कांडों में एक किष्किंधाकांड, कडपा के वोंतिमित्ता में हुई घटना माना जाता है. वोंतमित्ता कड़पा शहर से बीस किलोमीटर की दूरी पर स्थित है. यहां का आंजनेय स्वामी गांडी भी रामायण का हिस्सा माना जाता है. ऐसा माना जाता है कि भगवान श्री राम ने अपने बाण से गांडी पर आंजनेय स्वामी विग्रहम बनाया था, जो श्री सीता की खोज में आंजनेय हनुमान से सहायता मांगने का प्रतीक है.
ग्यारहवी से चौदवीं सदी तक कड़पा शहर रेनाती चोल साम्राज्य का हिस्सा रहा. चौदवीं सदी के अंत में यह विजयनगरम साम्राज्य का हिस्सा बन गया. दो दशकों तक यह विजयनगरम के शासक गांडीकोटा नायक वंश के अधीन रहा है. यहां का सबसे मशहूर शासक पेम्मासानी थिम्मा नायुडु था(1422 सदी), जिसने इस क्षेत्र का खूब विकास किया. उसने कई टैंक और मंदिर बनवाए. 1565 ईस्वी में मुगलों ने गोलकुंडा पर कब्जा कर लिया. मीर जुमला ने गांडीकोटा किले पर छापेमारी की और चिन्ना थिम्मा नायुडु को धोखे से हरा दिया. 1800 ईस्वी में अंग्रेजों ने कड़पा को अपने कब्जे में ले लिया. यह शहर काफी पुराना है, लेकिन कुतुब शाही कमांडर नेकनाम खान ने शहर का विस्तार किया और इसे नेकनामाबाद नाम दिया. कुछ दिनों तक यह नाम प्रचलित रहा लेकिन अंग्रेजों ने इसे कड़पा कहना ही ज्यादा पसंद किया. अंग्रेजों के अधीन होने के बाद यह प्रधान समाहर्ता मेजर मुनरो के अधीन चार समाहर्ताओं में एक का मुख्यालय बन गया. कडपपा नबावों के स्मृति अवशेष अब भी शहर में मौजूद हैं. इनमें सबसे प्रसिद्ध टावर और दरगाह हैं. इस शहर के आसपास कई मंदिर और तीन चर्च हैं. कडपा बहुत ही प्रिय स्थान है. यहां कई दर्शनीय स्थल है. ओंतिमित्ता इन्हीं स्थलों में एक है. ओंतिमित्ता को यकशिला नगरम भी कहा जाता है.
भौगोलिक स्थिति[संपादित करें]
कड़पा 14 डिग्री 14°28′ और 14.47°N उत्तरी अक्षांश तथा 78°49′ और 78.82° पूर्वी देशांतर के बीच स्थित है. समुद्रतल से इसकी औसत ऊंचाई 138 मीटर(452 फीट) है. कड़पा जिले का क्षेत्रफल 8723 वर्ग किलोमीटर है. यह अनियमित समांतर चतुर्भुज आकार में पूर्वी घाट की पहाड़ियों से लंबवत बंटा हुआ है. दोनों भागों की आकृति बिल्कुल अलग है. जिले का उत्तर-पूर्व और दक्षिण-पूर्व भाग निम्न ढाल का समतल मैदान है. जबकि दूसरा भाग दक्षिणी और दक्षिण-पश्चिम भाग उच्च while the other, which comprises the southern and southwestern portion, forms a high table-land from 1500 to 2,500 ft (760 m). above sea-level. The chief river is the Pennar, which enters the district from Bellary on the west, and flows eastwards into Nellore. Though a large and broad river, and in the rains containing a great volume of water, in the hot weather months it dwindles down to an inconsiderable stream. Its principal tributaries are the Kundaur, Saglair, Cheyair and Papagni rivers.
Kadapa is in the shape of an irregular parallelogram, divided in half by the range of the Eastern ghats. The city lies in the "Bugga" or "Ralla Vanka" in a hollow bordered on the south by the main Palakondas, part of the eastern ghats, and on the east by a strip of the same hills projecting north towards the Lankamalas on the other side of the Penneru. The two tracts thus formed possess different features. The first, a low-lying plain about 400 ft (120 m) to 450 ft (137 m) above sea level constitutes the north, east and south-east of the city, while the other, which comprises the southern and south-western portion, forms a high table-land from 1500 to 2,500 ft (760 m) above sea-level.
The population of the district in 1901 was 1,291,267. As of 2001 India census, Kadapa had a population of 3,25,725. Males constitute 50% of the population and females 50%. Cuddapah has an average literacy rate of 70%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 76% and, female literacy is 64%. In Kadapa, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age.
The primary languages spoken in the city are Telugu and Urdu. English is used as a medium of education in many of its educational institutions. The city and the district of Kadapa was notorious for factional inter and intra political rivalries. However, things seem to have improved recently. The city has a large non resident citizens spread across the nation and globe. The less educated from the city and district often go to Persian gulf countries such as Kuwait and Saudi Arabia for employment.
PALAKONDA MOUNTIANS:Palakonda ranges are the naturally formed hills bordering kadapa town, a place of tourist attraction having good waterfalls and high altitudes. Ameen Peer Dargah (Asthana-e-Magdoom Ilahi Dargah complex)(Badi Dargah, Pedda Dargah) in Kadapa (Cuddapah) is an example of the communal harmony preached by great saints and sages in ancient days. Come Thursday and Friday, scores of pilgrims cutting across religious faiths, throng the 300-year-old shrine seeking blessings of saints Peerullah Hussaini and Arifullah Hussaini II who lie buried here. Followers of the dargah believe that any wish that one makes at the shrine is always fulfilled. A large number of Hindus, Muslims and people of different faiths are disciples of the shrine. The family’s descendants identify themselves with a saffron dresss and the disciples wear a saffron cap. CHAKRAYAPET GANDI ANJANEYA - This is the place where God Sri Rama on his way to Ayodya from Lanka stayed for one night to take rest. For conveying thanks to Sri Hanuman for his help in getting Sri Sita devi, God Sri Rama made Hanuman statue on a hill stone with the point of his arrow. which you can still see here. And also in Vempalli there is a hill temple where in you need to cross the river and climb the hill to worship Yedulakonda Rayudu. It is said that Yedulakonda Rayudu has more property than Lord Sri Venkateswara. It is said that there are diamonds in and around the hill. On the bank of the river which you cross to climb the hill temple there is a place called Gavi which translates to "Cave" in archaic Telugu Gandi - This is one of the temples in Kadapa; it is 7km from Vempalli in Chakrayapeta in Pulivendula Taluka. Here Sri Anjaneya Swamy statue was established long ago. People believe that the Anjaneya swamy statue is made with Lord Rama's arrow by Himself when He was returning to Ayodhya (Rama's kingdom). There is also a popular belief that only blessed people can see the golden welcome rope between the two hills in Gandi. It is also said that people who see the golden welcome rope will die and go directly to Heaven. There are pictures on the walls of the temple depicting those who supposedly died after seeing the golden welcome rope between two hills. Gangamma Jatara - An annual Jatara of the Shrine of Gangamma is an important event in Anantapuram in Lakkireddypalli in Kadapa district. More than 5 to 10 lakhs of people came for this jatara. This is one of the religious Jataras in Kadapa District. Fort Masjid - One of the famous masjid in kadapa city which was built by 400 years ago.Muslim brothers enjoys while offering prayers. Alladu Palle - Sri Veera Bhadra swamy temple at Alladupalle in Chapadu mandal is a holy place for devotees all over the district. The temple lies on the Mydukur- Proddatur main road 6 km from Mydukur on the banks of Kundu river. A mass congregation event will take place every year on Mahasivaratri. Devotees visit the temple every day in large numbers. Ankalamma Gudur - This is the place where Ankalamma Swamy temple is located. It is a holy place for devotees all over the district. The temple lies on the Pulivendula - Simhadripuram main road 14 km from Pulivendula. The Ankalamma Tirunala will take place every year. Ankalamma devotees visit the temple every Thursday and Sunday in large numbers. Bramham Gaari Matham - This is the birthplace of the writer who predicted many future events. He foresaw these during the 14th century and had made Nawab a devotee of him. Srimadhvirat Pothuloori Veerabramhendra Swamy is famous all over Andhra Pradesh and could be considered as a contemporary of Nostradamus. Devuni Kadapa - This is the place near Kadapa city, which people[who?] believe should be the setting off point for those who intend to visit the holy place of Sri Venkateswarlu (i.e. "Seven Hills). Even people[who?] say that the name of the Kadapa is derived from this place as Devuni GADAPA means "door frame". Gandikota or The Gorge Fort - This is situated about 6 miles (10 km) to the west of Jammalamadugu in Kadapa district. The width within the fort is at its broadest, about five and a half furlongs from west to east, and almost a mile from northwest to southeast. Joukupalli - This is the place where siddaguru swamy (disciple of Bramham garu) temple is located nearby just 0.25 kilometers. One of the prominent place in andhra pradesh, where one can see advanced culture and the inherent beauty of Indian ethics. Jyothi - This place is famous by the great saint KASHIREDDY NAYANA.The sculptured mandapam with 32 pillars, the inner chamber and the sanctum make it a most impressive temple. Kadapotsava - A large celebration in Kadapa that was initiated in 2003 to expunge the bad reputation of Kadapa that it is a faction district which has too many the cinemas and media rather than the culture and traditions of Kadapa. The celebrations are for 5 days continuously. Celebrities come from all over India at that time. During Kadpostavas there are cultural activities, street stalls and various entertainment programs going on in several places in Kadapa. Some many thousands of people come to Kadapa during Kadapostavas. These celebrations are focussed mainly on the media during Kadapostavalu. Ontimitta - This is the place where the Kishkindakanda, one of the 07 kandas of Ramayanam happened. Kodanda Rama Swami temple is there. French traveler Tavernier who visited in 1652 described it as one of the most beautiful temples in India and was astonished at the freedom the people there enjoyed. The Sanctum Sanctorum and annex structures were built in a vast area. The temple is very high. The canopy is built with 32 pillars. It is called Madhya Ranga Mandapam. The archaeological department is renovating it. Pushpa Giri temple - located on the banks of river pennar is the oldest temple located near to kadapa town. Pushpagiri - A place very close to Kadapa, where there are few temples that attract tourists. The largest and the best known of them is the Chennakesava Temple, which has a lofty gopuram, sculptures depicting scenes from the epics, floral motifs and elaborately engraved pillars. Sri Venkateswar Swamy Temple Lakshmi Palem - 3 km from Badvel town on Porumamilla route. This is an ancient temple more than 400 years old built by Matli Anantha Raju, a local feudator of Vijya Nagara Kings.The presiding deity is Venkateswara Swamy and the Utsav idols bear a close resemblance to Tirupati Malayappa idols. The temple celebrates the Brahmotsavams every year in the month of Phalgunam. St. Mary's Cathedral, Mariapuram - St. Mary's Cathedral (built in 1934 and set in Gothic style) in Kadapa is the seat of the Bishop of Cuddapah. The present Bishop of Kadapa is the Most Reverend Dr. G. Prasad. Tallapaka - Tallapaka is a village in Rajampet mandal of Kadapa district. The village has the distinction of being the birthplace of Vaaggeyakara (Means: Lyricist cum Composer) Annamacharya the famous lyricist/composer of devotional songs on Lord Venkateswara who made invaluable contribution to music and literature during the 15th century. Several temples are there in Tallapaka. Dhyana Mandiram was constructed in memory great Saint Tallapaka Annamacharya, at Tallapaka. Yellala Sanjeevaraya Swamy Temple - Currently known as Vellala. This is the place near to proddatur around 20 km from there and other way is from Chagalamarri, Karnool District one can reach same distance. Sanjeevaraya Swamy called Anjaneya or Hanuman. Its is one of the well developed and famous temple in Kadapa District. Karunagiri (Christian pilgrim place, very near to Mydukur), was developed by Rev.Fr.Tom chitta, which has most beautiful scenic beauties, located not far from Mydukur and under 60 km from district head quarters Kadapa VeyyiNutulaKona is a famous Lakshmi Narasimha swami Temple.It has 1000 wells in its surrounding hill area. BalappaKona BalamalleswaraSwamy Kshetram(Lord Shiva Temple) Popularly known as Balappakona. Located in NallaMala Hills Its also known as Dakshina Bhookailas. It is near to TallaProddatur from TallaProddatur 4 km to Balappakona. Karthika Masam is the main attraction of the temple. The Uthsavam is celebrated for 1 Month. Official website of Balappakona www.balappakona.com Created and Maintained By Mr Mitta AmarNath Reddy.
साहित्यिक पहचान[संपादित करें]
The neighbourhood of Kadapa was the birthplace of several ancient and contemporary poets. The great Annamacharya well known as Annamayya was from Rajampet which is an hour and half away from Kadapa. He wrote over 30,000 songs and slokas on Venkateswara in the 15th century. nachana somana (tudimela dinne near Khajipet) "molla ramayanam" famekavaitri molla (gopavaram near badvel), tallapaka thimmakka, (tallapaka) kavi choudappa (hailed in pullur near Khajipet), Janamanchi Seshadri Sarma, Durbhaka rajasekhra sathavadhani,Puttaparty NarayanaCharyulu and Gadiyaram Venkata Sesha Sastry [Proddatur which is 50 km distant from Kadapa.)were the poets of the olden days. The late Rachamallu Ramachandra Reddy, the late Y.C.V. Reddy, the late Sodum Jayaram, Dr. Kethu Viswanadha Reddy, Dadahayat, tavva Obul Reddy , Sannapu Reddy and Viswa prasad are the well known writers of the district. A collection of 47 short stories each one by the writers of kadapa district by name " kadapa katha " released by the chief minister Dr. Y.S.Raja Sekhar Reddy in the sabhabhavan of kadapa collectorate. " kadapa katha " edited by Tavva Obul Reddy and published by A.Rajendra prasad of nandalur kathaanilayam.The stories represents the life of kadapa people. the stories were published earlier in various telugu magazines and daily news papers, in the span of 50 years from 1956 to 2006.
कड़पा में उर्दू[संपादित करें]
Kadapa has been the hub of Urdu literature from hundreds of years. It has produced several Urdu poets and writers in the past. Urdu language has flourished a lot in kadapa due to the efforts of these Urdu patriots. Dr.Rahi fidayee, Dr.Saagar Jayyadi, Aqeel Jamid, Iqbal Qusro, Mahmood Shahid, Prof Anwarulla Anwar are recognized as Prominent Poets in the Urdu world. Yousuf Safi has done work on the Urdu Stage and Drama. His prominent works include Kal Ki Dhup, Majnu Shah and 1857-Inquilab. Rahi Fidayee along with Aqeel Jamid and others stand tall in the race of great poets of the city. Aqeel Jamid has written many poems and books and is a very practical and interesting poet. He also served as a Deputy Tahsidar. Barq Kadapavi an eminent poet, who represented Kadapa internationally for the first time in International Poets Meet. Munshi Hazrath who was the fluent Urdu munshi in Boys High School. Taabish Rabbani and Shakeel Ahmed Shakeel are carrying the flag of Urdu poetry in Kadapa.
Schools and colleges in the Kadapa and the surrounding area include:
Nirmala English Medium High School, which had been providing sophistication and good moral in the youth to achieve enormous success in their life. Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya,Rajampet Nalanda Public School, now called Nalanda High School, Proddatur Municipal Urdu Boys High School, which has both media English and Urdu mother of all experts around the world. Municipal Telugu High School, which is famous school and mother of all experts around the world. Nagarjuna High School, Maruthi Nagar, Kadapa Sri Sarada PostGraduate Institute of Research and Technological sciences,kadapa Vivekananda Educational Academy, Chittoor, Anantapur, Kadapa Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa Sri Venkateswara Degree College, KADAPA Kandula Srinivasa Reddy Memorial College of Engineering (Est. 1978) Kandula Obula Reddy Memorial College of Engineering Annamacharya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Rajampeta (Est. 1998) Vaagdevi Institute Of Technology and Science, Proddatur Madina Engineering College (Est. 1998) (Muslim Minority College) Sri Sai Institute of Technology and Sciences, Rayachoti Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Pulivendla G.I.T.S , Chennur Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Putlam palli, Kadapa Fatima Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa SVIST College of Engineering, Kadapa A.P. Residential School, Mukkavaripalli, Kadapa P. Rami Reddy Memorial College of Pharmacy, Kadapa P. Rami Reddy Memorial College of Physiotherapy, Kadapa P. Rami Reddy Memorial Institute of Technology, Kadapa Indira Priyadarshini College of Nursing, Kadapa The state government of Andhra Pradesh has completed a multi crore (about Rs.125 crores) health project Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS) at Kadapa comprising of a 750-bed super specialty hospital, a medical college (intake of 150 students) and a nursing college for 100 students to cater for the needs and improve the health of the backward, drought-prone area of Rayalaseema Region. The project is located in near the Palakonda hills in a site of 182.25 acres. The hospital is planned with a permanent helipad to airlift patients in emergency to Hyderabad or any other large city.
कृषि और उद्योग[संपादित करें]
Black corson soil lands are 24%, black soil 19%, sandy soil lands 4%, red soil lands 25%. The first variety lands are very fertile. Sand soil lands are not so fertile. ‘Korra’, orange, lime and betel leaf are the special crops. They are cultivated near river beds. Starting at Sunkesula Dam on Tungabadra river Cuddapah-Kurnool (K.C) Canal flows through Cuddapah and Kurnool districts providing water to 40 km² of cultivable land. The main source of drinking water to this district is Galer-Nagari-Sujalasravanthi Canal. The principal crops are millet, rice other food grains, pulse, oilseeds, cotton and indigo. The two last are largely exported. There are several steam factories for pressing cotton, and indigo vats. The district is served by lines of the Madras and the South Indian railways.
This district is the repository of mineral wealth. As per the 1983 survey of geological survey of India 30lakh tons of lead, 740lakh tons of barrettes, 27000tons asbestos deposits are there. It is estimated that 700lakh tons of barites deposits might be there in Mangampet. There are clay deposits in Rajampet. This is used to make stone implements. Limestone is available in Yerraguntla, M/s. Coramandal Fertilizers established a cement factory in Chilamkur with an annual yield of 10lakh tons. Bharat cement corporation increases its capacity to 10lakh tons. National mineral development corporation is extracting asbestos in Brahman palli and barieties in Mangampet. Kadapa is also famous for its stone called as "cuddapah stone" used in building construction and for slabs especially in the south India. Brahmani Steels will establish a steel factory in Jammalamadugu constituency with an investment of Rs. 25,000 crores and an installed capacity of 10 million tonnes by 2017
The steel factory would be the biggest in the country and would generate direct employment to 25,000 persons and indirect employment to two lakh persons in the area.
The forest area is 5,050 km². It is 32.87% of the district area. It is learnt that elephants required for Golconda army were supplied from here. In the northeast part of the district rainfall is high. Red sandalwood is available in plenty. This is the only area in India where red sandalwood is available. A National park is set up in Seshachalam hills for prospecting wild animals. 181 are employed in the only one paper industry in the district and its capital investment is Rs.227lakhs. There are mineral related industries and electrical instruments industries. Zuari Cements, India Cement Ltd, Corus India Ltd are the other industries.
प्रसिद्ध व्यक्तित्व[संपादित करें]
Dynamic leader YSR Dead due to helecoptor crash on 02-09-09 [1949-2009] Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh (2004-Sept 2, 2009) Dr. Puttaparti Narayanacharyulu, Most famous poet Gadiyaram Venkata Sesha SastryMost Popular and Eminent Poet Sri A.V Koti Reddy prominent politician popularly known "Kadapa Koti Reddy" Dr. Ketu Vishwanatha Reddy, Famous Writer and Sahitya Akademi Award Winner B. Nagi Reddy South Indian film producer B. Padmanabham, Veteran film comedian and producer Bomireddi Narasimha Reddy (B. N. Reddy), famous film Director Santha Kumari, an Indian musical artist and film actress Gajjela Malla Reddy, Prominent CPI leader and writer Dr. Muneyya, Who Collected thousands of Folk songs and preserved them , treated as Janapada Bramha Yaga Venugopal Reddy (Y.V.Reddy) - former Reserve Bank of India Governor Justice K. Jayachandra Reddy - Former Supreme Court Judge, Former National Law Commission Chairman, Former Press Council of India Chairman, Member of the Expert Group appointed by United Nations. A. V. S. Reddy, former AP State Election Commissioner Ahmedullah,M.L.A, Assembly Member,Kadapa,Hyd. Abdul Khader (Aqeel Jamid) - Ex Deputy Tahsildar and eminent poet