नाम के साथ प्रयोग हुआ दूसरा शब्द जो नाम कि जाति या किसी विशेषता को व्यक्त करता है उपनाम (Surname / सरनेम) कहलाता है। जैसे महात्मा गाँधी, सचिन तेंदुलकर, भगत सिंह आदि में दूसरा शब्द गाँधी, तेँदुलकर, सिंह उपनाम हैं।
र्रराज़भर== भारत के प्रसिद्ध उपनाम == सिंह, शर्मा, जांगिड़, डांगे, डांगी, ठाकुर, तिवारी, मिश्रा, खान, पठान, कुरैशी, शेख, स्मिथ, वर्गीस, जोशी, सिसोदिया, वाजपेयी, गाँधी, राठौर, पाटिल, पटेल, झाला, गुप्ता, अग्रवाल, जैन, शाह, चौहान, परमार, विजयवर्गीय, राजपूत, मेंडल, यादव, कर्णिक, गौड़, राय, दीक्षित, भट्टाचार्य, बनर्जी, चटर्जी, उपाध्याय, डिसूजा, अंसारी, कुशवाह, पोरवाल, भोंसले, सोलंकी, देशमुख, आपटे, प्रधान, जादौन, जायसवाल, गौतम, भटनागर, श्रीवास्तव, निगम, सक्सेना, चौपड़ा, कपूर, कुलकर्णी, चिटनीस, वाघेला, सिंघल, पिल्लई, स्वामी, नायर, सिंघम, गोस्वामी,गिरी, रेड्डी, नायडू, दास, कश्यप, पुराणिक, दासगुप्ता, नायी ठाकुर, सेन, वर्मा, चौधरी, कोहली, दुबे, चावला, पांडे, महाजन, बोहरा, काटजू, आहूजा, नागर, भाटिया, चतुर्वेदी, चड्डा, गिल, सहगल, टुटेजा, माखिजा, नागौरी, जैदी, टेगोर, भारद्वाज, महार, कहार, सुर्यवंशी, शेखावत, राणा, कुमार, धनगर, अहमद, सुतार, विश्वकर्मा, पाठक, नाथ, पंडित, आर्य, खन्ना, माहेश्वरी, साहू, झा, मजूमदार, तोमर((अर्कवंशी) 'Arkawanshi' became 'Arka' (अर्क) and later 'Arak' (अरक) and 'Arakh' (अरख) आदि।)
अर्कवंशी The town of Khaga is said to have been established by a brave ruler belonging to the martial Arakh clan, named Maharaja Khadagsen (also referred to as Khadag Singh). The Arakhs who ruled doaba region post Gupta period, came to control large parts of Fatehpur district (including Ayah and Khaga) and parts of Allahabad region (around Singrur) under Khadagsen's rule. It is also said that Arakh kshatriya (also referred to as 'Arkawanshi' अर्कवंशी) rulers conducted Dashashwamegha yajnas (Horse sacrifices) in the doaaba region (area between Ganges and Yamuna) to prove their supremacy. Their power decayed with the rise of competing powers in the form of other Rajputs and Muslims
Arakhs From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Arakh)
Jump to: navigation, search The Arakhs or Arkawanshis are an ancient kshatriya clan/tribe of Indian origin who at one time ruled large areas of Awadh. The heroes of the Arakh clan include sun-worshipper Maharaja Tilok Chand (who captured the throne of Delhi in 918 AD by defeating king Vikrampal), Salhia Singh (who established the town of Sandila), Malhia Singh (who established the town of Malhiabad) and Maharaja Khadagsen (who established Khaga town in Fatehpur district of Uttar Pradesh) Historical background In ancient time, the Arakhs held sway over large areas of Awadh such as Malhiabad, Datli, Sandila, Khaga, Ayah (in Fatehpur district), Sarh-Salempur (in Kanpur), Padri (in Unnao), Arkha estate (in Rae Bareilly), parts of Allahabad (around Singrur), Bahraich, etc. It is said that at one time Arakhs were so powerful that they performed Dashashwamegha yajnas (the horse sacrifices performed by kshatriyas to prove their dominance) in the Aryawarta and no contemporary king dared to challenge their authority. The ruins of a fort of Arakhs at Ayah (in Fatehpur district of Uttar Pradesh) seem to narrate the story of their glorious past Origin Arakhs are one of the ancient-most kshatriya tribes of Indian origin. They claim their descent from ancient Suryawanshi kshatriya clan to which Lord Rama belonged. 'Arakh' is said to be the distorted form of 'Arka' 'अर्क' (a Sanskrit word meaning sun). 'Arkawanshi' (अर्कवंशी) is a synonym of 'Suryawanshi'. Thus a clan of Suryawanshis was also called as 'Arkawanshi'. The founder of Suryavansha Vaivasvat Manu was also known 'Arka Tanaya' (अर्क तनय) meaning 'the son of Arka'. 'Arkawanshi' became 'Arka' (अर्क) and later 'Arak' (अरक) and 'Arakh' (अरख) in locally spoken dialects. Arakhs have been the worshipper of sun god (Lord Arka-अर्क) and Lord Shiva. Arkawanshis also have different sub-clans as Khangars, Gauds, Bachhals and Adhiraj. Other kshatriya clans related to Arkawanshis are Pratihara (Parihar), Raghuwanshi, Gohil, Guhilots, Sisaudwansh, Khadagwansh, etc. One of the Shiva-worshiping sub-clans of Arkawanshi kshatriyas was also known as Bhaarshiva kshatriyas भारशिव क्षत्रिय in ancient times. They were brave kshatriyas who ruled large parts of North India and Central India during a period known as "Dark age" (as no recorded history of India during that period is available except Puranic and Buddhist literature). When Kushan tribals attacked and occupied Varanasi, the Bhaarshiva warriors drove them off the Holy land and performed 'Ashwamegha Yajnas' (symbolic rituals performed by Kshatriyas after victory in battlefield). Bhaarshivas were known so because they carried the weight (भार) of Shiva (शिव) in the form of 'linga' round their necks. Thus those Arkawanshi kshatriyas who carried the weight (in Hindi-'भार') of Shiva (शिव) came to be known as Bhaarshiva (भारशिव = भार (weight) + शिव (Shiva)). The Bhaarshiva kshatriyas were one of most powerful ruling clans of their times. They had matrimonial relationships with almost all the contemporary Royal families of India including Vakataka (वाकटक) rulers. Maharaja Tilok Chand Arkawanshi Maharaja Tilok Chand Arkawanshi was a brave and ambitious ruler. In 918 AD, he led a powerful army against king Vikrampal of Delhi and after defeating him, took control of Delhi. Subsequently, nine generations of Maharaja Tilok Chand ruled over Delhi. In 1093 AD Maharani Bhimadevi, the religious-minded widow of Govind Chand (who died without an heir), handed over the reins of her empire to her spiritual guru Hargovind. The empire of Maharaja Tilok Chand comprised areas of Delhi and large parts of Awadh including its mountainous areas. Maharaja Tilok Chand Arkawanshi was a worshipper of sun-god (Arka) like his fore-fathers. He built a large sun-temple named Balark temple in Bahraich, which was later destroyed by the Turkish invaders. Present status Arakhs, at present, are not in a good state. They are small cultivators, shop-owners and small workers. Their representation in the higher government jobs and political circles is negligible. The biggest malady of Arakhs is their poverty and illiteracy.The brave Arakhs are trying to revive their glorious past by fighting off their maladies.